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Slide: 1 Interra Software Infrastructure Part II : Components Shyamal Sharma 7/29/05.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide: 1 Interra Software Infrastructure Part II : Components Shyamal Sharma 7/29/05."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide: 1 Interra Software Infrastructure Part II : Components Shyamal Sharma 7/29/05

2 Slide: 2 Agenda Part II : Components Interra Infrastructure Components Memory Manager Benefits of Personal Memory Manager Architecture Dump-Restore Leverage personal Memory Manager

3 Slide: 3 Benefits of personal Memory Manager Efficiency. Using malloc/free directly for each and every allocation and de-allocation is very inefficient. malloc has bookkeeping overhead (16 bytes) for each allocation. Allocations of small objects, say of 16 bytes, have therefore a 100% overhead. The personal memory manager will use system malloc only for very large block (say 8Mb ) allocations.Therefore the malloc bookkeeping overhead has minimum impact here. The personal memory manager will take over the task of allocating memory,with minimum overhead, from this large block.

4 Slide: 4 Benefits of personal Memory Manager cont.. Easy of debugging. The personal manager can have its own custom made and efficient memory leak detection system which is tuned to the memory manager architecture. Persistence Owning personal memory manager helps in implementing efficient object persistence (serialization) No need for graph traversal through the Object model,serializing every data member object and being concerned about duplication and cycles. Instead we can index the whole address space in an address independent way and dump the independent index when serializing data member.

5 Slide: 5 Benefits of personal Memory Manager cont.. Ability to Profile memory usage at no extra cost. The stats on what size of memory is being used and how often helps fine-tune run-time efficiency of the program. Better locality of reference By assigning memory to objects from a large block allocated by system malloc. Since successive memory access are faster if they are to be in nearby memory locations.

6 Slide: 6 Interras Memory Manager Managed by a separate group - Software Infrastructure Components Provided as a library to all objects (Cheetah, Jaguar, NOM etc.). APIs provided in memoryPI.hxx: void* IcAlloc(size_t size); void IcFree(void *ptr, size_t size); void useSystemAllocDealloc(); All classes in the client objects to override their new. void* operator new(size_t size) {return IcAlloc(size);} void operator delete(void *p, size_t size) {IcFree(p, size);}

7 Slide: 7 Use Model #define NEW_DELETE_OVERRIDE \ void* operator new(size_t size) {return IcAlloc(size);} \ void* operator new[](size_t size) {return IcAlloc(size);} \ void operator delete(void *p, size_t size) {IcFree(p, size);} \ void operator delete[](void *p, size_t size) {IcFree(p, size);} #include memoryPI.hxx class Foo { public : NEW_DELETE_OVERRIDE … }

8 Slide: 8 Memory Manager - Architecture 8Mb Blocks are allocated using malloc() A Block is divided into smaller Chunks of size 64K. The Chunk address is aligned to lower 16 bits 0. Therefore the top 16bits of the Chunk address can be taken as a unique id for a Chunk. chunkId = chunkAddress >> 16; Each of these Chunks are added to a free-list pFreeChunks. 8Mb block divided into K-Chunks 64K pFreeChunks

9 Slide: 9 Memory Manager - Architecture cont. We have pre-selected set of popular sizes. All memory allocation requests will be satisfied in terms of one of the popular sizes. Selected Popular sizes are indexd 1 to 35 {0, 4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40,44,48,52,56,60,64 80,96,112,128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 320, 384,448, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, } Chunks are divided into equal-sized MemoryCells. Size of MemoryCell can only be one of the popular sizes. Since one Chunk can allocate MemoryCell of one popular size only, different Chunks are designated to cater to request of different popular sizes.

10 Slide: 10 #define K 1024 #define M (K * K) #define CHUNK_INDEX(chunk) (((unsigned int) chunk) >> 16) #define CHUNK_ADDRESS(index) ((ICChunk*) ((unsigned int)(index) << 16)) #define NUM_POPULAR_SIZES 35 // 4 GBytes of address space can be divided into 64K 64k-Chunks. #define MAX_CHUNK_COUNT (64 * K) // There are 4G/8M = 512 blocks that can be allocated in 32-bits. #define MAX_BLOCK_COUNT (4 * K)/(BLOCK_SIZE/M) struct ICChunk { ICChunk* _next; }; struct ICMemoryCell{ ICMemoryCell* _next; }; class ICChunkContext{ public: ICMemoryCell* _pNextCell; ICMemoryCell* _pLastCell; size_t _nAllocatedCells; size_t _nReusableChunks; ICChunk* _pChunk; }; Important Macros and Data Types

11 Slide: 11 Memory Manager - Architecture (cont..) A ChunkContext structure manages allocation of one popular size from Chunks. Therefore there will be 35 different ChunkContexts to manage all the popular sizes. There will also be 35 different free-list of MemoryCells corresponding to each of the popular sizes. pChunkContext[1] pFreeCells[1] Chunk MemoryCells For Popular size 4 pChunkContext[5] pFreeCells[5] MemoryCells Chunk For Popular size 20

12 Slide: 12 class ICMemoryPool{ // Data members ICChunkContext _pChunkContexts[NUM_POPULAR_SIZES + 1]; ICMemoryCell* _pFreeCells[NUM_POPULAR_SIZES + 1]; ICMemoryCell* _pReusableCells[NUM_POPULAR_SIZES + 1]; char* _pBlocks[MAX_BLOCK_COUNT]; static unsigned short _nChunkAllocs[MAX_CHUNK_COUNT]; static unsigned short _nChunkPopularSizes[MAX_CHUNK_COUNT]; size_t _nCurrentByteCount; size_t _nMaxByteCount; int _nTotalReusableChunks; ICChunk* _pFreeChunks; }; Memory Manager - Memory Pool Managing the memory sub-system

13 Slide: 13 If allocation is requested for a size which is not equal to any of the popular sizes then the next larger popular size is assumed for it. For example. If the requested size is 500 bytes. Since we do not have Chunks allocating memory cells of size 500 bytes, we take the next larger popular size. ie 512. So the request is satisfied by the Chunk allocating memory cells of size = 12 bytes would be an acceptable wastage. When a Chunk managed by the ChunkContext runs out of MemoryCells, a new Chunk from the chunk free list, pFreeChunks, replaces it. By masking the lower 16 bits of any MemoryCell we can get its owner Chunk. ownerChunk = (MemoryCell & 0xffff0000) Pool Management

14 Slide: 14 Allocation algo 1.Get the popular_size which will cover requested size. 2.Try returning MemoryCell from the free list for the popular_size. pFreeCells[PopularSizeIndex] 3.Try returning MemoryCell from the Chunk managed by pChunkContext[PopularSizeIndex] 4.Try getting a free 64K Chunk from pFreeChunks and assign it to pChunkContext[PopularSizeIndex] go to step Try getting a new mallocd 8M block and divide it into Chunks and put them on pFreeChunks. Go to step Use system malloc directly for requested size > 64K.

15 Slide: 15 De-allocation Algo 1.Get the ChunkIndex of the MemoryCell. 2.Get the popular_size of the ChunkIndex. 3.If malloc() was directly used to alloc, use free() to de-alloc. 4.Insert MemoryCell into the memory cell free list corresponding to the popular_size. pFreeCells[PopularSizeIndex]

16 Slide: 16 Memory Manager - Other features Memory Leak detection For every allocation, the allocated memory address will be entered into a database. The stack frame of the allocation to be entered along with the memory address. For every de-allocation, the memory address will have its entry removed from the database. Any entry, if any, remaining in the database at the end of program run will indicate a memory leak. The stack frame associated with the entry will help in locating the cause of memory leak. Memory Usage profile without any overhead.

17 Slide: 17 Serialization of Interra objects Dump-Restore Avoids the standard graph traversal method. Dumps out the whole of memory chunks owned by our personal memory manager. While restoring we re-create similar chunk structure from the dumped file. But first, all the physical addresses ( references to other objects ) used in the chunks are converted to address independent offsets. Owning the memory manager enables the conversion of every physical address in our chunks to an independent-offset. After restoring the chunk structure, all the independent offset needs to be converted to physical addresses. These physical addresses are with respect to the newly allocated chunks.

18 Slide: 18 Dump/Restore - An example enum ObjectType { NET,INST,MOD } Class VeBase { ObjectType _type; } Class VeNet : public VeBase { int _NetId; } class VeInstance : public VeBase{ int _InstId; } Class VeModule : public VeBase{ int _MId; VeNet* _pNet; VeInstance* _pInst; int _nCount; } VeModule* pTop; 0x x _type _pNet _MId _pInst _type _InstId _NetId x x _nCount100

19 Slide: 19 Dump/Restore - An example (cont..) 0x x _type _pNet _MId _pInst _type _InstId _NetId x x Index the used ChunksIDs Convert the physical addresses to independent offset using the relativeChunkIDArray[chunkID] relativeChunkIDArray _nCount100 Object Model DUMP process

20 Slide: 20 Dump/Restore - An example (cont..) _type _InstId _NetId Start dumping the memory pool to a buffer write total number of chunks. dump each chunk write the relative chunkID. write the used size of the Chunk. dump the used portion of the Chunk. write the buffer to a file String_buffer / file _type _pNet _MId _pInst x x _nCount100 2

21 Slide: 21 Dump/Restore - An example (cont..) Read the dumped file to a buffer Allocate Required number of Chunks Read the total Chunk count given by the 1st entry( 2 ) in buffer. Allocate as many Chunks. 0xABAB0000 and 0xCDCD0000 Index the ChunkIDs chunkIDArray[] = { 0, 0xABAB, 0xCDCD } Object Model RESTORE process 0xABAB0000 0xCDCD0000

22 Slide: 22 Dump/Restore - An example (cont.) Read the dumped portion of each Chunk from buffer into allocated Chunks. Get the Chunk to read into Read relativeChunkID from buffer use chunkIDArray[] Copy n bytes of buffer to the Chunk. n is after relativeChunkID value in the buffer. Copy the next n bytes from buffer to Chunk denoted by chunkIDArray[relativeChunkID] 0xABAB0000 0xCDCD0000 _type _pNet _MId _pInst _type _InstId _NetId x x _nCount100

23 Slide: 23 Dump/Restore - An example (cont..) Convert the address-independent offsets in the Chunks to physical addresses. Replace relativeChunkID with actual chunkID using chunkIDArray[relativeChunkID] Let the top level object pointer point to the appropriate physical address. ie. chunkIDArray[1] 0xABAB0000 0xCDCD0000 _type _pNet _MId _pInst _type _InstId _NetId xCDCD0000 0xCDCD0002 _nCount100

24 Slide: 24 Thank You

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