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St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1

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Presentation on theme: "St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1"— Presentation transcript:

1 St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1
Session 2 Skill Acquisition

2 Skill Characteristics and definitions of skill
Difference between motor and perceptual abilities Difference between skill and ability Types of skill – cognitive, perceptual and psychomotor Classification of skill, use of skill continua (open – closed, discrete – serial – continuous, gross – fine, self paced – externally paced).

3 Characteristics of Skill
Economic Learned Coordinated Goal directed Efficient, effortless Fluent, smooth Predetermined Aesthetic

4 Skill and Ability Ability is……… Skill is…….
Motor abilities are innate inherited traits that determine an individual’s coordination, balance ability and speed of reactions Skill is……. behaviour A learned ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both

5 Motor or Perceptual Ability?
Perceptual – receiving, recognising, selecting, organising information from our senses Motor – Underlying characteristics, innate traits Skills require the combination of two or more of these motor abilities Sometimes knows as psycho-motor abilities Leads to – perceptual skills, psycho-motor skill

6 Psychomotor Abilities
Gross Motor Abilities Dynamic Static Dynamic Flexibility Strength Explosive Trunk Extent

7 Psychomotor Abilities
Reaction Time - Simple, Choice Dexterity -Manual, Finger Limb Coordination Control Precision Rate Control Arm Speed, Wrist Finger Speed Arm Hand Steadiness Aiming

8 Skill Classification Open Closed Gross Fine
Self Paced Externally Paced Discrete Serial Continuous Jan03Q2 Ans

9 Fundamental Motor Skills

10 Information Processing
Input – senses, receptors, proprioception, perception, selective attention Memory – functions and characteristics of short-term sensory store Short-term memory and long-term memory; Strategies to improve memory, chunking, chaining, mental rehearsal and practice Decision making – reaction time, simple reaction time, choice reaction time, Response time, movement time and the relationship between them Anticipation temporal and spatial Factors affecting reaction time, Hick’s law, psychological refractory period, single channel hypothesis Motor programmes and sub routines  Factors affecting efficiency information processing systems & strategies for improvement

11 The Senses Vision (eyes) Most important - 90% of information
Info on movement of objects (ball/ players etc) own position. The Senses Audition (ears) Identification of what we cannot see (team-mate calling for ball) Important in certain sports – hear racket make good strike on ball Proprioception/Kinaethesis (body awareness) Awareness of body’s position in space, sense of balance, limb position, limb movement Touch – feel grip on racket/floor, ball

12 Information Processing Summary
DCR STSS Short-term memory Long-term memory Display Movement/ executive Sensory Input Decision making Perception Selective Attention Feedback Kinaethesis Jan04Q5 badrally Ans

13 Display Perception D C R
Acquiring, selecting , interpreting, and organising sensory information Involves D C R – Detection Comparison Recognition D C R Short-term memory Long-term memory Interpreting and organising Display Sensory Input Perception Acquiring and selecting

14 Feedback Concurrent Intrinsic Extrinsic Negative
Knowledge of performance Terminal Knowledge of Results Positive

15 Feedback – Stages of Learning
Cognitive Associative Autonomous Intrinsic(KP) Extrinsic(KR) Terminal Concurrent Negative Positive June02Q1 Ans

16 Open and Closed Loop Control

17 Decision Making Identify Stimulus Programme Response Select Response
Input Output Short Term Memory Long Term Memory

18 Improving memory Chunking Chaining Mental Rehearsal
Chunking is organising material into meaningful units by breaking information down, thereby greatly increasing recall capacity. Parts of a skill are practised individually, in the correct order, before being linked together and expanded. This allows for the memorising of the whole movement mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects similar to practising the actual movements, including memorising movement sequences.

19 “time between onset of stimulus and initiation of response”
Ans Reaction Time Jan04Q4 “time between onset of stimulus and initiation of response” Movement Time “time from the initiation of the first movement to the end of the movement” Response Time (Reaction Time + Movement Time) “from the onset of the stimulus to the completion of the response action or movement” Reaction Movement Response

20 Can I react faster? Reaction time is affected by the number of stimuli –: Simple reaction time – one stimulus one response Choice reaction time Respond correctly when faced with several stimuli each requiring a different response Respond correctly to a specific stimuli from a choice of many Hicks Law

21 Can I react faster? Compatibility between the stimulus and response
Stimulus intensity If the stimulus is predictable By previous experience or practice – cue detection, set pieces Anticipation Anxiety Management Age Gender

22 Anticipation Event anticipation is the ability to predict what will occur Spatial anticipation - an athlete's ability to predict where an event will occur Temporal anticipation is the ability to predict when the event will occur or the timing of an action

23 Single Channel Hypothesis
0.2 R1 S1 Psychological Refractory Period 0.05 0.15 0.2 S2 R2 0.35 PRP Jan02Q5 Ans

24 From Standing to Scoring the Winning Goal
Sustained Coordinated Skill Performances Sport Specific Skills Fundamental Motor Skills Psychomotor abilities

25 Executive Plan Sub-Routines
Forward Swing Executive Plan Contact Backswing Follow Through Sub-Routines Ball drop Recovery Grip Stance Limb Coordination, Control Precision, Arm Speed, rate Control, Aiming, Trunk Strength, Gross Coordination, Extent Flexibility Motor abilities

26 Learning and Performance
Learning – stages of learning, use of guidance, how feedback differs between the different stages of learning Learning plateaus – causes and solutions Motivation – intrinsic, extrinsic, tangible and intangible Learning theories – operant conditioning, positive and negative reinforcement and punishment Cognitive/insight theories Bandura’s observational model of learning, social learning theory Motor learning –Schmidt’s schema theory (recall, recognition, initial conditions, response specifications, sensory consequences, response outcomes) Transfer of learning (positive, negative, zero, bilateral, proactive and retroactive) o impact of practice on improving learning Goal setting – benefits and types, principles of effective goal setting.

27 How do we get from him….. … him?
Developing and adapting our genetic traits through experience, guidance and maturation from him….. … him?

28 What is learning? A relatively permanent change in behaviour or performance due to past experience and/or practice How is that change in behaviour achieved? Does it happen all at once?

29 Learning Theories Get into pairs Make 3 paper balls
Learn to juggle in pairs by using each of the learning theories or forms of guidance Stimulus response Observational learning Schema theory Verbal Visual Mechanical

30 Operant Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist Theories
Associating a stimulus Shaping with a response Making a connection between a stimulus and a response S R June03Q5 S R bond Ans

31 Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist Theories
Bond formed by success/reward Positive reinforcement - strengthens bond S R Negative reinforcement – strengthens bond – withdraw aversive actions Punishment – weakens the bond June02Q2 Ans volleyball

32 Thorndike’s Laws of Learning
Law of Readiness – physically and mentally ready/able to do task Law of Exercise – bond strengthened by repetition of stimulus/action reinforcement Practice Law of Effect – if the effect is good it will be repeated S R

33 Cognitive Theories Periods of rapid progression and plateau
Insightfulness Cognitive Theories Not S R Understanding of relationship between process and outcome Constant reorganisation of response in the light of new experiences

34 Observational Learning/Modelling
Important cues Model characteristics Concentration span Receiving and processing stimuli Attention Retention Mental rehearsal Physically able Feedback Motor reproduction Athletic performance Motivation Performance June02Q5 Ans

35 Schmidt’s Schema Theory
Schema – a set of rules/relationships that allow the performer to decide upon a solution to a problem Learning is derived from past experience and an understanding of the new situation Does not accept that there is a motor programme for every physical action Ans Jan04Q3

36 Response Specification
Recall Schema Recognition Schema Initial Conditions Where we are – knowledge of environment Body Position Limb Position Sensory Consequences Sensory Feedback During and after movement Use of all senses KP Response Specification What have I got to do? Direction Speed Force Response Outcomes Compare actual with intended outcome KR

37 Recall Schema Recognition Schema What is my goal? Where am I starting?
How close did I get? KR Modify my response Select and adapt a response Recognition Schema Perform a motor action What does it feel like? KP

38 Stages of Learning Cognitive Associative Autonomous Beginner
June04Q3 badsmash Cognitive Associative Autonomous Beginner Understanding what to do Cognitive images Initial plan of action Directed to important aspects Short phase Almost automatic Performed easily Little conscious control, habitual Consistent, highly skilled Detect & correct errors Can give attention to other aspects of display Practice Phase Basics acquired Smoother, less errors Can detect gross errors Longer phase Variety of conditions

39 Transfer of Learning Positive Bi-lateral Old – New Situation Zero
Retroactive Pro-active Negative

40 Highlight important cues
Forms of Guidance Mental Image Accurate Use with visual Visual Early Stages Verbal Highlight important cues Cue words Demo’s On own with experts Physical Restriction Safety Manual/mechanical Jan05Q4 Forced Response Early Stages Remedial Ans

41 Motivation is why people do what they do
Jan02Q1 Ans Motivation is why people do what they do Internal mechanisms - our inner drives towards achieving a goal or outcome; External stimuli mean the pressures and rewards that we gain, seek or avoid, from those around us Arousal means how intense is our behaviour.

42 Motivation Table tennis Intrinsic – from within – participation for sheer fun/enjoyment (self-satisfaction); Extrinsic – from without/outside – playing for rewards External reward Tangible –concrete, such as badges and medals; Intangible – untouchable such as praise from others

43 Motivation The vast majority of research into motivation has concluded that intrinsic motivation is far better than extrinsic Performer may end up doing the activity just for the reward; Enjoyment of the activity is lost; Extrinsic reward if not valued will not develop intrinsic motivation; Extrinsic rewards can lose their power

44 Skill acquisition in practical situations
Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the following factors and explain how to improve performance Factors to consider when developing skill and planning training/coaching sessions Teaching styles – command, reciprocal, discovery and problem solving Methods of presenting practice; whole, progressive part and whole-part-whole. Types of practice: massed, distributed, variable and mental practice. Methods of guidance: verbal, visual, manual and mechanical Feedback – types of feedback, Knowledge of Performance, Knowledge of Results, terminal, concurrent, delayed, positive and negative, intrinsic, extrinsic

45 Spectrum of teaching styles Adapted from Mosston & Ashworth
A B C D E F G H I J Teachers decisions Learners decisions

46 Games for understanding
Game Appreciation Performance Learner Tactical Awareness Skill execution Making appropriate decisions What to do How to do

47 Schema Theory - Teaching Implications
To develop recall schema Practice in a wide variety of situations Use appropriate type of feedback to develop recognition schema Schema Theory relevant to both learning new responses and adapting old responses to new situations Knowledge of wide variety of situations allows variety of response More successful response

48 Organising Practice New Skill Practice time is short Simple Skill
Low motivation Young learners - short attention To simulate fatigue Massed Distributed Adverse conditions Learners are able, fit and experienced Highly motivated learner Complex Skill Fatigue may be dangerous June05Q5 Ans

49 Motivation & Practice Challenging, Interesting, Attainable, Relevant, Evaluated Beginners Understand the relevance of training drills; Receive positive feedback based on knowledge of results; Selective simple feedback on knowledge of performance. Skilled performers Knowledge of performance regarding fine precise movements; Help in developing kinaesthetic feedback; Some Negative feedback.

50 Types of goals Outcome goals – relates to end result
More unpredictable, less controlled, chose easy win/lose situations, lose motivation quickly Performance goals – relates to performance judged against other performances – better the last performance e.g. time Feel in control, selects realistic tasks, defeat not major set back – better. Process goals – relates to technique or tactics Similar to performance goals

51 Goal Setting specific S M A measurable R T achievable recorded
Why? How? specific Milestones/Targets Clear route Motivational Develops self-efficacy Helps monitor progress S M A R T measurable achievable recorded time bound Ans Jan05Q1

52 Goal-setting Benefits: Makes performer persist
Focuses attention on certain skills - directs Motivates – sustains, diversifies Boosts confidence Reduces stress Helps achievement of long-term goals Reduces anxiety

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