Presentation on theme: "Plagiarism & Referencing for SES Yr 2 Peter Bradley: UoB Autumn 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Plagiarism & Referencing for SES Yr 2 Peter Bradley: UoB Autumn 2010
By the end of this session, you should know more about: Plagiarism: what it is & how to avoid it How to cite/acknowledge a source of information within the main text of your assignment How to reference a source in the reference list at the end of your assignment We’ll be referring to the Journal of Sports Sciences’ guidelines
What is plagiarism? To plagiarise/plagiarize is to: “take (the work or an idea of someone else) and pass it off as one's own” "plagiarize verb" The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. University of Bath. 7 September 2009
What is plagiarism? Copying from any other source including books, journals, websites, etc… i.e. without acknowledging /citing the source in your text & without adding it to your list of references at the end Copying ideas, exact text, findings, data, tables, diagrams, images, conversations, emails, letters… Copying other students or colluding to produce very similar assignments Duplicating your own previously submitted work …if you’re allowed to do this, must cite your work…
What is plagiarism? Fabrication: to report on experiments never performed Falsification: to misrepresent the results of experimentation
Why is plagiarism serious? 1 It’s a form of cheating & you declare you haven’t cheated when you submit your assignments It can result in penalties: lower grades or worse Shows lack of respect towards someone else’s hard work, whether a student or academic: degrades academic standards, degrees… Increasingly easy to be caught out: Coursework is submitted to Turnitin software: Turnitin checks your work against information on the internet and other students’ work
Why is plagiarism serious? 2 You’re here to demonstrate that you’ve acquired a range of academic skills (& these skills are sought by employers) i.e. capable of independently evaluating a range of information and synthesising different sources to produce your own work If you plagiarise: unable to demonstrate these skills
Avoiding plagiarism 1.Good time management 2.Effective note taking 3.Using quotations accurately 4.Summarising & using your own words 5.Recognising what is common knowledge
Avoiding plagiarism 1 Give yourself time to: Find, read & analyse quality resources Save/email records of all articles, & other information you use as your research progresses e.g. save via databases, Endnote Web… Correctly cite your sources in your text & add full references at the end: don’t leave this to the final draft do check your final draft
Avoiding plagiarism 2 Develop good note-taking habits Don’t copy text: read a whole section, think about it & then summarise it in your own words If you must copy & paste text: place text in quotation marks as a reminder to rewrite it later Adopt a method to clearly distinguish your own thoughts from those of others
Avoiding plagiarism 3 Quoting correctly Better to summarise using your own words rather than quote emphasises your own understanding when referring to an author’s ideas or findings If you do copy an author’s exact words: limit the amount & must distinguish words from your own by ‘quoting’: i. adding “quotation marks” around short quotes ii. separating longer quotes from your own text by indenting from L.H. Remember to cite surname, date of publication & page no. … & add full reference to your list
Avoiding plagiarism 4 Summarising / paraphrasing Be aware: if you include too many words from the original text = plagiarism Remember: you still have to cite & reference, even though you’re using your own words or building upon an authors’ ideas
Avoiding plagiarism 4 Original text: “Athletes who use diuretics to lose body water to rapidly ‘make weight’ place themselves at a distinct performance disadvantage because a disproportionate reduction in plasma volume occurs, which negatively affects thermoregulation and cardiovascular function. In addition, Diuretic drugs also can markedly impair neuromuscular function not noted when comparable fluid loss occurs by exercise. Athletes who use vomiting and diarrhea to lose weight not only produce dehydration, but also cause excessive mineral loss with accompanying muscle weakness and impaired neuromuscular function (McArdle, Katch & Katch, 2009).” Paraphrased version: Using non-natural methods to lose weight, such as Diruetic drugs, vomiting and diarrhea damages the body. Using Diruetic drugs has a negative affect on thermoregulation and cardiovascular function by reducing the plasma volume. Vomiting and diarrhea causes major mineral loss, muscle loss and impaired neuromuscular function; damage not noted in fluid loss occurring during exercise (McArdle, Katch & Katch, 2009).
Essay sites: what’s wrong with them? Buying assignments is also cheating/plagiarism Unpredictable quality: often inaccurate, poorly written Inappropriate academic level What resources did the author use? Expensive & time consuming If you’ve found it, who else has…? Traceable!.. again you can get caught
Quiz: is it plagiarism if you… …copy & paste a paragraph of text without using quotation marks & referencing it? 1.Yes 2.No
Is it plagiarism if you… …substantially rewrite the ideas of another author, cite the author and provide a reference? 1.Yes 2.No
Is it plagiarism if you… …claim work produced by another student as your own? 1.Yes 2.No
Is it plagiarism if you… …submit all or part of one essay for two different assignments? 1.Yes 2.No
Is it plagiarism if you… …copy a diagram from a web site, book or journal, providing a reference for the source underneath? 1.Yes 2.No
Is it plagiarism if you… 1.Yes 2.No …incorporate text from another source, changing one or two words and providing a citation?
Referencing: using the Journal of Sports Sciences guidelines for authors
Why should you provide references? To avoid plagiarism & related penalties by acknowledging others’ ideas,words etc To help others trace your sources of information quickly & easily To demonstrate the breadth of your research To demonstrate the depth/quality of the material you’ve found
Cite author surname(s) & date within your text Citing 1 or 2 author(s) Biddle (2008) argued that… It has been suggested that…(Biddle, 2008) Smith & Jones (2004) set up an experiment that… Citing 3 or more authors Just cite first surname followed by et al. e.g. Smith et al. Instructions in Journal of Sports Sciences are more complicated but your SES has decided the above method is fine
A citation is not needed for: Common knowledge and facts Unless you are in any doubt as to whether it’s common knowledge Also, if quoting a definition of a common piece of knowledge, a citation is required Your own ideas or discoveries Unless you are referring to work you have previously submitted
Reference the full sources at the end of your assignment List full details of all your sources Don’t include anything you haven’t read References listed in alphabetical order by author surname Be consistent in your use of referencing style Check all your assignment for correct citing/referencing before submission
Reference to a chapter in an edited book e.g. each chapter written by different author(s) Author(s)/Editor(s)., (year of publication). Chapter title. In Editor’s initials, surname (Ed.), Book title (pp. page numbers, ed. number if not 1 st edition). Place of publication including US state abbreviations if relevant: publisher. Sahlin, S. (2006). Metabolic factors in fatigue. In M. Hargreaves, & L. Spriet, (Eds.), Exercise Metabolism (pp. 163-186, 2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Reference to a journal article: Also use this format for an online article where it’s the ‘same’ as the print version e.g. has page numbers… Author(s) of article. (year of publication). Title of article: Subtitle if exists. Title of journal, volume number, page numbers. Edmunds, J, Ntoumanis, N. & Duda, J.L. (2007). Adherence and well-being in overweight and obese patients referred to an exercise on prescription scheme: A self-determination and theory perspective. Psychology of sport and exercise, 8, 722-740.
Online-only article reference MacKenzie, D., (2008). Is the common cold becoming a killer? New Scientist [online], 2672. Retrieved from: http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg1992672 1.900-is-the-common-cold-becoming-a-killer.html http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg1992672 1.900-is-the-common-cold-becoming-a-killer.html Better still, if you can find the article’s DOI number, reference that instead of the URL. Instead of ‘Retrieved from, add the following: doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx
More detailed guidelines for referencing: Use SES link to Journal of Sports Sciences guidelines …also note
Journal abbreviations in references References to journal articles normally use a short form of the journal title e.g. Med Sci Sports Exerc Visit Library’s web site for guide to understanding journal abbreviations: i. Help section: guides OR ii. Information skills: finding books & articles The guide lists sites which provide common abbreviations for sport/exercise journals
Peter Bradley: Your Subject Librarian P.G.Bradley@bath.ac.uk Office on Level 4 Other Librarians are also happy to help http://www.bath.ac.uk/library/ Note Resources for your Subject: Health Any questions? I’m here to help…