Presentation on theme: "History of Marine Science Part 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 History of Marine Science Part 2 The Vikings and the Chinese
2 The Dark Ages With the collapse of the Roman Empire in 410 AD The advances of Marine Science through the knowledge of the _______, _______ and ____________ for the most part lostMarine Science takes a step backHere it is only the __________ and the __________ making any headway
3 HomeworkRead Chapter 2 pagesStudy Questions p 2-16 #1-4
4 Vikings..... Norsemen (Vikings) engaged in major voyages of exploration in the North Atlantic during theEuropean Dark Ages. Their ______ was perfectFor their Raiding ways
5 The Viking Ship DesignOseberg ship (above), the best preserved Viking ship ever found, reveals its Norse shipbuilders' graceful construction style.
6 Design through timeMore than in burial __________have been recovered by archeologists in ______________The same practice was followed by other groups such as the SaxonsVikings buried their important leaders with their ships it allows us to see __________ __________________________________
7 The Saxon Ship BurialRaedwald, King of East Anglia who ruled from c.599 to 625ADAnglo-Saxon ship of over 27 meters in length was revealed, containing a central burial chamberThe Sutton Hoo Burial Site
8 Cargo ShipsThe _______ or ocean-going cargo vessel, which facilitated far-flung trade networks and the colonization of Iceland, Greenland, and America.
9 Keys to their Longship Design The Fighting ships The _______, or dragon-headed longships, were stealthy troop-carriers. They could cross the open oceans under sail and then switch to oars for lightning-fast hit-and-run attacks on undefended towns and monasteries
10 The secret of the Viking ship lay in its unique construction. They then fastened the boards with iron nails to a single sturdy keel and then to each other, one plank overlapping the next. The Vikings gave shape to the hull using this "clinker" technique rather than the more conventional method of first building an inner skeleton for the hull.
11 The Raiding ShipsThe ships can carry troops and in the case of the Normans HorsesBecause of their stable low draft construction they could ______________________________________Both oar and wind driven. Oars make them very maneuverable and can be used when there is ______________.
12 The Vikings World Tour 985 AD They reached the coast of North America about 985ADThe VikingsWorld Tour 985 ADVikings, led by Leif Erikson, colonized Iceland by 700 A.D. and North America by 1000 A.D.
13 This period of the middle age is known as the _____ age because of the loss of intellectual knowledgeDumbDarkSimpleOld
14 In the Dark Ages the two groups who were continuing sea exploration were the Spanish and EnglishChinese and ArabsVikings and OstrogothsVikings and Chinese
15 Approximately ______Viking ships have been recovered in burial mounds by Archeologists 10004000400150
16 Dragon headed Viking Longships used in war were called KnarrDrekarKlipschOden
17 Vikings used_________ to power their ships Wind (sails) and OarsOars OnlyOutboard MotorsSails only
18 Viking ships were able to sail on the open ocean and up rivers due to their Low MastPlank SystemLow DraftRudder
21 Chinese ExplorationOften Overlooked the Chinese contribution to exploration is impressive and valuable to this dayChinese ExplorationOn the grand scale of ship building: Marco Polo ( ) talks of 4 mast merchant ships “The Treasure Ships”
22 The CompassThe ____________is an old Chinese invention probably first made in China during the Qin dynasty ( B.C.).Between 850 and 1050 they seem to have become common as navigational devices on ships.The first person recorded to have used the compass as a navigational aid was _____________ ( )
23 Zheng HeBetween 1405 and 1433, the Ming government sponsored a series of seven naval expeditionsAll led by Admiral Zheng HeZheng He's first voyage consisted of a fleet of around 300 ships holding almost 28,000 crewmenZheng He's fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, India, Indonesia and Thailand (at the time called Siam)Treasure Ship
24 Zheng He flag "treasure ship" is four hundred feet long - much larger than Columbus's 85 foot long Santa MariaIn the drawing below, the two flagships are superimposed to give a clear idea of the relative size of these two ships.
25 Other Innovations Chinese ships had ______________ ______ which could also be independently flooded to hold fishThese watertight compartments helped prevent ships sinking same technology that the _________ employed_________ ________ system was also first used in these ships.
26 The Chinese were the first to use the _________ as a navigational tool AstrolabeCompassSextantQuadrant
27 Chinese Treasure Ships were _____ feet long 4010085400
28 Which was NOT a Chinese sailing innovation The CompassThe Central RudderWatertight CompartmentsThe Astrolabe
29 The Greatest Early Chinese explorer was Sun TzuLao TzuMao Tse TungZheng He