2Objective # 1 Complex (Large) →Simple (Small) Metabolism: all chemical processes necessary to sustain life.A. Anabolism (synthesis): to build, uses up energy.Simple (Small) → Complex (Large)Amino Acids → ProteinsCatabolism (analysis, decomposition): to breakdown, releases energy.Complex (Large) →Simple (Small)Fatty Acids → Acetyl groupsProteins → AA’sGlucose → Carbon dioxide + Water + EnergyBurning fat for energy
3Hydrolysis: chemical breakdown involving water Hydrolysis: chemical breakdown involving water. ATP + Water → ADP + Phosphate Oxidation: combining with oxygen, or losing hydrogens Reduction: gaining electrons or hydrogens Objective #2 C6H12O6 + 6 O ADP + 38 P → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP This is cellular respiration. Objective #3 Complete breakdown of glucose, using O2 takes place in 4 stages. O2 serves as the final hydrogen acceptor and combines with hydrogen to produce water. H2 + O → H2O Stage I (Glycolysis): Glucose (6C) is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules (3C). This stage does not require O2 and it takes place in cytoplasm.
41 glucose → 2 pyruvic acid molecules Stage II (Intermediate Stage): This stage requires O2 , but it does not use oxygen. In this stage, PA (3C) from glycolysis is changed to acetyl group (2C) and CO2. This stage takes place in the matrix ofmitochondria.Stage III (Krebs Cycle): This stage, like stage II requires O2 but does not use it. In this stage, acetyl groups (2C) from stage II are broken down into CO2 and hydrogens are stored on NAD and FAD which act as hydrogen acceptors. This stage takes place in the matrix of mitochondria.Stage IV (Electron Transport System – ETS): This stage requires and uses O2. In this stage all the hydrogens that are stored as NADH2 and FADH2 are taken through the ETS chain of enzymes and their energy is extracted. The extracted energy is put into ATP molecules.The hydrogens, as they emerge from the end of ETS, combine with Oxygen to produce H2OProduction of ATP in this way (in ETS) is called Oxidative Phosphorylation. ATP is made in the presence of oxygen, and where O2 is being used. Some ATP is produced in other stages where oxygen is not involved. ATP production in those stages is by Substrate Phosphorylation. These ATP’s are all the same, only their mode of production is different.Dehdrogenation: Removal of hydorgen from a molecule.Decarboxylation: Removal of CO2 from a molecule.Coenzyme A (Co A): Carries acetyl groups from Intermediate stage to Krebs Cycle.
6Stage IV (ETS): In this stage, the energy stored in the electrons and hydrogens of NADH2 and FADH2 is extracted and put into ATP molecules. This energy extraction is done by a series of enzymes that have an assembly line arrangement. Hydrogens go through the line in pairs and from each pair maximum energy extracted can produce 3 ATP’s.ETS enzymes are Coenzyme Q and Cytochromes which are bound to the cristae of mitochondria.
7Total ATP’s from one glucose by ETS: The energy from each electron pair entering the chain at the very top produces three ATP’s. The e’s from NADH2 enter at the top but FADH2 e’s enter the second step and can only produce 2 ATP’s.Total ATP’s from one glucose by ETS:10 NADH2 x 3 = 30 ATP’s2 FADH2 x 2 = 4 ATP’s▬▬▬▬▬34 ATP’sTotal ATP’s from one glucose by all stages:34: by oxidative phosphorylation (ETS)4: by substrate phosphorylation (glycolysis and Krebs)▬▬38 ATP’s / Glucose: Total by Aerobic RespirationTherefore, ETS generates the most ATP’s and Krebs generates most of the hydrogens used in ETS.Where are the following produced or used?CO2; H2O; O2; NADH2; FADH2; Acetyl groups; ATP’s; Glucose; Citric Acid; Pyruvic Acid
8Objective #4 Glycogen: animal starch Objective #4 Glycogen: animal starch. Large molecule, made up of glucose molecules.Glycogenesis: converting glucose to glycogen. Producing glycogen. Anabolic reaction.Glycogenolysis converting glycogen to glucose. Breakdown of glycogen--catabolic reaction.Gluconeogenesis: forming new sugar from protein, fat, LA, or other non-sugar substances.Lipid CatabolismTriglyceride Glycerol Fatty AcidsThis happens in the intestine. In liver:a. Glycerol (3 C) Glyceraldehyde-3-P GlucoseGlycogenesisBlood Cells Glucose Catabolismb. Fatty Acids Acetyl groups (2 C) by β-oxidationBlood Glucose Glucose catabolism KetonesCells Cells Blood Cells
9Protein Catabolism Proteins Amino Acids in the intestine Blood Liver: Deamination Cells(NH2 NH Urea) (for protein synthesis)The rest of AACells: enters glucose catabolism as acetyls, PA, or an intermediate of the Krebs Cycle.Deamination: removing amino groups in amino acid catabolism.
10Products of Lipid Anabolism Objective #5Products of Lipid Anabolism1. Fatty tissue for insulation and protection2. Phospholipid bilayer in plasma membrane of all cells3. Cholestrol in plasma membrane4. Myelin sheath in nerve cells5. Steroid hormonesProducts of Protein Anabolism1. Muscles2. Bones3. In plasma membrane (integral proteins and receptors)4. Antibodies and hormones5. Hair and nail
11Objective #685% of blood Cholesterol is made in liver and only 15% comes from our food. Cholesterol is a very important nutrient needed for making bile salts, vitamin D, steroid hormones, cell membrane, etc. How cholesterol is transported in our blood and how it is used and disposed will determine if one is at risk for heart and circulatory problems or not.Excess cholesterol and triglycerides are either stored in adipose tissue or destroyed in liver to make bile salts. Lipids are not water soluble and cannot be carried directly in plasma. Binding to Lipoproteins (small lipid-protein complexes) makes them water soluble and can be carried in the plasma. Lipoproteins help carry lipids to cells where they are used up.There are two types of Lipoproteins in our body: Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). LDL is responsible for carrying lipids to cells where they are used up and HDL carries lipids to liver to be broken down and changed to bile salts. Therefore, HDL plays a more beneficial role by helping cholesterol and other fats to be destroyed if there is no more use for them in our body. High levels of HDL and low levels of LDL are desirable. HDL>60 mg/dL, and LDL<70 mg/dLSaturated fats and Trans Fats (hydrogenated oils) stimulate liver into producing more cholesterol rather than destroying it. They are bad news.
12Objective #7There are two types of hormones: Protein Hormones and Lipid Hormones (Steroid Hormones). Lipids can pass through the cell membrane and enter the cell, while protein hormones cannot cross the cell membrane. Therefore, the two types affect their target cell by two different mechanisms.A. Direct Gene Activation: Lipid hormone enters its target cell directly and travels into the nucleus and reacts with a specific gene on a specific chromosome, causing activation of this gene.B. Second-messenger system: Protein hormone cannot enter its target cells. It reacts with specific receptors on the cell membrane. This results in production of cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP acts as a second messenger inside of the cell causing changes in the structure or activities of the cell.
13Insulin (hyperinsulinism) Objective #8DiseaseCauseSymptomsGigantismSTH (GH) in childrenTallDwarfismSTH in ChildrenShortCretinismHypothyroidism and low thyroxin levelsMental retardation, short, disproportionate statureAcromegalySTH in adultsEnlarged facial features, hands, and feetDiabetes MellitusInsulin (hypoinsulinism)Hyperglycemia, fat deposits in arteries, polyureaHypoglycemiaInsulin (hyperinsulinism)Disorientation, convulsions, and death