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Theology of the Body The Family and the Blessed Trinity Fr. Edward J. Richard, MS.

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1 Theology of the Body The Family and the Blessed Trinity Fr. Edward J. Richard, MS

2 Law and Morality Law and Morality If we compare the current trend in law with the traditional relationship between law and morality, the result of the interest in legal theory in social engineering has been a diminishment of familial cohesion and a reformulation of the notion of freedom, once seen as an inalienable right, to a radical idea unrelated to the human person as such If we compare the current trend in law with the traditional relationship between law and morality, the result of the interest in legal theory in social engineering has been a diminishment of familial cohesion and a reformulation of the notion of freedom, once seen as an inalienable right, to a radical idea unrelated to the human person as such

3 Evangelization Marriage preparation involves a process of evangelization which is both a Marriage preparation involves a process of evangelization which is both a maturation and maturation and deepening in the faith. deepening in the faith. If the faith is weak or almost nonexistent (cf. Familiaris Consortio = FC 68), it must be revived. If the faith is weak or almost nonexistent (cf. Familiaris Consortio = FC 68), it must be revived. Thorough, patient instruction that arouses and nourishes the ardor of a living faith cannot be excluded. Thorough, patient instruction that arouses and nourishes the ardor of a living faith cannot be excluded.

4 Evangelization A "journey of faith, A "journey of faith, similar to the catechumenate" similar to the catechumenate" presentation of the fundamental Christian truths presentation of the fundamental Christian truths Marriage preparation Marriage preparation a new evangelization for the future families. a new evangelization for the future families.

5 Introduction Begins in December of 1980 Begins in December of 1980 New Creation New Creation The inner man is the subject of the ethos of the body The inner man is the subject of the ethos of the body The historical man The historical man Man of concupiscence Man of concupiscence

6 The Ethos of Redemption Redemption informs the meaning of marriage even as one reads the Genesis texts Redemption informs the meaning of marriage even as one reads the Genesis texts What is at stake is the hope of everyday What is at stake is the hope of everyday Incarnation, Redemption, Resurrection inform the definition of goods for married life today Incarnation, Redemption, Resurrection inform the definition of goods for married life today Redemption of the body-Romans 8:23 Redemption of the body-Romans 8:23 The fulfillment of the spousal meaning of the body The fulfillment of the spousal meaning of the body

7 In the Beginning Jesus encounter with the Pharisees: Mt 19:3 Jesus encounter with the Pharisees: Mt 19:3 Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? Moses allowed divorce out of the hardness of your hearts Moses allowed divorce out of the hardness of your hearts It was not so in the Beginning. It was not so in the Beginning. Contrasts Contrasts the state of primitive innocence-integral nature the state of primitive innocence-integral nature with the state of human sinfulness-fallen nature with the state of human sinfulness-fallen nature

8 Commentary Gen 1:26-31 Gods intention-to make man [adam] in his image and likeness Gods intention-to make man [adam] in his image and likeness The Creator seems to halt before calling him into existence, as if he were pondering within himself to make a decision: Let us make man in our image, after our likeness The Creator seems to halt before calling him into existence, as if he were pondering within himself to make a decision: Let us make man in our image, after our likeness The body-as image The body-as image

9 Image-Royal Representative Selem-The Image in Exodus Selem-The Image in Exodus Gods intention in creating adam Gods intention in creating adam personal address personal address The Sabbath The Sabbath unique and self-conscious unique and self-conscious self-determination self-determination

10 Original Innocence and Experiences Original Solitude Original Solitude Original Unity Original Unity Original Nakedness Original Nakedness These do not belong only to mans theological prehistory; they are always at the root of every human experience. These do not belong only to mans theological prehistory; they are always at the root of every human experience. They are part of the revelation of the body They are part of the revelation of the body

11 Original Solitude Gen 2:18 Gen 2:18 It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him This is the second account of creation, Yahwist, creation of first man is different from the first woman This is the second account of creation, Yahwist, creation of first man is different from the first woman The creation of the first man [adam] is defined as male [is] only after the creation of the first woman [issah] The creation of the first man [adam] is defined as male [is] only after the creation of the first woman [issah] When Gods speaks, then, about the solitude it is reference to solitude of man as such, not just about the male When Gods speaks, then, about the solitude it is reference to solitude of man as such, not just about the male

12 Original Solitude Man discovers his uniqueness Man discovers his uniqueness A consciousness of himself through his body A consciousness of himself through his body Solitude has two meanings Solitude has two meanings One deriving from human nature as such One deriving from human nature as such It is a search about what it means to be human; in search of his own identity It is a search about what it means to be human; in search of his own identity One deriving from the relationship between male and female One deriving from the relationship between male and female

13 Original Solitude But he is alone-distinguished from the animalia (other living beings)-he is different But he is alone-distinguished from the animalia (other living beings)-he is different Consciousness of the body Consciousness of the body Man is a subject Man is a subject Because of awareness Because of awareness Because of his own body Because of his own body Because of his authorship of human activity Because of his authorship of human activity Because the human body expresses a person Because the human body expresses a person

14 Original Solitude The human body-he is a body among bodies The human body-he is a body among bodies Man, thus formed, has a consciousness and awareness of the meaning of his own body, on the basis of the experience of original solitude. (TB, 39) Man, thus formed, has a consciousness and awareness of the meaning of his own body, on the basis of the experience of original solitude. (TB, 39)

15 Original Solitude The alternative between death and immortality (if you eat of the tree, you shall die) The alternative between death and immortality (if you eat of the tree, you shall die) Establishes the eschatological meaning of the body and humanity itself Establishes the eschatological meaning of the body and humanity itself Distinct from other living beings Distinct from other living beings Has a unique relationship, covenant with God Has a unique relationship, covenant with God These words reveal a dimension of solitude previously unknown These words reveal a dimension of solitude previously unknown

16 Original Unity- Gn 2:21-24 It is not good that man should be alone; I will make a helper similar to himself v. 18 It is not good that man should be alone; I will make a helper similar to himself v. 18 creation of woman creation of woman He falls asleep in order to wake up male and female He falls asleep in order to wake up male and female In Gen 2:23 we see the distinction between is and issah for the first time In Gen 2:23 we see the distinction between is and issah for the first time

17 Original Unity- Gn 2:21-24 The original experience of Unity is founded on the mutual reciprocity between the two The original experience of Unity is founded on the mutual reciprocity between the two Distinction between male and female, both in solitude Distinction between male and female, both in solitude Sexual difference, yet somatic sameness Sexual difference, yet somatic sameness Oriented toward a communion of persons Oriented toward a communion of persons

18 Original Unity The human person loves and expresses love in and through the body The human person loves and expresses love in and through the body The creation of the woman The creation of the woman Overcomes the frontier of solitude Overcomes the frontier of solitude This, at last, is flesh of my flesh and bone of my bone This, at last, is flesh of my flesh and bone of my bone Creation of woman fulfills the creation of the human person Creation of woman fulfills the creation of the human person

19 Original Unity- Gn 2:21-24 Gift Gift mutual gift-Gn 2:24: A man shall leave his father and mother… and the two become one flesh mutual gift-Gn 2:24: A man shall leave his father and mother… and the two become one flesh leads to communion of persons leads to communion of persons in every aspect of life in every aspect of life through a total, reciprocal gift through a total, reciprocal gift communion is foremost in image communion is foremost in image gift of God gift of God

20 Original Unity The distinction between male (is) and female (issah) introduced The distinction between male (is) and female (issah) introduced As embodied persons, their masculinity and femininity allow for unity of persons As embodied persons, their masculinity and femininity allow for unity of persons The reality of sex appears The reality of sex appears

21 Original Unity The two discover the immense joy of loving union expressed through their bodies The two discover the immense joy of loving union expressed through their bodies Unity comes through reciprocal donation Unity comes through reciprocal donation Through intellect and will they have dominion over their bodies allowing for the expression of authentic love Through intellect and will they have dominion over their bodies allowing for the expression of authentic love

22 Original Unity The two ways of being human turn out to be oriented toward a communion of persons The two ways of being human turn out to be oriented toward a communion of persons

23 Original Unity God did indeed create the human body to express the person. Therefore, God gave the minds and wills of our first parents a certain control over their bodies. They were able to express their persons in through their bodies because their bodies, unlike ours, were under the rule of their minds and wills. Consciousness, efficacy, freedom, transcendence, and truth were expressed in and through their bodies. In other words, they were integrated. The wills of our first parents did not have to struggle against the desires of their flesh. Our first parents had no need of will power as we do. The experience of original unity was possible for our first parents because both, within themselves, were completely in harmony. There was no opposition, as there is in us, between the mind and the will, on the one hand, and the body, on the other. Hogan, Covenant of Love, 48. God did indeed create the human body to express the person. Therefore, God gave the minds and wills of our first parents a certain control over their bodies. They were able to express their persons in through their bodies because their bodies, unlike ours, were under the rule of their minds and wills. Consciousness, efficacy, freedom, transcendence, and truth were expressed in and through their bodies. In other words, they were integrated. The wills of our first parents did not have to struggle against the desires of their flesh. Our first parents had no need of will power as we do. The experience of original unity was possible for our first parents because both, within themselves, were completely in harmony. There was no opposition, as there is in us, between the mind and the will, on the one hand, and the body, on the other. Hogan, Covenant of Love, 48.

24 Original Unity The concept of gift The concept of gift The key to sexuality The key to sexuality A total gift of self in a reciprocal relationship A total gift of self in a reciprocal relationship

25 Original Unity The summit of the creation account The summit of the creation account A communion of persons, husband/wife A communion of persons, husband/wife In every aspect of life In every aspect of life Through total, reciprocal self-gift Through total, reciprocal self-gift Communion of persons image the limitless communion of the divine Persons Communion of persons image the limitless communion of the divine Persons

26 Original Unity Gen 2:24: One flesh Gen 2:24: One flesh This is why a man leaves his father and mother and the two become one flesh This is why a man leaves his father and mother and the two become one flesh Muliple dimensions Muliple dimensions Ethical-marriage, one and indissoluble Ethical-marriage, one and indissoluble Sacramental-St. Paul (Eph) and the prophets Sacramental-St. Paul (Eph) and the prophets Incarnate communion of persons Incarnate communion of persons Emotional-Happiness in communion Emotional-Happiness in communion

27 Original Nakedness Gen 2:25 Gen 2:25 Both of were naked…but they felt no shame in front of each other Both of were naked…but they felt no shame in front of each other The point of departure for the experience of historical man is the state of original innocence The point of departure for the experience of historical man is the state of original innocence By reference to the beginning Christ establishes the idea of continuity and connection between the two By reference to the beginning Christ establishes the idea of continuity and connection between the two

28 Original Nakedness The fundamental message The fundamental message Authentic gift of self; the experience of joy and innocence Authentic gift of self; the experience of joy and innocence They are free with regard to themselves They are free with regard to themselves The absence of shame is not a lack of insufficient development. The absence of shame is not a lack of insufficient development. There is rather a particular fullness of consciousness and experience There is rather a particular fullness of consciousness and experience

29 Original Nakedness The gift of self The gift of self The reciprocal experience of the other The reciprocal experience of the other The absence of shame underlines the peace and tranquility of the interior gaze mutually bestowed The absence of shame underlines the peace and tranquility of the interior gaze mutually bestowed Their serenity shows their interior harmony with Creators plan by their union Their serenity shows their interior harmony with Creators plan by their union Gift emphasizes the quality of the relationship Gift emphasizes the quality of the relationship

30 Original Nakedness They are free with regard to themselves They are free with regard to themselves Their interior harmony manifests their freedom to give themselves Their interior harmony manifests their freedom to give themselves To do this they must be masters of themselves To do this they must be masters of themselves They are free and can give without falling prey to self-seeking They are free and can give without falling prey to self-seeking With no presence of shame, they are fully conscious of the meaning of the body that comes from the typical perception of the senses. With no presence of shame, they are fully conscious of the meaning of the body that comes from the typical perception of the senses.

31 Remember this? Freedom and Morality Human Being The Goal of Human Life Virtues

32 Freedom: The ability to choose the Good Human freedom is the God-given ability to choose the means to our ultimate end Human freedom is the God-given ability to choose the means to our ultimate end The End (telos) presupposes a nature The End (telos) presupposes a nature Morality is about the means toward fulfillment of our nature Morality is about the means toward fulfillment of our nature

33 Original Nakedness Human Nature (image of God) Gift of Self

34 The Hidden Meaning of Vision God saw everything that he had made and indeed it was very good. 1:31 God saw everything that he had made and indeed it was very good. 1:31 Nakedness signifies the original good of the divine vision. Nakedness signifies the original good of the divine vision. It has an inner dimension of the share in the vision of the Creator himself. It has an inner dimension of the share in the vision of the Creator himself. They realize the full meaning of the body from the heart of their communion They realize the full meaning of the body from the heart of their communion

35 A Spousal Meaning of the Body The vision yields the truth about the body The vision yields the truth about the body Man appears in Creation as one who, in the midst of the world, has received the other as a gift Man appears in Creation as one who, in the midst of the world, has received the other as a gift Being-gift Being-gift Reciprocal total self-gift Reciprocal total self-gift A person is a being who gives himself/herself A person is a being who gives himself/herself The origin of the definition of person is the Creators gift The origin of the definition of person is the Creators gift

36 Spousal Meaning of the Body Conjugal Significance of the Body Conjugal Significance of the Body Not content with original solitude Not content with original solitude Open to communion Open to communion Total gift of self is gateway to communion Total gift of self is gateway to communion

37 Summary of Original Meaning of Sexuality Conjugal significance of the body Conjugal significance of the body Body has a nuptial meaning Body has a nuptial meaning man comes into being with consciousness of this finality of his own masculinity-femininity man comes into being with consciousness of this finality of his own masculinity-femininity Aware of his procreative capacity as male and female, they are free from the constraint of the body and sex Aware of his procreative capacity as male and female, they are free from the constraint of the body and sex

38 Summary of Original Meaning of Sexuality The nature of Freedom The nature of Freedom Freedom is the fundamental characteristic of a person that makes possible the truth of the gift Freedom is the fundamental characteristic of a person that makes possible the truth of the gift It makes the language of the body true It makes the language of the body true Our freedom is our capacity for giving Our freedom is our capacity for giving

39 The Fall In Light of the Sermon on the Mount Matt. 5:27-28 Whoever looks to Desire…

40 The Fall The Sermon on the Mount The Sermon on the Mount You have heard it said, you shall not commit adultery, I say to you that anyone who looks with desire at a woman has already committed adultery with her in his heart. You have heard it said, you shall not commit adultery, I say to you that anyone who looks with desire at a woman has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

41 Sermon on the Mount Mt 5:17 Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish but to fulfill Mt 5:17 Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish but to fulfill The appeal is to the inner man. The appeal is to the inner man. Desire refers to something born immediately in the heart Mt 5:27-28 Desire refers to something born immediately in the heart Mt 5:27-28 We are directed to the threefold structure of concupiscence We are directed to the threefold structure of concupiscence

42 The Fall 1Jn 2: Jn 2:16-17 For all that is in the world, the concupiscence of the flesh, the concupiscence of the eyes and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passes away, and the concupiscence of it, but he who does the will of God abides forever. For all that is in the world, the concupiscence of the flesh, the concupiscence of the eyes and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passes away, and the concupiscence of it, but he who does the will of God abides forever.

43 The Fall Gen 3 Gen 3 The woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and desirable for gaining wisdom…(5) The woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and desirable for gaining wisdom…(5) …Then the eyes of both of them were opened and they realized that they were naked. So they sewed fig leaves together to make themselves loin cloths. (7) …Then the eyes of both of them were opened and they realized that they were naked. So they sewed fig leaves together to make themselves loin cloths. (7) Where are you? … I heard you in the garden and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself. (9-10) Where are you? … I heard you in the garden and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself. (9-10)

44 The Fall The Fruit of the Breach of the Covenant- Concupiscence The Fruit of the Breach of the Covenant- Concupiscence The covenant was broken in the heart The covenant was broken in the heart Concupiscence comes from the world Concupiscence comes from the world

45 The Fall It comes from doubt about the original gift It comes from doubt about the original gift Questioning in his heart the deepest meaning of the donation, that is, love as the specific motive of the creation and of the original covenant (cf. Gn 3:5), man turns his back on God-Love, on the Father. In a way he casts God out of his heart. At the same time, he detaches his heart and almost cuts it off from what is of the Father. Thus, there remains in him what is of the world. (111) Questioning in his heart the deepest meaning of the donation, that is, love as the specific motive of the creation and of the original covenant (cf. Gn 3:5), man turns his back on God-Love, on the Father. In a way he casts God out of his heart. At the same time, he detaches his heart and almost cuts it off from what is of the Father. Thus, there remains in him what is of the world. (111)

46 The Fall Nakedness and shame are new to the consciousness Nakedness and shame are new to the consciousness Gen 3:10 Gen 3:10 I was naked and I hid myself I was naked and I hid myself The need to hide shows the depth of shame they feel before each other The need to hide shows the depth of shame they feel before each other A sense of fear of God has matured which was previously unknown A sense of fear of God has matured which was previously unknown Nakedness reveals that they are deprived of participation in the Gift. Nakedness reveals that they are deprived of participation in the Gift.

47 The Destruction of Unity In Original Innocence nakedness represented acceptance of the body In Original Innocence nakedness represented acceptance of the body First sign of presence of Man in the world First sign of presence of Man in the world Confirmed as a person Confirmed as a person Faithful witness and verification of solitude in the world Faithful witness and verification of solitude in the world Transparent component of self-giving, masculine and feminine Transparent component of self-giving, masculine and feminine Unquestionable sign of the image of God Unquestionable sign of the image of God

48 I Hid Myself Loss of the original certainty of the image of God expressed in the body Loss of the original certainty of the image of God expressed in the body Loss of the right to participate in the divine vision of the world and the joy that came from living the truth about the body Loss of the right to participate in the divine vision of the world and the joy that came from living the truth about the body The body has ceased drawing power on the power of the spirit which raised him to the level of Image of God The body has ceased drawing power on the power of the spirit which raised him to the level of Image of God Now humiliation is mediated by the body Now humiliation is mediated by the body

49 The Fall Body contains a center of resistance Body contains a center of resistance A breakdown of spiritual and somatic unity A breakdown of spiritual and somatic unity Body is no longer subordinated to the spirit Body is no longer subordinated to the spirit Concupiscence is a specific threat to the structure of self-mastery Concupiscence is a specific threat to the structure of self-mastery He is ashamed of his body owing to the state of his spirit, not so much of his body, but precisely because of concupiscence. He is ashamed of his body owing to the state of his spirit, not so much of his body, but precisely because of concupiscence.

50 The Fall Domination in interpersonal relations Domination in interpersonal relations Concupiscence causes a distortion Concupiscence causes a distortion The simplicity and purity of the original experience disappear The simplicity and purity of the original experience disappear The capacity of full and mutual communion ends The capacity of full and mutual communion ends The heart holds within itself desire and shame The heart holds within itself desire and shame

51 The Fall They find themselves divided, even opposed They find themselves divided, even opposed Gen 3:16 Your desire shall be for your husband and he shall rule over you Gen 3:16 Your desire shall be for your husband and he shall rule over you They are still called to union and unity, but are also threatened by the insatiability of that union and unity. It does not cease to attract man and woman precisely because they are persons called from eternity to exist in communion. They are still called to union and unity, but are also threatened by the insatiability of that union and unity. It does not cease to attract man and woman precisely because they are persons called from eternity to exist in communion. Sexual shame is connected to the failure to satisfy the aspiration to realize in the conjugal union of the body the mutual communion of persons. Sexual shame is connected to the failure to satisfy the aspiration to realize in the conjugal union of the body the mutual communion of persons.

52 Corruption of Bodys Spousal Meaning Domination-Communion of persons is replaced by mutual relationship of possession of the other as object of desire Domination-Communion of persons is replaced by mutual relationship of possession of the other as object of desire In the heart, masc. and fem. mutual relations are no longer the expression of the spirit that seeks personal communion In the heart, masc. and fem. mutual relations are no longer the expression of the spirit that seeks personal communion Spousal meaning is not suffocated but habitually threatened Spousal meaning is not suffocated but habitually threatened

53 Contrast Gen 3:16 Gen 3:16 Your desire shall be for your husband, but he will dominate you Your desire shall be for your husband, but he will dominate you Matt 5:27-28 Matt 5:27-28 Whoever looks at a woman to desire her…makes her into an adulteress in his heart Whoever looks at a woman to desire her…makes her into an adulteress in his heart The man ought to have been from the beginning the guardian of the reciprocity of the gift and of its true balance.

54 The Look is the Threshold Christ teaches us to see the look as the threshold of the interior truth. Christ teaches us to see the look as the threshold of the interior truth. When one looks to desire he experiences the detachment from the spousal meaning of the body which is the basis of the communion of persons When one looks to desire he experiences the detachment from the spousal meaning of the body which is the basis of the communion of persons Looking to desire devalues the body; the procreative meaning, rooted in the spousal meaning, ceases, also. Looking to desire devalues the body; the procreative meaning, rooted in the spousal meaning, ceases, also. In the heart, the authentic meaning of the body proper to the person is obscured. In the heart, the authentic meaning of the body proper to the person is obscured.

55 Communio personarum (community of persons) The form of the new man can emerge from this way of being and acting, to the extent to which the ethos of the redemption of the body dominates the lust of the flesh and the whole man of temperance and mastery of desires, that is, at the very root, already in the purely interior sphere. The ethos of redemption contains in every area–and directly in the sphere of the lust of the flesh–the imperative of self-control, the necessity of immediate continence and habitual temperance. The form of the new man can emerge from this way of being and acting, to the extent to which the ethos of the redemption of the body dominates the lust of the flesh and the whole man of temperance and mastery of desires, that is, at the very root, already in the purely interior sphere. The ethos of redemption contains in every area–and directly in the sphere of the lust of the flesh–the imperative of self-control, the necessity of immediate continence and habitual temperance.

56 Pius XI Casti Connubi 1931 This mutual inward molding of husband and wife, this determined effort to perfect each other, can in a very real sense, as the Roman Catechism teaches, be said to be the chief reason and purpose of matrimony, provided matrimony be looked at not in the restricted sense as instituted for the proper conception and education of children, but more widely as the blending of life as a whole and the mutual interchange and sharing thereof. This mutual inward molding of husband and wife, this determined effort to perfect each other, can in a very real sense, as the Roman Catechism teaches, be said to be the chief reason and purpose of matrimony, provided matrimony be looked at not in the restricted sense as instituted for the proper conception and education of children, but more widely as the blending of life as a whole and the mutual interchange and sharing thereof.


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