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PREPARATION OF THE BODY

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Presentation on theme: "PREPARATION OF THE BODY"— Presentation transcript:

1 PREPARATION OF THE BODY
INTERMEDIATE 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION PREPARATION OF THE BODY INFORMATION PACK Name : _____________________________________ Class : _________ Year : ______ -- ______

2 PREPARATION OF THE BODY
AIMS To improve your Performance. To improve your Understanding of Preparation of the Body. PROCESS 1.You will develop an understanding of how fitness assessment relates to personal performance and the demands of activities by learning about : How fitness assessment can contribute to performance and training through the accurate collection and recording of data in standardised tests or full performance contexts. How fitness assessment can contribute to performance and training through identifying strengths and weaknesses in relation to physical, mental or skill related fitness. How test results can help plan and monitor performance improvement. 2.You will develop an understanding of how different types of fitness can be applied in the development of activity specific performance by learning about : The differences between general and activity specific fitness. The benefits of activity specific training programmes. 3.You will develop an understanding of physical, skill-related and mental types of fitness by learning about : Relevant physical, skill-related and mental aspects of fitness. How performance can be improved through activity specific programmes of work. 4.You will develop an understanding of principles and methods of training by learning about : Relevant principles of training. Relevant methods of training to develop one or more aspects of fitness. 5.You will develop an understanding of how to plan, implement and monitor training by learning about : Different phases of training within a single training session and in the longer term. Planning and monitoring progress in pursuit of personal goals. OUTCOMES Improved Performance. Improved Understanding of Preparation of the Body.

3 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPMENT OF FITNESS
To DEVELOP EFFECTIVELY you need to know : How fitness is related to the demands of an activity (NATURE AND PURPOSE). How your fitness rates against the demands of an activity (STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES). How your fitness levels compare to others (FITNESS TESTING / STANDARDISED NORMS). Exactly what specific aspects of fitness you want to improve (TYPES OF FITNESS). The effects that improving fitness will have on your overall performance (BENEFITS). What you hope to achieve by the end of your training programme (LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET). What you hope to achieve by the end of each training session(SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS). That success breeds success (ACHIEVABLE PROGRESSIVE STAGES). What to consider when designing an appropriate training programme (PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING). How often you will train (FREQUENCY). How hard you will train (INTENSITY). How long your training programme, and how long each training session, will last (TIME). (Duration) The dangers of training too hard / too often (OVER TRAINING). How to keep your training challenging and interesting (PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUE). How to prepare for, and recover from, each training session (WARM UP and COOL DOWN). What type of training is best suited to you (METHODS OF TRAINING). The link between your heart rate and your training (TRAINING THRESHOLDS and ZONES). When best to train (PHASES OF TRAINING / TRAINING CYCLES). How you are doing (MONITOR, REVIEW AND EVALUATE PROGRESS).

4 PREPARATION OF THE BODY ANALYSING AND DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
CYCLE OF ANALYSIS STAGE 1 : INVESTIGATE Where you explain how a specific aspect of performance was investigated through gathering and analysing information. You will do this by observing your performance and then gathering data and collating the results of these observations. STAGE 4 : EVALUATE Where you reflect on your planning, effectiveness and benefits of your programme of work completed and discuss your future development needs. You will do this by re-observing and then evaluating your performance. STAGE 2 : ANALYSE Where you explain how knowledge acquired from the study of relevant concepts has helped you to analyse your performance and plan a development programme. You will do this by comparing your performance with a model performance using agreed criteria and then identifying your strengths and weaknesses. STAGE 3 : DEVELOP Where you explain how both the content and suitability of your programme of work were monitored over the period of your training. You will do this by preparing your plan of action and then completing your training programme.

5 PREPARATION OF THE BODY INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE
NATURE AND PURPOSE Different activities place different fitness demands on your body e.g. some activities require lots of strength while others might depend on lots of speed or stamina. STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES To develop effectively, in order that your performances can improve, you need to know how fit, or unfit, you are. You need to know which aspects of your fitness are strong, and which ones are weak, when taking part in an activity. When gathering information about your performance in order to identify strengths and weaknesses, it is important to know the effect that being strong, or weak, in a particular aspect of fitness, has on your overall performance in the activity. When describing how you gathered information, it is important that you describe the context (conditions) of the information gathering. E.G. 10 min long games of Table Tennis singles, 1500m run in Athletics, 30 min game of 7-a-side Football / Hockey. When deciding which area of weakness to develop first, you don’t necessarily have to choose your poorest statistic. You must examine all your data and decide which aspect of fitness, if it was to be developed and improved, would make the biggest difference to your overall performance in the activity. Initial results from information gathered before training can be compared to results gathered after training, provided the context (conditions) of the results gathering process is the same before and after. Comparisons help to measure changes in your performance. You can gather information on your performance in several ways : PERSONAL REFLECTION (What you think about your performance). This involves you taking part in the activity and judging for yourself how fit you think you are. This judgement is based solely on your opinion and requires a degree of understanding about what good fitness in the activity should look like. This type of information gathering is very subjective. It’s purpose is to give you an indication of your strengths and weaknesses. You can reflect on your fitness levels during and / or after your performance. BASIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves an observer watching your performance during the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform. The observer judges your fitness against pre-set performance criteria for each of the aspects of fitness and records, or takes notes, on your success or failure accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. It’s purpose is to objectively identify your strengths and weaknesses. Results from a B.O.S. will guide you to a SPECIFIC ASPECT OF FITNESS that requires attention (development need).

6 PREPARATION OF THE BODY INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE
STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES (continued) SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves an observer watching a specific aspect of fitness as you take part in an activity. The observer watches you very carefully throughout the whole duration of the activity. The observer judges your fitness against pre-set performance criteria for each part of the activity and records your success or failure accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. It’s purpose is to objectively focus in on your particular aspect of fitness during specific stages of the activity. Results from a S.O.S. will provide you with useful pre-training information which, when compared to the relevant post-training information, will help you measure changes in your fitness levels. FITNESS TESTING / STANDARDISED NORMS This involves using recognised fitness tests which have been specifically designed to test particular aspects of your fitness. Some tests have become so well established that lots of results have been gathered through the years. Therefore, tables have been drawn up showing standards for males / females as well as for different age groups. As a result, when you use a STANDARDISED test following the exact test procedures, you can directly judge your test results against the already established standards (NORMS). Most fitness tests are straightforward in their design. Therefore, if you follow all their instructions, you will be able to gather relevant and accurate fitness information. Initial fitness testing can be used as your starting point for a fitness training programme. By using the same fitness tests both during and after your training programme you will be able to measure and compare changes to your fitness levels. Examples of fitness tests : Aspect of Fitness Fitness Tests Cardiorespiratory Endurance 12 Minute Cooper Test, Harvard Step Test, Multi-Stage Fitness (Bleep) Test. Muscular Endurance 5 Minute Sit-Up Test, 2 Minute Press-Up Test Strength Hand Grip Dynamometer Test, 3 Repetition Maximum Test. Speed 30m Sprint Test, Illinois Agility Run Test. Power (Fast Strength) Vertical Jump Test, Standing Long Jump Test. Flexibility (Suppleness) Sit and Reach Test, Trunk Extension Test. All these methods of collecting data will help you to understand your current level of fitness. This in turn will allow you to plan a suitable training programme specific to your needs.

7 PREPARATION OF THE BODY ANALYSING and DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
WHICH ASPECT OF FITNESS REQUIRES TO BE DEVELOPED ? Having gathered appropriate information about your performance you should be in a position to identify the SPECIFIC ASPECT OF FITNESS you want to improve. WHAT WILL BE DIFFERENT ABOUT MY PERFORMANCES IF I IMPROVE THIS ASPECT OF FITNESS ? You must be very aware of the BENEFITS to be gained by improving your fitness. You must be able to describe the positive effects this improvement will bring to your OVERALL performance in the activity. HOW FIT DO I NEED TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN THIS ACTIVITY ? If you hope to improve your performance, you must know what you are aiming for. You must be aware of the fitness levels that a MODEL PERFORMER needs to operate at. If you know what these levels are, you can continually compare your own fitness levels to that of the MODEL PERFORMER and gauge your progress. HOW FAR CAN I DEVELOP THIS ASPECT OF FITNESS BY THE END OF MY TRAINING PROGRAMME ? You may not be able to reach total perfection by the end of your training programme, and you may need more time to further develop your fitness, but you should set yourself a LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET that you hope to reach by the end of your programme. This goal or target should be challenging, but realistically achievable. It should also help to take you closer to the MODEL PERFORMER’S level of fitness. HOW DO I KNOW I AM PROGRESSING TOWARDS MY LONG TERM GOAL ? If you can go from your present level to your target level within the first week of your training then you have not set yourself a very ambitious long term goal. However, if your long term goal is some distance away you need check points along the way to ensure that you are on the right track. These check points are called SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS and should be seen as smaller, achievable, but progressive stages in your development.

8 PREPARATION OF THE BODY INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE
ASPECTS (TYPES) OF FITNESS Aspects of fitness fall into three types : PHYSICAL fitness. SKILL-RELATED fitness. MENTAL fitness. PHYSICAL FITNESS TYPE OF PHYSICAL FITNESS BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING THIS ASPECT OF FITNESS STAMINA CARDIORESPIRATORY (Cardiovascular) ENDURANCE : This is the ability of the whole body to work continuously for long periods of time at a relatively low level of intensity. You need a lot of oxygen to supply working muscles. This means you need to work aerobically. Therefore, your heart and lungs need to be in good working order. You can last longer without becoming breathless. You can keep up with play in attack and defence. You don’t need as many rest periods. You don’t lose concentration as quickly. You don’t make as many mistakes near the end of the game. Your ability to make good decisions doesn’t drop. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE : This is the ability of a muscle, or groups of muscles, to repeat an action over and over again continuously at a relatively low level of intensity without tiring. You can go for longer without your muscles getting tired. You can go for longer without your muscles feeling “heavy”. You can keep performance levels high for longer. You can maintain pace in your performance for longer. SPEED: This is the ability to cover a distance or perform a movement in a short time at a high level of intensity. You can accelerate away from an opponent. You can chase / catch an opponent who has moved away from you. You can move to new positions quickly. STRENGTH This is the ability of a muscle, or group of muscles, to exert maximum force in a single effort. You will be able to kick, pass, throw, hit over longer distances. You will be able to hold off physical challenges from opponents. SUPPLENESS This is the ability of a joint, or joints, to move through a wide range. You will reduce the risk of straining / pulling muscles. You will be able to perform skills with greater efficiency. You will have the capacity to complete actions which require suppleness.

9 PREPARATION OF THE BODY
INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE ASPECTS (TYPES) OF FITNESS (continued) Aspects of fitness fall into three types : SKILL-RELATED FITNESS TYPE OF SKILL-RELATED FITNESS BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING THIS ASPECT OF FITNESS COORDINATION : Is the ability of the brain to link the senses such as sight and hearing to parts of the body in order to produce smooth, quick and efficiently controlled movement. You will use less energy. Your hand and eye coordination will improve making it easier to catch / strike / throw / jump more efficiently and accurately. Your movements will be more fluent and controlled and they will appear effortless. REACTION TIME : Is the ability of the brain to respond to a signal or stimulus. This means making a physical response after seeing or hearing the need to take action. You will think and respond more quickly. You will develop the ability to “read” and predict situations. You will make fewer mistakes. You will have more time to make decisions. AGILITY : Is the ability of the body to move and change direction quickly. You will be able to react quickly in ways which are often unexpected. You will be able to lose / follow players more easily. You will be able to cover areas on the court / pitch more efficiently. BALANCE : Is the ability of the body to remain stable even when moving. This means being able to keep the centre of gravity over the supporting base. You will develop greater fine motor control. You will demonstrate greater control of your strength & body weight. You will show greater control of your body even when moving fast. MENTAL FITNESS TYPE OF MENTAL FITNESS BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING THIS ASPECT OF FITNESS MOTIVATION : This is the ability to want to do well and to improve. You will have a very positive attitude to training and improving. You will be a good role model to others. You will be valued and respected by team mates, teachers, etc. ATTENTION TO DETAIL : (CONCENTRATION / FOCUS) This is the ability to focus on a task and pay attention i.e. to stay tuned in / switched on. You will always be “ready” and alert. You won’t be caught by surprise or taken unawares. You will develop good anticipation and “reading” of situations. You won’t make silly errors / mistakes. DETERMINATION : This is the ability to keep trying and to keep pushing for success throughout a performance. You will become a better performer. You will become a more consistent performer. You will become resilient. Mistakes will drive you, not define you.

10 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING When designing your own personal FITNESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, you must give careful consideration to the following : FITNESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES PHYSICAL Stamina (CardioVascular) Stamina (Muscular Endurance) Speed Strength Suppleness SKILL-RELATED Coordination Reaction Time Agility Balance MENTAL Motivation Attention to detail Determination Specificity Frequency Progressive Overload Intensity Time Over Training Reversibility Tedium SPECIFICITY Training programmes must be SPECIFIC (relevant / meaningful) to the needs of the activity and to the performer’s levels of fitness and ability. e.g. the training needs of a Table Tennis player will be different from those of a Long Jumper or Sprinter, and different again from those of a Football / Hockey player.

11 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING (continued) PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD When you train regularly your body begins to ADAPT (get used to) what you are asking it to do. At this stage your training will have started to feel easier than before. To improve and continue to develop, training programmes must be gradually made PROGRESSIVELY harder. As the performer becomes fitter the training needs to be made gradually more difficult. To become fitter the body must be asked to gradually work harder than normal. This OVERLOADING can be achieved by applying the F.I.T. rules. FREQUENCY This refers to the regularity and routine of your training sessions. You must know HOW OFTEN you are going to train per week. HOW OFTEN you train will vary depending on the time you have available and the demands of your activity. INTENSITY This refers to the relative demands of your training sessions and will vary depending on the demands of your activity. You must know HOW HARD you are going to train during each training session. HOW HARD you train will be determined by : Your current level of fitness and your practical ability. Your stage of learning / previous experience in the activity. The complexity of the skill involved. Time spent working compared to time spent resting (Work : Rest ratio). How many repetitions and sets you complete of a certain drill / practice / routine, etc. The pace you choose to work at during drills / practices / routines / games, etc. TIME (DURATION) This refers to the length of planned time spent training. You must know HOW LONG your development programme will last. i.e. how many training sessions spread out over how many weeks do you plan to use ? Time (Duration) also applies to the length of individual training sessions within a development programme. You must know HOW LONG each training session will last. i.e. how many minutes will you spend warming up, training on your own / with a partner / with a group, playing games and cooling down ?

12 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING (continued) OVER TRAINING With any training programme it is important that you do not OVER TRAIN. This can be avoided by making sure you get proper rest and recovery time during, and between, your training sessions. Giving yourself proper rest and recovery is important and you should exercise care when deciding upon your own rest and recovery times. Over training can be avoided by adapting the levels of Frequency, Intensity and Time within your training. Any of these three factors could result in over training. Regularly reviewing and monitoring your performance and completing a training diary, which records your thoughts about the effectiveness of your training, should be helpful in identifying which (if any) of these three factors could best be adapted to reduce the effects of over training. REVERSIBILITY Exercise improves fitness. If you stop exercising your fitness levels will drop. As you train your muscles get bigger (hypertrophy). When you stop training your muscles get smaller (atrophy). If you stop training then your body will revert (go back) to the condition it was in before you started training. If your training has been short and only over a few sessions then the training benefits will only last for a short time before reversibility occurs. For training which takes place over many months the training benefits last for a longer period. TEDIUM (BOREDOM / FATIGUE) Training must be kept varied and interesting. This will ensure that your performance does not suffer from the adverse effects of BOREDOM and FATIGUE. If you become bored or tired your levels of motivation and concentration will fall resulting in a drop in performance level. You must make sure that your training is meaningful to your level of fitness and ability. PROGRESS to more challenging training when you are ready. Don’t take it easy. Make sure you are working at a suitably demanding level at all times. Apply the principle of Progressive Overload to all your training drills / routines, etc. PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD can be achieved by INCREASING Frequency, Intensity and Time.

13 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
PREPARING to TRAIN All training programmes should include a full WARM UP and COOL DOWN. WARM UP The aim of an effective Warm Up is to GRADUALLY get your whole body prepared for work by Gradually raising your body temperature. Gradually increasing the blood supply to your muscles by gradually raising your pulse rate. Gradually preparing your muscles for the movements they are expected to perform. You need to do all of these things in order to reduce the risk of damage to your muscles, tendons and ligaments. The Warm Up should last minutes and should be organised in 4 stages : Gentle aerobic exercise such as jogging, side-stepping, hopping, etc. Static stretching to increase the length of muscles and improve flexibility of joints. Stronger aerobic / anaerobic exercise to increase body temperature and heart rate further. This should involve practising the actions or movements which are used in the activity including dynamic stretches. Preparing your mind mentally for the activity ahead. COOL DOWN The aim of a Cool Down is to help your body to recover after exercise by Gradually lowering your body temperature. Gradually allowing your heart rate to return to normal. You need to do these things so your blood can get rid of waste products from your muscles. If you have been exercising for a long time, you will have waste (LACTIC ACID) in your muscles. If you leave the waste in your muscles it will cause muscle stiffness and soreness. The Cool Down should last minutes and should be organised in 2 stages : Gentle aerobic exercise such as jogging, side-stepping, etc. Static stretching to increase the length of muscles and improve flexibility of joints.

14 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
METHODS of TRAINING When developing fitness, and for your training to be effective, you need to link the Principles of Training to appropriate METHODS OF TRAINING. The most common training methods are : CONTINUOUS training FARTLEK training INTERVAL training CIRCUIT training WEIGHT training SKILL-RELATED training MENTAL training CONTINUOUS Training Includes : Benefits : Any exercises that get your heart rate operating in your training zone for minutes for 3-4 sessions per week e.g. running, swimming, cycling, etc. Develops cardiorespiratory endurance. Develops aerobic capacity. Straightforward to plan. Progressive overload is achieved by exercising more often (increasing Frequency), by exercising faster (increasing Intensity), or by training for longer (increasing Time). FARTLEK Training Includes : Benefits : Continuous steady-paced work with short intense bursts followed by a slower recovery and then more steady-paced work e.g. running, swimming, cycling, etc. Develops aerobic fitness linked to training zone requirements. Develops anaerobic fitness. Can be varied to suit your own requirements Can be adapted to your training facility. Progressive overload is achieved by exercising more often (increasing Frequency), by exercising faster (increasing Intensity), or by training for longer (increasing Time).

15 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
METHODS of TRAINING (continued) INTERVAL Training Includes : Benefits : Any form of exercise that allows a work / rest interval to be easily calculated e.g. running, swimming, cycling, etc. It is important that the exercises you choose are not ones that are technically difficult. If they are, your skill limitations will make fitness improvement and measurement difficult. Allows high intensity work to be done with limited tiredness occurring. Develops aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Progressive overload is achieved by exercising more often (increasing Frequency), by exercising faster or by decreasing rest intervals (increasing Intensity), or by training for longer (increasing Time). CIRCUIT Training Includes : Benefits : Fixed circuit of set tasks or individual circuit based on individual’s requirements. Multi-station circuit including specific or general exercises. General exercises alternating between different major muscle groups. Planned circuit focussing on specific fitness development. Develops both general and specific fitness. Exercises can be adapted to suit fitness factors WEIGHT Training Includes : Benefits : Isotonic exercises where you move the weight through the range of movement required. Useful for developing dynamic strength. Isometric exercises where you hold and resist against the weight. Useful for developing static strength. Develops both general and specific muscles. Develops muscular endurance as well as strength and power. Straightforward to calculate personal values for exercises e.g. ? %age of 3 rep max depending on what aspect of fitness you want to develop. Progressive overload is achieved by increasing weight or repetitions (Intensity).

16 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
METHODS of TRAINING (continued) SKILL-RELATED Training Includes : Benefits : Any type of physical fitness work which can be adapted to incorporate skills, coordination, reaction time and decision-making opportunities from the activity. Allows skill work to be developed alongside physical fitness. It places physical fitness in the context of game-like situations. Performers are more motivated when the skills of the activity are being developed. MENTAL Training Includes : Benefits : Any practice that helps you to manage your emotions during your performances. By selecting a quiet area away from the performance space, it allows you to focus. It can help you establish a clear picture in your mind of a quality performance. (imagery) It can help break your performance down into manageable parts. You can get yourself into a positive frame of mind which allows you to imagine yourself doing well. (visualisation)

17 PREPARATION OF THE BODY DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
TRAINING THRESHOLDS AND TRAINING ZONES By understanding Training Thresholds and Training Zones, you can ensure that you train the correct energy system at an appropriate intensity. MAX HEART RATE (MHR) = age for men age for women ANAEROBIC TRAINING ZONE (80% + of MHR) Training in this zone will improve the body’s ability to dispose of lactic acid from the muscles. The training time is short as the body is working at a high intensity. AEROBIC TRAINING ZONE (within 60%-80% of MHR) Training in this zone will improve cardiorespiratory fitness and your aerobic capacity. You can work aerobically at a moderate level for long periods of time. LIMITED IMPROVEMENT ZONE (below 60% of MHR) Training in this zone does not overload the body sufficiently and limited improvements in fitness are made as exercise is too easy to make any difference. THE MOST ACCURATE WAY TO CALCULATE YOUR TRAINING ZONE Take your pulse in the morning before getting out of bed to find your true resting heart rate. Your maximum heart rate can be obtained by subtracting your age from 220 (for men), 226 (for women). Subtract your resting heart rate from your maximum heart rate. You then multiply that figure by 0.7 (70%) Now add your resting heart rate to that figure. The figure you now have is the start of your Training Zone (AEROBIC THRESHOLD). To find the end of your Training Zone (ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD) repeat all the steps but use 0.85 (85%) in step 4. REMEMBER. A THRESHOLD is a LINE, a ZONE is an AREA.

18 PREPARATION OF THE BODY
MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS As you develop your fitness for your activity it is important that you plan and monitor your progress as you move towards your personal goals. You must carefully plan your training programme to ensure that your best performance levels coincide with major events. PERIODISATION / PHASES OF TRAINING Your training programme will usually be progressive in order to bring about continuous improvements. You might have to build your long-term planning through PERIODISATION (different training for different times of the year). A PERIODISED training year can be broken down into three main PHASES OF TRAINING. PHASES OF TRAINING PREPARATION (Pre-Season) COMPETITION (Peak / Playing Season) TRANSITION (Recuperation / Off Season) General training is normally used at the beginning of this period. This is followed by specific training when there will be an increase in the intensity of physical fitness work. This could be through more demanding aerobic work or through developing speed, power and other components of physical fitness. Friendly matches are often organised towards the end of this period in preparation for the peak / playing season. During this period you must maintain your physical and skill-related fitness. Your aim is to ensure that you can benefit from your pre-season training during full performance. With the emphasis on speed, skills are practised under pressure to simulate game play so strategies and tactics are perfected. This period marks the divide between the end of one season and the start of a new preparation / pre-season period for a new season. During this period it is important there is a definite break from competitive activity so that your body is able to recover from injuries. However, it is also important to retain a level of general physical fitness during this time. This can be done through light exercise. As the pre-season approaches you can start to build your aerobic fitness and begin specific strength training. TRAINING CYCLES Once you have analysed your training needs you can use what’s called TRAINING CYCLES to ensure your training is working. In other words you can ensure that your own training cycle matches the time of year (Periodisation / Training Phases). The terms MICROCYCLE (Short Term), MESOCYCLE (Medium Term) and MACROCYCLE (Long Term) are used to describe exactly what your training pattern would have to be at particular times of the season.

19 PREPARATION OF THE BODY MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS
When you have identified an Aspect of Fitness you want to develop, and have then gone on to design and complete a training programme to help with that development, you hope the result is a positive one. In other words, you hope that you have become a more effective performer in your activity as a direct result of having improved your targeted Aspect of Fitness. To ensure that your training is meaningful, and that progress is being made, you must MONITOR, REVIEW and EVALUATE your progress. You can do this in 2 ways : During your development programme. After your development programme. DURING YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME As you plan each training session it is worthwhile keeping a TRAINING DIARY to record your thoughts on how each training session goes. This should help you to plan the next session more easily. This type of PERSONAL REFLECTION would include questions like : What progress did I make today? What things went well today? Did I struggle with anything today? Was my training too difficult / easy? How was my motivation and concentration today? What kind of comments did my teacher / training partner make about my work today? Do I need to change anything for my next training session? You should know WHEN, WHY and HOW you made changes to your training.

20 PREPARATION OF THE BODY MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS
AFTER YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME When your development programme has ended it is important for you to know if you have improved, and by how much. By COMPARING your performance results on a BEFORE (PRE) and AFTER (POST) TRAINING basis, you will be able to judge how successful, and beneficial, your development programme has been. COMPARISONS can be made between the following PERSONAL OPINIONS (SUBJECTIVE): PRE and POST training PERSONAL REFLECTION about your overall performance in the activity. COMPARISONS can also be made between the following FACTUAL (OBJECTIVE) data : PRE and POST training SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE results. PRE and POST training FITNESS TEST results. PRE and POST training FITNESS LEVELS when judged against a Model Performer. At the end of your Preparation of the Body Development Programme you should be able to answer the following questions : What level were you performing at before you started training? What level are you performing at now? How has your performance changed? What are you doing now that you were not doing before? What effect have these changes had on your overall performance in the activity? What do you plan to do next to further improve your overall effectiveness in the activity?

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