Presentation on theme: "Red Army liberated occupied satellite states sphere of influence"— Presentation transcript:
1Red Army liberated occupied satellite states sphere of influence STARTER How and why did the USSR take over Eastern Europe from 1945 onwards?Red Armyliberatedoccupiedsatellite statessphere of influencebuffer zonePeer teaching.Student(s) to explain….Some areas of Eastern Europe were actually annexed by the USSR and added to the Soviet Union (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Eastern Poland (unmarked on map)).How? The Red Army were already occupying these countries in 1945 – they had liberated them from control by the German army.Other areas of Eastern Europe were not actually TAKEN (annexed) by the USSR, but were brought under Soviet influence (ie. control). With help from the USSR, Communist, one party governments were set up in these countries – Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czech, Poland, Albania. These governments were filled with and headed by Communists who were loyal to Stalin, so they were pretty much controlled by the USSR. They were called SATELLITE STATES. Importantly, this went against the promise that Stalin had made at Yalta – to hold free, democratic elections in these countries once the German army had been pushed out.The USSR also pushed for Poland’s borders to be extended westwards – part of Germany was added to Poland (which, in a way, compensated for the Polish territory that the USSR had nicked in the east!)The blue areas on the map show the Soviet zones of Germany and Austria.Consequently, it was like Europe had been divided into two rival camps – the Communist east and Capitalist west. Churchill used the phrase ‘an iron curtain’ to describe this divide, and the name stuck (emphasize that this was a metaphor, and that this is shown on the map). He said ‘An iron curtain has descended across Europe. Behind that line lie all the states of Central and Eastern Europe. This is not the liberated Europe we fought to build. Nor is it one which allowed permanent peace.’Reasons why the USSR expanded:Memory of what had happened eg. Hungary and Romania had fought on G’s side during WW2, thus USSR wanted a way of ensuring that governments in territories surrounding the USSR were loyalPercentages deal reached between Stalin and Churchill….Stalin believed that Churchill was allowing the USSR control over eastern Europe in return for Britain having influence over GreeceStrategic importance of Poland Loyal government needed in Poland because Poland had always been a corridor for attack on Russia…thus turn it into a buffer zoneSoviet expansionism ie. political motives too – spreading communism throughout Europe.
2The Big picture: results of Soviet expansion USSR: take over eastern EuropeUSA: Truman Doctrine & Marshall PlanUSSR: Cominform and ComeconThe Big picture: results of Soviet expansionThe USA becomes convinced that the USSR are trying to spread communism – first through eastern Europe, then to the west, then beyond!Increasing tension…Truman ‘squares up’ to Stalin – the USA promises to use their money and armed forces to stop more countries ‘falling’ to communism.In return, Stalin tightens his grip on eastern Europe, setting up these two organisations to help the USSR control its satellite states.
3Today….. How did the USA react to Soviet expansion?.... The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall Plan…..And how did the USSR react to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?CominformComeconWhat were they?What caused them?What were the consequences?Complete table using pages 26-9
4The Truman Doctrine (or ‘policy of containment’), 1947 The Soviet Union has shown that they will stop at nothing to turn the world communist. I’m tired of babying them….we must face them with an iron fist! The USA must be prepared to use its armed forces and its money to help countries who are threatened by communist takeover. We must contain communism!Now….1 Students to read through pages of textbook (whole class – read through and explain how Greece caused TD, then summarise what Marshall Plan was (see next slide). Otherwise, students to read through independently).2 Complete table handout for Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan3 Read through page 26 OR see slides 6 and 74 Complete handout for Comecon and Cominform4 extension at any point: see task 6 page 27 and task 3 (part b exam question) OR photocopy other textbook for G&TThe Truman Doctrine (or ‘policy of containment’), 1947
5You know, the communists have said they’ll give us spoons…. Impoverished Europe, 1945The key idea…The USA believed that communism would get more support in countries which were poor after WW2. So, the USA offered them money to stop them from being poor and so stop them becoming communist. This was called the Marshall Plan. It was a financial way of containing communism (stopping communism from spreading).
6What was the USA’s reaction to the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe? STARTERWhat was the USA’s reaction to the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe?1. Can you explain what the Truman Doctrine was, and what it meant to do, using these pictures?Continue filling in table from last lesson. Extension at any point: see task 6 page 27 and task 3 (part b exam question) OR photocopy other textbook for G&T2 …and the same with the Marshall Plan 1947?Do these pictures tell the whole story about the USA’s motives behind the Marshall Plan?
7How did Stalin/the USSR respond to the Truman Doctrine? Cominform was set up by the USSR in 1947 (response to Truman Doctrine)It was an organisation to help the USSR to co-ordinate the communist parties throughout Europe. Cominform was used to make sure that the satellite states in Eastern Europe…..Followed Soviet aims in foreign policy (relationships with other countries)Followed similar economic policies to the USSR (eg. state control of industry, no private businesses allowed etc.)So, Cominform was all about the USSR having total political control over Communist countries.
8How did Stalin/the USSR respond to the Marshall Plan? 2. Comecon was set up by the USSR in 1949 (response to the Marshall Plan)It was supposed to be an organisation which would let the USSR give the satellite states financial support.In reality it was used by the USSR to….Control the economies of the satellite statesGive the USSR access to all of their resources/raw materialsEncourage economic specialisation within the satellite states – eg. some were to concentrate on heavy industry, others were to concentrate on food production.So, Comecon was all about the USSR controlling the economies of the Communist countries, and making sure they benefited the economy of the USSR.
9REVIEWIf you had to choose one word to describe each bullet point below, what word would you choose?Truman DoctrineWhat was it?What did in involve?What were the results?Marshall PlanWhat was it?What did in involve?What were the results?