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America and World War II

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Presentation on theme: "America and World War II"— Presentation transcript:

1 America and World War II
APUSH Mr. McElhaney

2 AP Outline 21. The Second World War
The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany Prelude to war: policy of neutrality The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war Fighting a multi-front war Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age 22. The Home Front During the War Wartime mobilization of the economy Urban migration and demographic changes Women, work, and family during the war Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime War and regional development Expansion of government power

3 Terms to Know Treaty of Versailles Good Neighbor Policy
Washington Naval Conference, 1922 Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 Stimson Doctrine Trade Agreements Act Neutrality Act Axis Alliance Munich Agreement Lend-Lease Act, 1941 German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Selective Training and Service Act Tripartite Pact Maginot Line Battle of Britain/ Operation Sea Lion Atlantic Charter, 1941 Hideki Tojo/Japan War Powers Act Charles A. Lindbergh (1930s) America First Committee Johnson (Foreign Securities) Act, 1934 Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements, Europe then Japan National War Labor Board Japanese-American Internment Terms to Know Eisenhower D-Day Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Neutrality Acts, Buenos Aires Conference, 1936 Four Freedoms Speech Rosie the Riveter War Production Board Tuskegee Airmen Phillip Randolph Wartime Conferences Casablanca Cairo Teheran Quebec Yalta Potsdam Manhattan Project Robert Oppenheime Los Alamos, Alamogordo Harry S. Truman Nagasaki Marshall Plan Iron Curtain

4 Questions- Pre-World War II
Basic questions you should be able to answer: How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930’s? Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War? How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict? How was FDR’s “Good Neighbor” policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890’s?

5 Quiz 3-13 Respond to two of the following:
How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration? Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China. What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality?

6 Quiz 3-14 Can the British and French be justifiably criticized for appeasing Hitler? Explain

7 United States Status After WWI
After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans) Few international treaties: Washington Naval Conference-limits naval armaments Kellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws war Dawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt payments Trade drives American motives Reduction of interference in Latin America Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!

8 FDR and Foreign Affairs
Similar to Wilson wanted to use power to maintain order Moral and just principles However, must abide by public opinion which is Isolationist Appoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of State Basic views: Isolation is not a lasting policy Technology impacts distance of oceans Important to maintain American interests Reciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners

9 “Good Neighbor” Policy
FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particular Continued attempt begun with Hoover Cooperation and non-interventionist Example: 1933 Montivideo International Conference- Uruguay Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Withdrew troops from Haiti Did not send troops to Cuba 1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement

10 Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator
Came to power in 1922 Right Wing, anti-Socialist and Communist Wanted greatness like the Roman Empire for Italy Repressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps) Nationalist Invades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936

11 Halle Selassie Ethiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of Nations This was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctions Haile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre-coronation name, Ras Tafari.

12 Hitler Rises to Power Germany has problems Economic Depression
Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one group Nazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)

13 Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise
Economic depression Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I) Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire) Striped Germany of military, navy, air force Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources) German had to take explicit blame for the war Pay War Repartitions Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for control Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters

14 Hitler and Hindenburg New Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic

15 Hitler-Once in Power Hitler vows to make Germany great again
To “Claim it’s rightful place in the Sun.” Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powers Hitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf) Rearm Germany Unite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later Czchechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland) Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies) Expand East “Lebensraub”- into Russian lands, Destroy communists

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17 Failure of the League of Nations
Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent war Problems: US is not part of It did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use force Only weapon was economic embargo and public pressure When Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia) The international body will have little or no effect

18 China Still Weak After WWI China remains weak “Open Door” Reinforced
Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung

19 Japan Wanted to expand it’s empire similar to France, Britain, and the US. Want to control China’s abundant natural resources Japan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the “Open Door” policy, all nations can trade with China. Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria

20 Japan invades Manchuria 1931
Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials) Japanese military asserted rights to Manchuria Military- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo. Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods

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22 Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria
US President was Hoover (1932) Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression- US will not recognize territorial changes- League of Nations condemns the attack on China Japan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored) No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing) 200,000 civilians killed Japan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the “Open Door”

23 Chinese Fight Chiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.

24 American Neutrality The Neutrality Act of members of congress, wanted to keep America out of war Popular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialists Imposed an embargo on warring nations Forbade American ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countries Gave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent ships Neutrality Act forbade loans to belligerent countries Neutrality Act response to the Spanish Civil War Goods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash

25 More Neutrality Many groups in America wanted Isolation
Irish, German- Americans Midwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifists Ludlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war.

26 Spanish Civil War Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks.

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29 European Appeasement One of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle) The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands. The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful. By giving in to Hitler’s demands, it encouraged him to push farther and brought another Global War when they had to fight for Poland.

30 Why did the Allies appease Hitler?
Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harsh All consuming desire for peace Rearmament Nationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual location Anschluss Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland, 1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig- Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact 1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-

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32 Wining the War To what extent was the mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory? How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different?

33 Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941
To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness “…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger. That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history. The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency. Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.

34 Four Freedoms Continued
“The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”

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