2Le Chatelier’s Principle For a system at equilibrium, an alteration in the conditions will cause the state of balance to be disturbedThe position of equilibrium will shift until a new state of balance is attained.Therefore Le Chatelier’s Principle states that when a system in equilibrium is disturbed, the system will react in such a manner so as to partially remove the disturbance.This leads to a new position of equilibrium.Henri Louis Le Chatelier (1850 – 1936)
3Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Changes in Concentration or Partial PressureExample: N2(g) + 3H2(g) NH3(g)When more nitrogen gas is added to the equilibrium mixture, concentration of nitrogen increasesBy the Le Chatelier’s Principle, the equilibrium position shifts to the right so as to use up the nitrogen and decrease its concentration.The concentration of hydrogen gas will also decrease while that of ammonia gas will increase.
4Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Effect of adding more N2 to the equilibrium mixture
5Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium QuestionFeCl3 + 3NH4CNS Fe(CNS)4 + 3NH4Cl(ammonium (iron (III)thiocyanate) thiocyanate)An equilibrium mixture of the above 4 compounds is red in colour. The red colouration is due to iron(III) thiocyanate. Explain your observations if 25cm3 the following was added into 1dm3 of the mixture.Iron(III) chlorideAmmmonium chloride solution
6Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium AnswerAdding iron(III) chloride deepens the colour, as the concentration of iron(III) chloride increases. By the Le Chatelier’s Principle, the equilibrium position would shift to the right so as to use up iron(III) chloride and decrease its concentration. Thus more iron(III) thiocyanate, which gives the red colour, is formed and so the redness is deepened.
7Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium AnswerAdding ammonium chloride lightens the colour, as the concentration of ammonium chloride increases. By the Le Chatelier’s Principle, the equilibrium position would shift to the left so as to use up ammonium chloride and decrease its concentration. Thus less iron(III) thiocyanate, which gives the red colour, is formed and so the redness is lightened.
8Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Changes in TemperatureThis is a twofold effectAn increase in temperature quickens a chemical reactionHeat is supplied to the reaction
9Endothermic & Exothermic Process An Endothermic Process is a process in which there heat is absorbed from the surrounding. Thus there would be a decrease in temperature in the system.An Exothermic Process is a process in which there heat is released to the surrounding. Thus there would be a increase in temperature in the system.
10Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Changes in TemperatureExample 1: N2 + 3H2 2NH3The forward reaction is exothermic. (heat is released to surroundings, hence temperature rises)If the equilibrium mixture is heated, by Le Chatelier’s Principle, the position of equilibrium shifts to the left.This is to decrease the temperature as the reverse reaction is endothermic.Hence heating favours the decomposition of ammonia.If the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen is heated, equilibrium is reached sooner, as heating quickens the reaction and less ammonia is produced.
11Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium QuestionReaction: 2NO2(g) N2O4(g)Explain why cooling favours the conversion of nitrogen dioxide to dinitrogen teroxide (forward reaction).
12Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium AnswerThe forward reaction is exothermic. (heat is released to surroundings, hence temperature rises)If the equilibrium mixture is cooled, by Le Chatelier’s principle, position of equilibrium shifts to the right.This is to increase the temperature as forward reaction is exothermic.Hence cooling favours the conversion of nitrogen dioxide to dinitrogen teroxide.
13Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Changes in Total PressureExample 1: N2(g) + 3H2(g) NH3(g)(2 vols. of reactants) (1 vol. of product)When total pressure increases, position of equilibrium shifts in a direction to lower the pressure of the mixture of gases.In this case, the pressure of gases is lowered by forming more ammonia gas, due to the reduction of volume.Thus an increase in external pressure shifts the equilibrium to the right in the equation above.
14Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Effect of increasing pressure on equilibrium. Increase in total pressure (by reducing volume) favours the side with a fewer number of moles of gases.
15Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Changes in Total PressureExample 2: H2(g) + I2(g) HI(g)The number of gases molecules on both sides of the equation are the same.Hence an increase in pressure has no effect on the position of the equilibrium.
16Factors affecting Chemical Equilibrium Presence of a CatalystA catalyst is a substance that increase the rate of a reaction but is itself left chemically unaltered at the end of the process.When a catalyst is added to an equilibrium system, it increases both forward and reverse rates by the same extent, because it lowers the same activation energy of both forward and backward reactions.Hence a catalyst does not affect the position of equilibrium. It only enables the state of equilibrium to be reached more rapidly.