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History of Marine Science Part 2

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Presentation on theme: "History of Marine Science Part 2"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Marine Science Part 2
The Vikings and the Chinese

2 The Dark Ages With the collapse of the Roman Empire in 410 AD
The advances of Marine Science through the knowledge of the _______, _______ and ____________ for the most part lost Marine Science takes a step back Here it is only the __________ and the __________ making any headway

3 Homework Read Chapter 2 pages Study Questions p 2-16 #1-4

4 Vikings..... Norsemen (Vikings) engaged in major voyages
of exploration in the North Atlantic during the European Dark Ages. Their ______ was perfect For their Raiding ways

5 The Viking Ship Design Oseberg ship (above), the best preserved Viking ship ever found, reveals its Norse shipbuilders' graceful construction style.

6 Design through time More than in burial __________have been recovered by archeologists in ______________ The same practice was followed by other groups such as the Saxons Vikings buried their important leaders with their ships it allows us to see __________ __________________________________

7 The Saxon Ship Burial Raedwald, King of East Anglia who ruled from c.599 to 625AD Anglo-Saxon ship of over 27 meters in length was revealed, containing a central burial chamber The Sutton Hoo Burial Site

8 Cargo Ships The _______ or ocean-going cargo vessel, which facilitated far-flung trade networks and the colonization of Iceland, Greenland, and America.

9 Keys to their Longship Design The Fighting ships
The _______, or dragon-headed longships, were stealthy troop-carriers. They could cross the open oceans under sail and then switch to oars for lightning-fast hit-and-run attacks on undefended towns and monasteries

10 The secret of the Viking ship lay in its unique construction.
They then fastened the boards with iron nails to a single sturdy keel and then to each other, one plank overlapping the next. The Vikings gave shape to the hull using this "clinker" technique rather than the more conventional method of first building an inner skeleton for the hull.

11 The Raiding Ships The ships can carry troops and in the case of the Normans Horses Because of their stable low draft construction they could ___________ ___________________________ Both oar and wind driven. Oars make them very maneuverable and can be used when there is ______________.

12 The Vikings World Tour 985 AD
They reached the coast of North America about 985AD The Vikings World Tour 985 AD Vikings, led by Leif Erikson, colonized Iceland by 700 A.D. and North America by 1000 A.D.

13 This period of the middle age is known as the _____ age because of the loss of intellectual knowledge Dumb Dark Simple Old

14 In the Dark Ages the two groups who were continuing sea exploration were the
Spanish and English Chinese and Arabs Vikings and Ostrogoths Vikings and Chinese

15 Approximately ______Viking ships have been recovered in burial mounds by Archeologists
1000 4000 400 150

16 Dragon headed Viking Longships used in war were called
Knarr Drekar Klipsch Oden

17 Vikings used_________ to power their ships
Wind (sails) and Oars Oars Only Outboard Motors Sails only

18 Viking ships were able to sail on the open ocean and up rivers due to their
Low Mast Plank System Low Draft Rudder

19 Fastest Responders (in seconds)
9.86 Robert DelRio 10.49 Sonja Gspurnsing 10.92 Sabrina Lopez 12.13 Jessica Nikolla 12.29 Shqiprie Dreshaj

20 Chinese Explorers

21 Chinese Exploration Often Overlooked the Chinese contribution to exploration is impressive and valuable to this day Chinese Exploration On the grand scale of ship building: Marco Polo ( ) talks of 4 mast merchant ships “The Treasure Ships”

22 The Compass The ____________is an old Chinese invention probably first made in China during the Qin dynasty ( B.C.). Between 850 and 1050 they seem to have become common as navigational devices on ships. The first person recorded to have used the compass as a navigational aid was _____________ ( )

23 Zheng He Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming government sponsored a series of seven naval expeditions All led by Admiral Zheng He Zheng He's first voyage consisted of a fleet of around 300 ships holding almost 28,000 crewmen Zheng He's fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, India, Indonesia and Thailand (at the time called Siam) Treasure Ship

24 Zheng He flag "treasure ship" is four hundred feet long - much larger than Columbus's 85 foot long Santa Maria In the drawing below, the two flagships are superimposed to give a clear idea of the relative size of these two ships.

25 Other Innovations Chinese ships had ______________
______ which could also be independently flooded to hold fish These watertight compartments helped prevent ships sinking same technology that the _________ employed _________ ________ system was also first used in these ships.

26 The Chinese were the first to use the _________ as a navigational tool
Astrolabe Compass Sextant Quadrant

27 Chinese Treasure Ships were _____ feet long
40 100 85 400

28 Which was NOT a Chinese sailing innovation
The Compass The Central Rudder Watertight Compartments The Astrolabe

29 The Greatest Early Chinese explorer was
Sun Tzu Lao Tzu Mao Tse Tung Zheng He

30 Fastest Responders (in seconds)
2.96 Robert DelRio 3.41 Sabrina Lopez 3.87 Shqiprie Dreshaj 3.96 Paul Jednak 5.45 John Cacace

31 On to the Age of Exploration
With the End of the Viking Era Europeans began to look to explore new worlds Starting the “Age of Exploration” Our next Unit

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