4The ambition"Our data shows it doesn't matter if you go to a school in Britain, Finland or Japan, students from a privileged background tend to do well everywhere. Your effect as a teacher is a lot bigger for a student who doesn't have a privileged background than for a student who has lots of educational resources.“Andreas Schleicher – OECD
5Which strategies are helping most to raise attainment of PP-eligible students?
6Pupil premium: the gap in 2013 The gap gets wider as pupils get older:19% gap (60%: 79%) in level 4 at 1127% gap (38%: 65%) in 5A-CsEM at 16Big variations between schools and between LAsLevel 4 gap: Newham 4%; Glos 19%; Worcs 23%GCSE gap: London under 20%; Glos 30%; Worcs 31% (0.3% increase in the gap since 2010)Attainment of PP pupilsLevel 4: Camden 79%; Glos 64%; Worcs 54%GCSE: Tower Hamlets 63%; Birmingham, Wolverhampton 49%; Worcs 38% (8.4% improvement since 2010)Lowest FSM attainment in schools with high or low FSM
7Percentage of Key Stage 4 pupils eligible for free school meals attaining the GCSE benchmark by secondary schools, in deciles from low to high proportions of pupils eligible for free school mealsData based on 2012 Key Stage 4 validated data. Figures represent all open secondary schools that have had a published section 5 inspection as at 31 December Schools with percentage figures exactly on the decile boundary have been included in the lower decile.
8Focus for the pupil premium Prioritise gaps: Deprivation – Looked-after children – Gender – Ethnic groupPP is for disadvantaged pupilsThere are good and bad ways to close the gap, so focus on raising attainment of PP-eligible learnersAmbition: In 15% of schools, FSM attainment is above the national average for ALL pupilsUsing curriculum to raise FSM attainmentUse evidence of what worksFocus relentlessly on the quality of teaching and learning
10The evidence The government isn’t telling schools how to close the gap It’s for schools to decide how to use PP
11The evidenceSeeking out excellent practice in other schools mUsing the Education Endowment Foundation toolkitUsing conclusions from Ofsted surveys schools-are-spending-funding-successfully-maximise- achievementaccess-and-achievement-20-years
12Professional networks Seeking out excellent practice in closing gapLooking out, not looking upEncouraging staff to build professional networks – policy isn’t just made in the head’s officeLocal, regional, national, international evidenceWho can help you to build new networks?Start a pupil premium co-ordinators’ network locally?How good are the networks of key PP staff?
14Very high impact for low cost FeedbackApproachAverage impactCostEvidence estimateSummaryFeedback9 months££Very high impact for low costResearch suggests that providing effective feedback is challenging. To be effective, it should be:About challenging tasks or goals rather than easy ones.Given sparingly so that it is meaningful.About what is right more often than about what is wrong.Specific, accurate and clear, e.g. not just “correct” or “incorrect”.Provide examples of what is correct and not just tell students when they are wrong.Encouraging and supportive of further effort without threatening a learner’s self-esteem.
15High impact for moderate cost Small group tuitionApproachAverage impactCostEvidence estimateSummarySmall group tuition4 months£££High impact for moderate costIntensive tuition in small groups is very effective, particularly when pupils are grouped according to current level of attainment or specific need. Have you considered how you will organise the groups?How will you assess pupils’ needs accurately and provide work at a challenging level with effective feedback and support?One to one tuition and small group tuition are effective interventions. However, the cost effectiveness of one-to-two and one-to-three indicates that greater use of these approaches would be productive in schools.Have you considered how you will provide training and support for those leading the small group tuition, and how you will evaluate the impact of it? These are likely to increase the effectiveness of small group tuition.
16Moderate impact for high cost Reducing class sizeApproachAverage impactCostEvidence estimateSummaryReducing class size3 months£££££Moderate impact for high costSmaller classes will not make a difference to learning unless the teacher or pupils do something differently in the smaller class.It is likely that the more flexible choices the teacher has for organising learners combined with an increase in the quality or quantity of feedback pupils receive accounts for any gains.Small reductions (e.g. from 30 to 25 pupils) are unlikely to be cost-effective relative to other strategies.Deploying staff (including teaching assistants) so that teachers can work more intensively with smaller groups may be worth exploring.Reducing class sizes for younger children may provide longer term benefits.
17Using teaching assistants effectively The DISS project:Deployment and Impact of Support StaffFree download fromcy/osi_teaching_assistants_report_web.pdf?region=uk
18Evidence from Ofsted Reports on PP – Sept 2012 and Feb 2013 Successful approaches:Unsuccessful approachesUnseen children: access and achievement 20 years on
19Evidence from Ofsted: successful approaches PP funding ring-fenced to spend on target groupMaintained high expectations of target groupThoroughly analysed which pupils were under-achieving + whyUsed evidence to allocate funding to big-impact strategiesHigh quality teaching, not interventions to compensate for poor teachingUsed achievement data to check interventions effective and made adjustments where necessaryHighly trained support staffSenior leader with oversight of how PP funding is being spentTeachers know which pupils eligible for PPAble to demonstrate impactInvolve governors
20Evidence from Ofsted: less successful approaches Lack of clarity about intended impact of PP spendingFunding spent on teaching assistants, with little impactPoor monitoring of impactPoor performance management system for support staffNo clear audit trail of where PP money was spentFocus on level 4 or grade C thresholds, so more able under-achievedPP spending not part of school development planUsed poor comparators for performance, thus lowering expectationsPastoral work not focused on desired outcomes for PP pupilsGovernors not involved in decisions about the PP spending
21Choosing your school strategies: getting the balance right Whole-school strategiesNeeds of individual pupilsLong-termShort-termTeaching and learning strategiesImproving numeracy and literacyImproving test and exam resultsRaising aspirationsPastoral support strategiesIs the balance right in your school?
22EXAMPLE STRATEGIES TO CLOSE ATTAINMENT GAPS Whole school strategies might include…Quality teaching and learning, consistent across the school, supported by strong CPD culture, observation/moderation and coachingEngaging and relevant curriculum, personalised to pupil needsPupil level tracking, assessment and monitoringQuality assessmentEffective reward, behaviour and attendance policiesInclusive and positive school cultureEffective senior leadership team, focused on PP agendaWHOLE SCHOOL STRATEGIES ...which benefit all pupilsTargeted strategies for under-achieving pupils might include…Early intervention and targeted learning interventionsOne-to-one support and other ‘catch-up’ provisionRigorous monitoring and evaluation of impact of targeted interventionsExtended services and multi-agency supportTargeted parental engagementsIn-school dedicated pastoral and wellbeing support and outreachDeveloping confidence and self-esteem through pupil voice, empowering student mentors, sport, music, or other programmes such as SEALSTRATEGIES FOR UNDER-PERFORMING PUPILS…which benefit FSM and other under-achieving pupilsTARGETED STRATEGIES FOR PUPILS ELIGIBLE FOR FSM…which specifically benefit FSM pupilsTargeted strategies for FSM pupils might include…Incentives and targeting of extended services and parental supportSubsidising school trips and other learning resourcesAdditional residential and summer campsInterventions to manage key transitions between stages /schoolsDedicated senior leadership championSource: abridged from Rea and Hill , 2011, Does School-to-School Support close the gap? National College for School Leadership
23Pupil premium: the funding Additional per pupil funding for PP£488 per pupil£623 per pupil£900 per pupil (+ £53 for primary)£935 (secondary) £1300 (primary) £1900 (Looked after and adopted chn)Total PP funding£625 million£1.25 billion£1.875 billion£2.5 billion
24Wider funding£50 million of PP funding to secondary schools for summer schools for year 7 incomers that need extra supportPlus £500 per year 7 pupil who is below level 4 in reading and/or maths for literacy and numeracy catch-upPP funding not for existing provisionIn total this represents a big commitment by the government. Now schools have to deliver.
25Increased accountability Centralisation and decentralisation – the lesson from historyChanges in Ofsted inspection frameworkLook for mentions of pupil premiumAccountability for impact of the pupil premiumNot Outstanding unless disadvantaged making at least good progressAll schools judged on attainment level and gap and on progressInvolvement of governing bodyCreating a good audit trailBuilding your own data setsAccountability direct to parentsAre your PP students making at least good progress?
26What inspectors are looking for Before the inspection, RAISE Online is studied for evidence on gaps:How well did FSM pupils attain last year in comparison to other pupils in the school and nationally?How much progress did FSM pupils make last year compared to other pupils in the school and nationally?How well have FSM pupils been performing over time? Is attainment rising? Is the gap narrowing?PP pupil tracking by inspectorDiscussions with PP pupils, parents, staff and governorsStudy of effectiveness of PP spending strategiesStudy of effectiveness of leadership in monitoring and evaluationGovernor involvement
27Factors considered by inspectors Quality of the school’s analysis of the performance and needs of PP pupilsSchool rationale for spending PP fundingAppropriateness and level of challenge of school’s success criteriaRobustness of monitoring and evaluationLevel of involvement of governorsLevel of involvement of pupils, parents and carersImpact on narrowing the gapIMPACT
28Pupil Premium ReviewPP Review for all schools ‘requiring improvement’ in overall effectiveness and leadership/management and where there are concerns re attainment of disadvantagedSchool will be supported by another headto carry out a sharp Review of how PP is usedto develop a new strategy for using PP effectivelyNCTL list of heads with proven success of achieving good outcomes for disadvantaged. Schools can approach these, or others, to provide support:
29Creating a good audit trail Outcome measuresFSM / Non-FSM attainment over timeGap over timeAttendance over timeProgressDestination dataThe audit trailPP fundingStrategies adoptedImplementationMonitoring mechanisms and resultsMeasured impactEvaluating each strategy: ‘What does this mean?’Improving: ‘What do we do now?’How good is the audit trail in your school?
30Accountability to parents Obligation to report to parents on PP policies and impactPublish an online account of PP amount and plans to spend itAt end of year, publish what you spent it on and the impactLots of school templates on the internet… but this is about much more than accountability …… using support to use PP more effectively …… using curriculum to close the gaps …
31An international perspective “Today schooling needs to be much more about ways of thinking, involving creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making.”Andreas Schleicher – OECDTES 16 November 2012
32Using curriculum freedoms to close the gap School curriculum bigger than National CurriculumWhat curriculum does a C21 young person need?What curriculum does most for disadvantaged?Developing knowledge, skills and personal qualitiesWhat skills and personal qualities to develop?CBI list?Your own list?How can you develop the curriculum to help close the gap in your school?
33Ready for further study Work readyLife readyReady for further study
34Evaluate effectiveness Use evidence to decide strategy Make an impactChange practiceTraining in depthUse evidence to decide strategyGet buy-in at schoolToday’s conference
35National Pupil Premium Champion Contact John Dunford at