2AP Outline 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and GermanyPrelude to war: policy of neutralityThe attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of warFighting a multi-front warDiplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferencesThe United States as a global power in the Atomic Age22. The Home Front During the WarWartime mobilization of the economyUrban migration and demographic changesWomen, work, and family during the warCivil liberties and civil rights during wartimeWar and regional developmentExpansion of government power
3Terms to Know Treaty of Versailles Good Neighbor Policy Washington Naval Conference, 1922Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928Stimson DoctrineTrade Agreements ActNeutrality ActAxis AllianceMunich AgreementLend-Lease Act, 1941German-Soviet Non-Aggression PactSelective Training and Service ActTripartite PactMaginot LineBattle of Britain/ Operation Sea LionAtlantic Charter, 1941Hideki Tojo/JapanWar Powers ActCharles A. Lindbergh (1930s)America First CommitteeJohnson (Foreign Securities) Act, 1934Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934Reciprocal Trade Agreements,Europe then JapanNational War Labor BoardJapanese-American InternmentTerms to KnowEisenhowerD-DayServicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Neutrality Acts,Buenos Aires Conference, 1936Four Freedoms SpeechRosie the RiveterWar Production BoardTuskegee AirmenPhillip RandolphWartime ConferencesCasablancaCairoTeheranQuebecYaltaPotsdamManhattan ProjectRobert OppenheimeLos Alamos, AlamogordoHarry S. TrumanNagasakiMarshall PlanIron Curtain
4Questions- Pre-World War II Basic questions you should be able to answer:How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930’s?Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War?How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict?How was FDR’s “Good Neighbor” policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890’s?
5Quiz 3-13 Respond to two of the following: How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration?Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China.What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality?
6Quiz 3-14Can the British and French be justifiably criticized for appeasing Hitler? Explain
7United States Status After WWI After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans)Few international treaties:Washington Naval Conference-limits naval armamentsKellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws warDawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt paymentsTrade drives American motivesReduction of interference in Latin AmericaAbove all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!
8FDR and Foreign Affairs Similar to Wilson wanted to use power to maintain orderMoral and just principlesHowever, must abide by public opinion which is IsolationistAppoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of StateBasic views:Isolation is not a lasting policyTechnology impacts distance of oceansImportant to maintain American interestsReciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners
9“Good Neighbor” Policy FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particularContinued attempt begun with HooverCooperation and non-interventionistExample: 1933 Montivideo International Conference- UruguayRepudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe DoctrineWithdrew troops from HaitiDid not send troops to Cuba1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement
10Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator Came to power in 1922Right Wing, anti-Socialist and CommunistWanted greatness like the Roman Empire for ItalyRepressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps)NationalistInvades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936
11Halle SelassieEthiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of NationsThis was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctionsHaile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre-coronation name, Ras Tafari.
12Hitler Rises to Power Germany has problems Economic Depression Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one groupNazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)
13Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise Economic depressionTreaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I)Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire)Striped Germany of military, navy, air forceAllies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources)German had to take explicit blame for the warPay War RepartitionsSocialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for controlCreated conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters
14Hitler and HindenburgNew Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic
15Hitler-Once in Power Hitler vows to make Germany great again To “Claim it’s rightful place in the Sun.”Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powersHitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf)Rearm GermanyUnite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later Czchechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland)Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies)Expand East “Lebensraub”- into Russian lands, Destroy communists
17Failure of the League of Nations Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent warProblems: US is not part ofIt did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use forceOnly weapon was economic embargo and public pressureWhen Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia)The international body will have little or no effect
18China Still Weak After WWI China remains weak “Open Door” Reinforced Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung
19JapanWanted to expand it’s empire similar to France, Britain, and the US.Want to control China’s abundant natural resourcesJapan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the “Open Door” policy, all nations can trade with China.Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria
20Japan invades Manchuria 1931 Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials)Japanese military asserted rights to ManchuriaMilitary- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo.Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods
22Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria US President was Hoover (1932)Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression-US will not recognize territorial changes-League of Nations condemns the attack on ChinaJapan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored)No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing)200,000 civilians killedJapan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the “Open Door”
23Chinese FightChiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.
24American NeutralityThe Neutrality Act of members of congress, wanted to keep America out of warPopular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialistsImposed an embargo on warring nationsForbade American ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countriesGave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent shipsNeutrality Act forbade loans to belligerent countriesNeutrality Act response to the Spanish Civil WarGoods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash
25More Neutrality Many groups in America wanted Isolation Irish, German- AmericansMidwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifistsLudlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war.
26Spanish Civil WarLoyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked byInsurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks.
29European AppeasementOne of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle)The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands.The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful.By giving in to Hitler’s demands, it encouraged him to push farther and brought another Global War when they had to fight for Poland.
30Why did the Allies appease Hitler? Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harshAll consuming desire for peaceRearmamentNationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual locationAnschlussChamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland,1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig- Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-
32Wining the WarTo what extent was the mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory?How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different?
33Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941 To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness“…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger.That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history.The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency.Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.
34Four Freedoms Continued “The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world.The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world.The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”