2 Objectives Outcomes Class discussion and notes To understand what is important in a narrativeTo recognise the features of moving images and camera techniquesTo understand how tension is built within a moving imageClass discussion and notesClass discussion- sheet and looking at frames from shower scene in ‘Psycho’Drawing storyboards
3 What else is important in narratives? Conflict: Good v Evil.Motivation:Ideology:
4 Types of Narrative Linear- Works from beginning to end in real time Parallel- When two plots are running simultaneously. Cross cutting is used i.e switching from one place to another so that the action appears to be happen at the same timeAnti-narrative- when the narrative structure is disrupted e.g flashbacks
5 Moving ImagesWhat else do we need to consider when producing or analysing a moving image?Camera movementEditing techniques
6 Building Tension in the moving image: Use of CU and BCU to show emotionFocussing away from the action at more significant detailChanging subject (e.g murderer and victim)Short cuts
7 EditingFilm editing is a series of questions and answers – not always in the logical order – our next task is to play around with the order of images.
8 Group TaskLook at the series of frames in front of you- they are from the film ‘Psycho’ and depict a very famous scene where the lead role is murdered in the shower.In small groups try and put these frames in a sequence that builds tension.How does your sequence attempt to build tension?Which frames do you think build up tension effectively and why?
9 OBJECTIVES OUTCOMESTo be able to find examples of building tension in the moving imageTo be able to recognise tension building in the soundTo be able to pick out diegetic and non diegetic soundsWatch clip and answer questionsWatch again and make notes on soundMake notes on sound codes
10 Watch the Clip- no sound Make notes on the building of tension
11 Write notes on Lighting- positioning, shadows etc Angles and shots Editing- dissolves, cuts, framing, switching subjectMise en Scene: Characters’ actions, setting, propsFocus and camera use - blurred/sharp, black and white/colourSpecial Effects
12 Objectives OutcomesTo be able to apply knowledge on tension to production taskTo be able to storyboardModelling as a classBrainstorming ideas
13 Class ActivityTask: We are going to plan and film a short sequence that builds tension. The scenario is that one of your group is doing something silly and will eventually fall off and hurt themselves. How are we going to build up tension leading up to the event.? Discuss and note down the possibilities as a group: Camera angles, subjects, transitions etc.
14 Storyboarding A picture that shows the basics of the shot. A commentary on the lighting, camera angles, sounds, mise en scene:Timings and transitions between scenes.
15 StoryboardsStoryboarding is the process of producing sketches of the shots of your script.The end result looks like comic book of your film (without the speech bubbles).
16 Storyboards are used primarily in film making to design individual shots before filming. They are also common in comic strip, animation, TV commercials, and multimedia design, but can be used for many other sorts of projects.
17 Why do them? It helps you think about how your film is going to look. Pictures communicate better than wordsIt allows you to experiment quickly and cheaply, testing out different versions of how a scene may look and play on camera., You do not have to be able to draw well, looking at storyboards by Hitchcock or Spielberg you have to admit that they can't draw.There are professional storyboard artists that can give you results that look better than the final film. therefore it will allow:People to work faster on setYour camera crew to move their camera and lightsProducers to foresee problemsThe art department to know which parts of the location are going to be in shot etc.The actors to get a feel of what they are going to be shooting.
18 A storyboard should contain: a sketch of the visual aspect of the screen,information which will be present,descriptions of animations,interactions (e.g. dialog boxes),sounds,and any other media.
19 Showing MovementTo illustrate movement - whether its movement within the frame (actors walking) or the frame moving itself (camera panning etc.) story board artists often use arrows.
20 Suppose the camera is tracking in, following a bad guy's footsteps Suppose the camera is tracking in, following a bad guy's footsteps. Draw in an arrow pointing into shot to show the camera's movement.Now the hero's head is pulled back by one of the bad guy's goons. Use an arrow to show the movement of the head being turned.What about a zoom in? From each corner draw in arrows pointing to the centre, draw in a new smaller frame to show the end of the zoom.Generally use thick white arrows to show camera moves and thin black arrows to show objects moving.
21 The Floating Frame There's two options: Illustrate one shot using more than one storyboard frame showing the key stages of the shot's movement across a number of framesorDraw out the entire scene (e.g.. the horizon of a city) and place a frame on it with an arrow indicating the direction of movement.E.g. if you want to show the camera panning to show a cityscape, or following a character as they walk through an airport
22 Transitions The storyboard can also include transitions in your film. Write these in the gaps between the frames e.g.. DISSOLVE TO :
23 A quick way of producing a Storyboard Keep the area you have to draw small.Copy up a set of storyboard sheetsSketch in pencilScribble down short notesNumber your shots1. Keep the area you have to draw small. It allows you to draw much faster. The pictures become more like doodles than works of art. Remember the point is to get an idea of how things will look on screen.2. Copy up a set of storyboard sheets so you don't have to spend all night drawing screen boxes.3. Sketch in pencil so you can make changes easily, then ink in for photocopying. Feel free to use any medium you are happy with - professional storyboard artists use everything from magic markers to charcoal.4. Scribble down short notes about what's happening in shot (e.g.. BOB enters) what characters are saying ("Is this it? Is this how...") or sound effects (Roll of THUNDER).5. An overhead plan view of the location of the camera, actors and light can be helpful if you know the location you are going to be working on.6. Number your shots so that they can be quickly referred to on the shot list and during editing.
29 Now it is your turnIn your groups you are going to create a story board for a scene that leads up to an accident.Brainstorm the ideas for building tension.Begin to create your storyboard.Be prepared to feedback to me and the class.
30 Detailed StoryboardsAlso consider performer space – X/Z axes
31 Guidelines for preparing a Storyboard Decide what is to be shownList the visuals in a logical orderSketch the main elements and what will be in each shotDescribe the type of shot, e.g. LS, CUIf possible give a rough idea of the length of each shotExplain what sound or dialogue is going on at the same time, e.g music, speech etc.If someone else is involved in the shooting then make sure that they too can understand the storyboard.
37 Storyboard Components & Influences: Shot – a single elementFrame – limiting, cropping the imageNarrative flow – cutting/mixing/wiping/dissolving between scenes and sequencesDirector of Photography – controls visual quality, camera placement etc.Director - controls: acting, dialogue, editing etc.Camera angle – direction of cameraCamera movement: pan, zoom, tilt, tracking, steady cam, crane etc.
38 Classwork – ‘P’ is for Psycho To Discuss: imagine that you are about to make a short action-packed film. Give 3 reasons as to why it would be a good idea to draw up a storyboard before you began shooting the film.Study the storyboard for ‘P’ is for Psycho. Try to imagine what it would look like on the screen.What is happening in the opening sequence of the film?How is the narrative flow established?If you were directing this sequence, what aspects of the storyboard would you like to change?
39 Transitions (mix/dissolve/fade/cut/wipe etc.) Media Studies AS Level Practical Project – Storyboards/SoapsProduce a storyboard for the scene you have written involving your assigned character in the soap ‘Gosforth Street’. It must contain at least 10 frames and describe:Camera shotsCamera anglesCamera movementsTransitions (mix/dissolve/fade/cut/wipe etc.)Action (what happens in each shot)Sound (dialogue, voice-over, diegetic sound or musical soundtrack)Any other relevant features e.g. lighting or special f/xProduce a 500-word commentary on your storyboard. Make particular reference to the concept of representation (how you have presented your story, point of view, use or avoidance of stereotypes). Discuss how you have made your scene appeal to a particular audience and whom it might exclude. Show evidence of research into other media texts (soaps) and the target audience.
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