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Chapter Five Power and Leadership 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Five Power and Leadership 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Five Power and Leadership 1

2 Key Objectives Define power and its key role in leadership
Discuss typical reactions to power Identify the individual and organizational sources of power available to leaders and describe their consequences for followers and organizations Explain the sources of power corruption and present ways to prevent its occurrence Discuss empowerment and the individual and organizational factors needed to achieve it. 2

3 Definitions Power: the ability of one person to influence others and exercise control over them Influence: the power to affect the course of an action Authority: power vested in position 3

4 Reactions to Power Commitment: occurs when followers welcome the influence process and accept it as reasonable and legitimate Compliance: followers accept the influence process and go along with the request, but are not committed to carrying it out. Resistance: followers do not agree with the attempt at influence and either actively or passively resist it. Ruling thru fear produces most 4

5 Individual Sources of Power
Legitimate power: based on a person holding a formal position; others comply because they accept the legitimacy of the position of the power holder. Reward power: based on a person’s access to rewards. Compliance based on desire for rewards. Coercive power: based on ability to punish Compliance based on fear of punishment. Expert power: based on a person’s expertise, competency and information in a certain area. Others comply because they believe in the power holder’s knowledge and competence. Referent power: based on person’s attractiveness to and friendship with others. Other’s comply because they respect and like the power holder. Rewards needn’t be financial, can be recognition, Coercive power-use punishment sparingly-people can get demotivated, stop believing threats, become desensitized/indifferent to threats-ignore them 5

6 Individual Sources of Power
Position powers- Legitimate, Reward and Coercive power are Position powers- access to power depends upon person’s position Depend upon the organization; Once a person’s title, or access to rewards or punishment is removed, the leaders relying on these sources loses power. Person-based powers- Expert and Referent power are based on the person, not the organization 6

7 Reactions to Power Coercive Power Resistance Reward Power
Legitimate Power Expert Power Referent Power Resistance Compliance Commitment 7

8 Using Power: Influence Tactics and Consequences
Rational Persuasion: · Use logical arguments and factual evidence Commitment likely when target is somewhat in agreement Compliance likely · Resistance possible when other doesn’t share objectives Inspirational Appeals: Make an emotional or value-based appeal. Arouse strong emotions and link request to person’s need or values in hopes that enthusiasm and commitment results. Can appeal to person’s ideals; e.g., loyalty, patriotism, justice Can be brief explanation (“Do it for your country”) to an inspirational speech (“I have a dream”). Dr Martin Luther King Jr I Have Dream Speech Effectiveness can be enhanced by using vivid imagery and metaphors, manipulating symbols, using gestures. 8

9 Consultation Ingratiation Personal Appeal
Commitment is increased by asking others for their input into decisions. Paradox Ingratiation Do something that makes someone feel better about you. Includes giving compliments, do unsolicited favors, act respectful, act friendly prior to making request without appearing manipulative. Commitment can result if used correctly. Compliance likely. Resistance unlikely. Catch: Personal Appeal Ask someone to do a favor based on friendship or loyalty. Person must like you or feel loyal to you. Paradox: Asking for suggestions seems like giving up power-actually gains power b/c gains commitment Catch: Insincere ingratiation won’t wor 9

10 Exchange Coalition Building
Use explicit or implicit offer to reward person for doing request. Commitment unlikely. Compliance likely (need to offer something desirable and be able to provide that) Incentives include tangible rewards (raise, bonus, trip), scarce resources, information, help with another task, career or political support. Coalition Building Get others to work with you to influence the target. Can be direct or indirect. Commitment unlikely. Compliance likely. Resistance possible. 10

11 Legitimate Tactics Pressure Attempt is made to establish the authority
Student Handbook Commitment is unlikely.  Compliance likely if request is viewed as legitimate and proper, or routine request.  Resistance likely if request is unusual, exceeds authority, or when target does not know your authority.  Types Pressure Use threats, warning, and assertive behavior to get compliance with request. May work for lazy or apathetic people. Includes such behaviors as constant checking, “do this or else” or “if you don’t do this…” Resistance may occur if tactic is used too often, especially with the hard tactics of threats and warning. They may result in bad side effects: resentment, undermining behavior. Ways: Appeals to prior authority(“always been done this way”) Top-down: This order came from the top 11

12 Organizational Sources of Power
These sources of power can be used by individuals, but are especially important for teams Coping with uncertainty- power based on the ability to reduce uncertainty for others; (e.g., obtaining needed info, forecasting, having alternatives for dealing with change) Centrality- power based on being central to how the organization achieves its mission and goals (e.g., being close to the client, or close to the CEO) Dependency- power based on others depending on power holder to get their work done (e.g., team provides info and resources) Substitutability- power based on providing a unique and irreplaceable service or product to others X-functional: From different parts of organization 12

13 Corruption: The Dark Side of Power
One of the consequences of power is the increased distance b/w leaders and followers, which can lead leaders to become uninformed, unrealistic, and engage in unethical decision making Power abusers more concerned with maintaining power than with developing followers and achieving organizational goals We will consider causes, consequences and solutions to abuse of power Talking varied levels to ID problems can reduce distance; more distance-> uniformed, unrealistic, unethicall leaders Informal communication can boost amount/quality of information received People in power want to keep it-don’t give a flying fuck about followers 13

14 Causes of Power Corruption: Leaders Characteristics
Often intelligent, but inflated view of self; arrogant and controlling, power hungry, rigid and inflexible Work well with supervisors and impress them, but uncaring and vicious with subordinates Sense of entitlement (believes they deserve special treatment Willingness to exploit others Lack of empathy Overly concerned with power Impression management-wow the boss Use subordinates towards ends of own ends Strong sense of entitlement-entitled to things no one else gets Do anything, take credit for others’ work to get to top 14

15 Causes of Power Corruption: Organizational Characteristics
Organizational culture Hiring practices based on personal relationships Short-term orientation Centralized structure High uncertainly and chaos Culture: Higherups get to do whatever they want Nepotism/hiring best friends/relatives of friends/friends of relatives Short-term fiscal outlook Power centralized-not spread out throughout group(less dangerous b/c more spread out power-> less power to manipulate) Uncertainty & chaos-> looking to leaders for help 15

16 Corruption: Corruption Cycle (Processes)
Leader characteristics and org’l factors lead to follower compliance Comply b/c of personal commitment, truly respect leader’s expertise, or fear of retribution or desire to obtain rewards and resources Compliance signals leader that action are OK, which reinforces inflated view of themselves Followers comply to get reward/avoid punishment/stay under the radar->leader thinks actions are OK->thinks are above the law 16

17 Corruption Cycle Causes Processes Consequences Compliance
Distance from others Inflated view of self Follower submission Follower dependence Leader Characteristics Poor decisions Coercion Devaluation of others Ethical and legal violations Organizational Factors 17

18 Corruption: Consequences
Poor decisions Increased distance results in poor decision making because they lack relevant information Employees filter info, avoid giving bad news, hide mistakes, providing overly rosy picture Devaluation of Others B/c of compliance, leaders may see followers as dependent and incapable of autonomous behavior and decisions; rely less on persuasion, more on coercion Becomes self-fulfilling prophesy Ethical and Legal Violations Come to believe regular rules just don’t apply to them 18

19 Solutions to Corruption
Make leaders accountable Maintain checks and balances Encourage open and broad communication and feedback Involve leaders in day-to-day activities Reduce followers’ dependency on leader Use objective measures of performance Involve outsiders in decision making Change the organizational culture 19

20 Empowerment Sharing power with subordinates
Pushing decision making and implementation power to the lowest possible level Increase the power and autonomy of all people in the organization Power sharing Gives employees control and a sense of accomplishment Ask why-get answers-empowers ppl! Treat subordinates like important, opinion matters-build trust; cede power(decision making, etc) to subordinates builds trust, sense of contributing to group, feel important & like they have a say-builds commitment to organization among employees->more perseverance & contribution to company(get work done better & quicker); w/o commitment might just get compliance(bottom line); Not everything needs commitment-compliance can be enough sometimes; let people lowest level input(i.e. suggestion box)-anonymous suggestions, suggestions must be acknowledged/responded to somehow so ppl know they’re being listened to-not all must be followed thru on-gives sense of control/accomplishment 20

21 Empowerment: Leadership Factors
Create a positive emotional atmosphere that encourages followers to share ideas, participate in decision making and take risks Set high performance standards Encourage initiative and responsibility Reward openly and personally Practice equity and collaboration Express appropriate confidence in subordinates High performance standards->higher performance(assuming goals not unreasonable) & creates sense among employees that boss has confidence in them Equity=fairness; to empower followers, must NOT play favorites/appear to do so; If someone just interested in a promotion & not the work/employees, will give inappropriate work/amounts of work 21

22 Empowerment: Organizational Factors
Decentralize structure and decision making Select and train leaders appropriately Select and train employees appropriately Remove bureaucratic constraints Reward empowering behaviors Create fair and open organization policies Spread out authority to help ppl Select leaders who can delegate & share power properly-ideally trained in this Select employees WHO ARE RIGHT FOR THE GODDAMN JOB. 22

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