This session Understand what is meant by humanities Key concepts Consider the changes to the NC Chronological understanding – history How to develop your subject knowledge
History Predominately about people, why things happened and what happened as a consequence Involves all class, groups and genders Uses enquiry as a vehicle for learning Considers past present and future Is interpretative Draws on personal experiences, values and viewpoints Good history inspires children Many transferable skills
Geography Focuses on places Uses enquiry as a vehicle for learning Should provide opportunities for using maps and photos Must include fieldwork (statutory requirement) Draws on the personal experiences of the learner, the teacher and others in the school community Has excellent opportunities for X curricular links
Definitions of the Humanities The group of subjects which is predominately concerned with men and women in relation to their environment, their communities and their own self knowledge. (schools Council 1965, in Griggs and Hughes 2013) The ‘humanities’ include history, possibly geography, the remnants of classical studies, some aspects of English and modern languages, religious education and so.. (Adams, 1976, in Griggs and Hughes 2013 ) Part of the primary curriculum that is concerned with the individual human beings living and working in particular places and linked together with groups and societies, past and present. (Blyth, 1990, in Griggs and Hughes 2013) A collective term for a range of academic disciplines or fields, all of which draw upon a knowledge of the development, achievements, behaviour, organisation or distribution of humanity. (Wallace, 2008, in Griggs and Hughes 2013) The study of the myriad was in which people, from every period of history and from every corner of the globe, process and document of the human experience. (Stanford University, in Griggs and Hughes 2013)
Place in history and geography – one approach for linking Where is this place/ was this place? What is/was this place like? How is it/has it changed? How is it/was it linked to other places? Why is it like it/was it like this? What is it like/was it like to be in this place? How is it/ was it similar to and different from other places?
What is a concept? A concept is a general idea or understanding, usually expressed by words which represents a class or group of people, things, actions or relationships. Cannot be practised like a skill – needs experiencing in different context to understand its meaning. Can be defined by a common characteristics.
Key structural concepts Geography Place Scale Location and spatial patterns Similarities and Difference Process (cause and effect) Change and continuity Viewpoints (values and attitudes) Interdependence Sustainability Roles, responsibilities and participation History Time/chronological understanding Cause Consequence Change and continuity Historical evidence Interpretation/points of view Historical situations Empathy Similarities and differences
Chronological understanding - Is complex- requires a range of skills, knowledge and understanding (links to numeracy and literacy; involves memory; understanding concepts; a body of knowledge) Not just about order of time/dates Has cultural dimensions (different cultures have different calendars) Is fundamentally important in understanding history Is not being well done in schools say OFSTED
What does research tell us about how children understand time and chronology? Concept of time develops with memory and language; Teaching history in chronological order isn’t essential but The use of regular reference to a chronological framework is and as part of this…… The use of timelines is important! (involves sequencing and can involve duration)
1. Sense of Period
1. Sense of period Anachronisms –Pictures (‘Errata: a book of historical errors by A.J. Wood) Sorting mixed artefacts of pictures into time periods e.g.Victorian and WW2 A fun resource to use for the twentieth century Hovis – this involves having a sense of period and an understanding of sequence Hovis Dr Who – is it accurate? http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=mxiP aJ2lyNM&feature=fvwp http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=mxiP aJ2lyNM&feature=fvwp
The passing of time – when in time Sequencing and ordering chronologically This is linked to both mathematical and language concepts Underpins understanding cause and effect. What do we use to help us understand when in time something happened? Examples? The world at 7 billion - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-15391515
What is a timeline An important way of structuring and making sense of time Sequencing and duration if done to scale
Timelines Visual – can be attractive, easy to use Timelines can involve different time scales e.g. child’s life; several thousand years Can be on different physical scales e.g. in a child’s book; across the playground Distance scale can represent timescale Starting point An interactive ‘work in progress’ which can incorporate children’s work Forming the basis of activities Can take a range of forms: washing line; vertical or horizontal ; a scroll; an array of artefacts – 2D and 3D CAN BE PHYSICAL AND INTERACTIVE
The passing of time – how long? Comparative length of periods of time Which monarch reigned the longest, Queen Elizabeth 1 or Queen Victoria? Are we further from the end of WW2, than the start of WW2 was from the end of WW1? Which of Henry’s Queen’s was queen for the shortest? the longest? (J. Fines’ example) How many dates do you know in the first millennium? In the second?
Aspects of the development of chronological understanding Use of comparative phrases such as ‘earlier than’ ‘later than’ use of vocabulary to describe time such as ancient, recent, Use of language to describe measurements of time such as year, century Knowing specific labels for periods of time e.g. Victorians Using significant dates confidently
Working on the passing of time with very young children In nursery and reception settings what activities could you do that help children understand: –the passing of time (not necessarily historical time) –the past generally
Links to access Some help with ideas. teacherstv chronological understanding A very useful website with lots of ideas http://www.thinkinghistory.co.uk/index.php BBC website