Related guidance ‘Self-harm: short-term treatment and management’ (NICE clinical guideline 16) covers the treatment of self-harm within the first 48 hours of an incident. Self-harm: longer-term management, clinical guideline 133, deals with the longer-term psychological treatment and management of both single and recurrent episodes of self-harm. A small number of amendments have been made to CG16 to ensure alignment with the longer-term management guideline.
What this presentation covers Definition Background Epidemiology Scope Key priorities for implementation Costs and savings Discussion NICE Pathway and NHS Evidence Find out more
Definition The term self-harm is used in this guideline to refer to any act of self-poisoning or self-injury. This commonly involves self-poisoning with medication or self-injury by cutting. The term self-harm is not intended to cover harm to the self arising from excessive consumption of alcohol or recreational drugs, body piercing, mismanagement of physical health conditions or starvation arising from anorexia nervosa.
Background Self-harm does not often result from the wish to die. Those who self-harm may do so to communicate, to secure help and care or to obtain relief from an overwhelming situation. Service provision for self-harm is varied. About half of those presenting at an emergency department after an incident of self-harm are assessed by a mental health professional.
Epidemiology Self-harm is common, especially among younger people For all age groups, annual prevalence is approximately 0.5% Self-harm increases the likelihood that the person will eventually die by suicide by between 50 and 100 fold Psychiatric problems such as borderline personality disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and drug and alcohol-use disorders are associated with self-harm.
Scope This guideline covers: all people aged 8 years and older healthcare professionals who have direct contact with people who self-harm medium and longer term care management primary, secondary, tertiary and community care.
Key priorities for implementation Working with people who self-harm Psychosocial assessment Risk assessment Risk assessment tools and scales Care plans Risk management plans Interventions for self-harm Treating associated mental health conditions.
Health and social care professionals should: aim to develop a trusting and supportive relationship be aware of stigma and discrimination ensure that people are involved in decision-making about their care aim to foster people’s autonomy and independence aim to maintain continuity of therapeutic relationships ensure that information about episodes of self-harm is communicated sensitively to other team members. Working with people who self-harm
Children and young people should have access to a full range of treatments and services within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). Ensure that people from black and minority ethnic groups have the same access to services as other people and that services are culturally appropriate. People with a mild learning disability should have the same access to services as other people. Access to services
Health and social care professionals should be: trained in the assessment, treatment and management of self-harm, and educated about the stigma and discrimination usually associated with self-harm and the need to avoid judgemental attitudes. Routine access to senior colleagues for supervision, consultation and support should be provided for professionals who work with people who self-harm. Training
Safeguarding CAMHS professionals should consider whether the child’s or young person’s needs should be assessed. If children or young people are referred to CAMHS under local safeguarding procedures, use a multi-agency approach including social care and education and consider using the Common Assessment Framework. Consider the risk of domestic or other violence and consider local safeguarding procedures for vulnerable adults and children in their care.
Ask the person who self-harms whether they would like their family, carers or significant others to be involved in their care. Subject to the person’s consent and right to confidentiality, encourage the family, carers or significant others to be involved where appropriate. Families, carers and significant others
Managing endings and supporting transitions Anticipate that the ending of treatment, services or relationships, as well as transition, can provoke strong feelings and increase the risk of self-harm. Plan in advance changes with the person who self-harms and provide additional support if needed. CAMHS and adult mental health services should work collaboratively to ensure as smooth a transition as possible.
Primary care If a person presents in primary care with a history of self-harm and a risk of repetition, consider referring them to community mental health services for assessment. If a person who self-harms is receiving treatment in primary care and secondary care, primary and secondary care and social care professionals should ensure they work cooperatively. Primary care professionals should monitor the physical health of people who self-harm.
Offer an integrated and comprehensive psychosocial assessment of needs and risks to understand and engage people who self-harm and to initiate a therapeutic relationship. During assessment, explore the meaning of self-harm for the person and take into account that each person self-harms for individual reasons. Each episode of self- harm should be treated in its own right. Psychosocial assessment: 1
All people over 65 years should be assessed by mental health professionals experienced in the assessment of older people who self-harm. Within this age group particular attention should be paid to the potential presence of depression, cognitive impairment and physical ill health. Follow the same principles as for adults when assessing children and young people. Psychosocial assessment: 2
Assessment of needs should include: – skills, strengths and assets – coping strategies – mental and physical health problems or disorders – social circumstances and problems – psychosocial and occupational functioning, and vulnerabilities – recent and current life difficulties – the need for intervention and treatment for any associated conditions – the needs of any dependent children. Personal assessment
When assessing the risk of repetition of self-harm or risk of suicide, identify and agree the person’s specific risks, taking into account: methods and frequency of current and past self-harm current and past suicidal intent depressive symptoms any psychiatric illness the personal and social context and any other specific factors preceding self-harm. Risk assessment: 1
Also take into account: specific risk and protective factors that may increase or decrease the risks associated with self-harm coping strategies significant relationships that may either be supportive or represent a threat immediate and longer-term risks. Risk assessment: 2
Do not use risk assessment tools and scales to predict future suicide or repetition of self-harm. Do not use risk assessment tools and scales to determine who should and should not be offered treatment or who should be discharged. Risk assessment tools may be considered to help structure risk assessments as long as they include the areas identified in recommendation on slides 19 and 20. Risk assessment tools and scales
Discuss, agree and document the aims of longer-term treatment in the care plan. These aims may be to: prevent escalation of self-harm reduce harm arising from self-harm or reduce or stop self-harm reduce or stop other risk-related behaviour improve social or occupational functioning improve quality of life improve any associated mental health conditions. Review the care plan with them, and revise it at agreed intervals of not more than 1 year. Care plans: 1
Care plans should be multidisciplinary and developed collaboratively with the person. Care plans should: identify realistic and optimistic long-term goals, including education, employment and occupation identify short-term treatment goals (linked to the long-term goals) and steps to achieve them identify the roles and responsibilities of any team members and the person who self-harms include a jointly prepared risk management plan be shared with the person’s GP. Care plans: 2
A risk management plan should be a clearly identifiable part of the care plan and should: address each of the long-term and immediate risks identified in the risk assessment address the specific factors identified in the assessment as associated with increased risk, with the agreed aim of reducing the risk of repetition of self-harm and/or the risk of suicide. Risk management plans: 1
A risk management plan should be a clearly identifiable part of the care plan and should: (continued) include a crisis plan outlining self-management strategies and how to access services during a crisis ensure that the risk management plan is consistent with the long-term treatment strategy. Inform the person who self-harms of the limits of confidentiality and that information in the plan may be shared with other professionals. Risk management plans: 2
Do not offer drug treatment as a specific intervention to reduce self-harm. Consider offering 3 to 12 sessions of a psychological intervention that is specifically structured for people who self-harm, with the aim of reducing self-harm. This should be tailored to individual need. Interventions for self-harm
Harm minimisation If stopping self-harm is unrealistic in the short term: consider strategies aimed at harm reduction; reinforce existing coping strategies and develop new strategies as an alternative to self-harm where possible consider discussing less destructive or harmful methods of self-harm with the service user, their family, carers or significant others, and the wider multidisciplinary team advise the service user that there is no safe way to self-poison.
Provide psychological, pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for any associated conditions. When prescribing drugs for associated mental health conditions to people who self-harm, take into account the toxicity of the prescribed drugs in overdose. Treating associated mental health conditions
Costs per 100,000 population Recommendations with significant costs Costs (£ per year) Access to services 800 Psychosocial assessment19,900 Longer-term treatment and management10,800 Estimated cost of implementation31,500
Savings DescriptionReference (national tariff / reference costs) Non-elective tariff £ A&E attendanceVB07Z and VB08Z110 Ambulance transfer costReference cost 2009/10246 Intensive care cost per dayReference costs 2009/10 XC07Z Adult critical care 0 organs supported XB05Z Paediatric critical care – intensive care basic Treatment for poisoningWA11V – major complications WA11X – intermediate complications WA11Y – without complications Treatment for other wounds or injuries HD35A – major complications HD35B – intermediate complications HD35C – without complications Typical costs that could be avoided by implementing the guidance
Discussion What can we do to help address the stigma and discrimination associated with self-harm? Do we include within our assessment of needs all that we should? If not, what steps do we need to take? How can we address the issues associated with the transition from CAMHS to adult services for young people who self-harm? What is our current practice in terms of using risk assessment tools and scales? How can this be improved?
NICE Pathway The NICE self-harm pathway covers: planning of services general principles of care assessment, treatment and management longer-term treatment and management. Click here to go to NICE Pathways website
NHS Evidence Visit NHS Evidence for the best available evidence on all aspects of self-harm Click here to go to the NHS Evidence website
Find out more Visit for:www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG133 the guideline ‘Understanding NICE guidance’ costing report and template audit support and baseline assessment tool clinical case scenarios risk assessment podcast service user podcast.
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