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Eukaryotic cells have organelles.. Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in several ways: 1) separation of nucleus from cytoplasm by double.

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Presentation on theme: "Eukaryotic cells have organelles.. Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in several ways: 1) separation of nucleus from cytoplasm by double."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eukaryotic cells have organelles.

2 Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in several ways: 1) separation of nucleus from cytoplasm by double membrane (nuclear envelope) 2) DNA organized into distinct chromosomes (X-shaped) 3) complex membrane-bound organelles (e.g., mitochondria)

3 Three Functional Categories of Eukaryotic Organelles 1)Manufacturing Nucleus – genetic control center - DNA & RNA synthesis and ribosome assemble ribosomes: assemble amino acids into polypeptides (proteins/enzymes)

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5 Three Functional Categories of Eukaryotic Organelles 1)Manufacturing Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) - network of interconnected membrane- bound sacs - rough appearance because ribosomes stuck to membrane surface

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8 Three Functional Categories of Eukaryotic Organelles 1)Manufacturing Golgi Apparatus (GA) cells warehouse/factory - stacks of membrane-bound sacs - work in close association with ER - receive, store, modify products of ER

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10 Three Functional Categories of Eukaryotic Organelles 2) Breakdown of Material Lysosomes - produced by Rough ER & GA - digest nutrients within cell Vacuoles - plant cells - digest nutrients & storage sac

11 Three Functional Categories of Eukaryotic Organelles 3) Energy Processing Chloroplasts - plant cells - site of photosynthesis - absorb sun light & transform this energy to food - light absorbed in grana (stacked solar packs)

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13 Three Functional Categories of Eukaryotic Organelles 3) Energy Processing Mitochondria – cell powerhouse - cellular respiration - double membrane - folds (cristae) of inner membrane - matrix is the inner fluid

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15 Advantages of membrane-bound organelles 1. compartments 2. unique chemistry in different compartments 3. membranes themselves have enzymes embedded) 4. provides localized environment

16 Advantages of membrane-bound organelles 1. compartments 2. unique chemistry in different compartments 3. membranes themselves have enzymes embedded) 4. provides localized environment

17 Origin of Eukaryotic Cells from Prokaryotes – Additional Evidence Supporting the Endosymbiotic Hypothesis 1. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts contain DNA and ribosomes similar to bacteria 2.Double membrane 3. Circular DNA 4. Looks like bacteria 5. Reproduces by binary fission

18 Road to Modern Organisms 1 st life was bacteria unicellular prokaryotes Photosynthesis changed Earths atmosphere released O 2 - cyanobacteria!!!! 2 nd was unicellular eukaryotes Endosymbiotic Theory 3 rd was multicellular organisms

19 Origin of Eukaryotic cells The endosymbiotic theory is a theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms

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