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St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 2 Skill Acquisition.

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Presentation on theme: "St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 2 Skill Acquisition."— Presentation transcript:

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2 St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 2 Skill Acquisition

3 Skill Characteristics and definitions of skill Difference between motor and perceptual abilities Difference between skill and ability Types of skill – cognitive, perceptual and psychomotor Classification of skill, use of skill continua (open – closed, discrete – serial – continuous, gross – fine, self paced – externally paced).

4 Characteristics of Skill Learned Aesthetic Economic Efficient, effortless Goal directed Fluent, smooth Coordinated Predetermined

5 Skill is……. A learned ability to bring about pre- determined results with maximum certainty often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both behaviour Ability is……… Motor abilities are innate inherited traits that determine an individual’s coordination, balance ability and speed of reactions Skill and Ability

6 Motor or Perceptual Ability? Skills require the combination of two or more of these motor abilities Sometimes knows as psycho-motor abilities Leads to – perceptual skills, psycho-motor skill Perceptual – receiving, recognising, selecting, organising information from our senses Motor – Underlying characteristics, innate traits

7 Psychomotor Abilities Gross Motor Abilities Strength Flexibility Extent Dynamic Static Explosive Dynamic Trunk

8 Psychomotor Abilities Reaction Time - Simple, Choice Dexterity -Manual, Finger Limb Coordination Control Precision Rate Control Arm Speed, Wrist Finger Speed Arm Hand Steadiness Aiming

9 Skill Classification OpenClosed GrossFine Self PacedExternally Paced DiscreteSerialContinuous Jan03Q2 Ans

10 Fundamental Motor Skills

11 Information Processing Input – senses, receptors, proprioception, perception, selective attention Memory – functions and characteristics of short-term sensory store Short-term memory and long-term memory; Strategies to improve memory, chunking, chaining, mental rehearsal and practice Decision making – reaction time, simple reaction time, choice reaction time, Response time, movement time and the relationship between them Anticipation temporal and spatial Factors affecting reaction time, Hick’s law, psychological refractory period, single channel hypothesis Motor programmes and sub routines Factors affecting efficiency information processing systems & strategies for improvement

12 Proprioception/Kinaethesis (body awareness) Awareness of body’s position in space, sense of balance, limb position, limb movement Touch – feel grip on racket/floor, ball Vision (eyes) Most important - 90% of information Info on movement of objects (ball/ players etc) own position. Audition (ears) Identification of what we cannot see (team-mate calling for ball) Important in certain sports – hear racket make good strike on ball

13 Short-term memory Long-term memory Movem ent/ executi ve Feedback Decision making Perception Sensory Input Selective Attention DCR STSS Jan04Q5badrally Ans Kinaethesis

14 Perception Acquiring, selecting, interpreting, and organising sensory information Involves D C R – Detection Comparison Recognition Short-term memory Long-term memory Perception Sensory Input Acquiring and selecting Interpreting and organising D C R

15 Feedback Concurrent Intrinsic Extrinsic Terminal Positive Negative Knowledge of Results Knowledge of performance

16 Feedback – Stages of Learning Cognitive Associative Autonomous Intrinsic(KP) Extrinsic(KR) TerminalConcurrent Positive Negative June02Q1 Ans

17 Open and Closed Loop Control

18 Decision Making Input Identify Stimulus Select Response Programme Response Output Long Term Memory Short Term Memory

19 Improving memory Chunking Chaining Mental Rehearsal Chunking is organising material into meaningful units by breaking information down, thereby greatly increasing recall capacity. Parts of a skill are practised individually, in the correct order, before being linked together and expanded. This allows for the memorising of the whole movement mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects similar to practising the actual movements, including memorising movement sequences.

20 Movement Time Reaction Time Response Time “time between onset of stimulus and initiation of response” “time from the initiation of the first movement to the end of the movement” “from the onset of the stimulus to the completion of the response action or movement” (Reaction Time + Movement Time) Reaction Movement Response Jan04Q4 Ans

21 Reaction time is affected by the number of stimuli –: Can I react faster? Simple reaction time – one stimulus one response Hicks Law Choice reaction time Respond correctly when faced with several stimuli each requiring a different response Respond correctly to a specific stimuli from a choice of many

22 Can I react faster? Compatibility between the stimulus and response By previous experience or practice – cue detection, set pieces Anticipation If the stimulus is predictable Stimulus intensity Age Gender Anxiety Management

23 Anticipation Spatial anticipation - an athlete's ability to predict where an event will occur Temporal anticipation is the ability to predict when the event will occur or the timing of an action Event anticipation is the ability to predict what will occur

24 S1 S2 R1 R2 0.2 0.050.150.2 0.35 S2 PRP Jan02Q5Ans Single Channel Hypothesis Psychological Refractory Period

25 Psychomotor abilities Fundamental Motor Skills Sport Specific Skills Sustained Coordinated Skill Performances From Standing to Scoring the Winning Goal

26 Limb Coordination, Control Precision, Arm Speed, rate Control, Aiming, Trunk Strength, Gross Coordination, Extent Flexibility Sub- Routines Executive Plan Grip Stance Ball drop Backswing Forward Swing Contact Follow Through Recovery Motor abilities

27 Learning and Performance Learning – stages of learning, use of guidance, how feedback differs between the different stages of learning Learning plateaus – causes and solutions Motivation – intrinsic, extrinsic, tangible and intangible Learning theories – operant conditioning, positive and negative reinforcement and punishment Cognitive/insight theories Bandura’s observational model of learning, social learning theory Motor learning –Schmidt’s schema theory (recall, recognition, initial conditions, response specifications, sensory consequences, response outcomes) Transfer of learning (positive, negative, zero, bilateral, proactive and retroactive) o impact of practice on improving learning Goal setting – benefits and types, principles of effective goal setting.

28 How do we get …..to him?from him….. Developing and adapting our genetic traits through experience, guidance and maturation

29 What is learning? A relatively permanent change in behaviour or performance due to past experience and/or practice How is that change in behaviour achieved? Does it happen all at once?

30 Learning Theories Get into pairs Make 3 paper balls Learn to juggle in pairs by using each of the learning theories or forms of guidance Stimulus response Observational learning Schema theory Verbal Visual Mechanical

31 Making a connection between a stimulus and a response Operant Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist Theories June03Q5 Associating a stimulus with a response S R bond Ans Shaping

32 Bond formed by success/reward Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist Theories Positive reinforcement - strengthens bond Punishment – weakens the bond Negative reinforcement – strengthens bond – withdraw aversive actions June02Q2 volleyballAns

33 Law of Readiness – physically and mentally ready/able to do task Thorndike’s Laws of Learning Law of Effect – if the effect is good it will be repeated Law of Exercise – bond strengthened by repetition of stimulus/action reinforcement

34 Cognitive Theories Understanding of relationship between process and outcome Insightfulness Periods of rapid progression and plateau Constant reorganisation of response in the light of new experiences Not S R

35 Observational Learning/Modelling Observation Attention Motivation Performance Retention Motor reproduction Receiving and processing stimuli Athletic performance Important cues Model characteristics Concentration span Mental rehearsal Physically able Feedback June02Q5 Ans

36 Schmidt’s Schema Theory Schema – a set of rules/relationships that allow the performer to decide upon a solution to a problem Does not accept that there is a motor programme for every physical action Learning is derived from past experience and an understanding of the new situation Jan04Q3 Ans

37 Recognition Schema Recall Schema Initial Conditions Where we are – knowledge of environment Body Position Limb Position Response Specification What have I got to do? Direction Speed Force Sensory Consequences Sensory Feedback During and after movement Use of all senses KP Response Outcomes Compare actual with intended outcome KR

38 Where am I starting? What is my goal? Select and adapt a response Perform a motor action How close did I get? KR What does it feel like? KP Modify my response Recall Schema Recognition Schema

39 Stages of Learning CognitiveAssociativeAutonomous Beginner Understanding what to do Cognitive images Initial plan of action Directed to important aspects Short phase Practice Phase Basics acquired Smoother, less errors Can detect gross errors Longer phase Variety of conditions Almost automatic Performed easily Little conscious control, habitual Consistent, highly skilled Detect & correct errors Can give attention to other aspects of display June04Q3badsmash

40 Transfer of Learning Positive Pro-active Bi-lateral Zero Negative Retroactive Old – New Situation

41 Forms of Guidance Visual Verbal Manual/mechanical Early Stages Demo’s Accurate Highlight important cues Mental Image Use with visual On own with experts Cue words Early StagesRemedial Safety Physical Restriction Forced Response Jan05Q4 Ans

42 Motivation Motivation is why people do what they do Arousal means how intense is our behaviour. Internal mechanisms - our inner drives towards achieving a goal or outcome; External stimuli mean the pressures and rewards that we gain, seek or avoid, from those around us Jan02Q1 Ans

43 Motivation Intrinsic – from within – participation for sheer fun/enjoyment (self-satisfaction); Extrinsic – from without/outside – playing for rewards Intangible – untouchable such as praise from others Table tennis External reward Tangible –concrete, such as badges and medals;

44 Motivation The vast majority of research into motivation has concluded that intrinsic motivation is far better than extrinsic Performer may end up doing the activity just for the reward; Enjoyment of the activity is lost; Extrinsic reward if not valued will not develop intrinsic motivation; Extrinsic rewards can lose their power

45 Skill acquisition in practical situations Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the following factors and explain how to improve performance Factors to consider when developing skill and planning training/coaching sessions Teaching styles – command, reciprocal, discovery and problem solving Methods of presenting practice; whole, progressive part and whole- part-whole. Types of practice: massed, distributed, variable and mental practice. Methods of guidance: verbal, visual, manual and mechanical Feedback – types of feedback, Knowledge of Performance, Knowledge of Results, terminal, concurrent, delayed, positive and negative, intrinsic, extrinsic

46 Spectrum of teaching styles Adapted from Mosston & Ashworth A B C D E F G H I J Teachers decisions Learners decisions

47 Games for understanding Game Game Appreciation Performance Tactical Awareness Skill execution Learner Making appropriate decisions What to do How to do

48 Schema Theory - Teaching Implications To develop recall schema Practice in a wide variety of situations Knowledge of wide variety of situations allows variety of response More successful response Use appropriate type of feedback to develop recognition schema Schema Theory relevant to both learning new responses and adapting old responses to new situations

49 Organising Practice Massed Distributed Simple Skill Highly motivated learner Practice time is short Learners are able, fit and experienced To simulate fatigue New Skill Complex Skill Fatigue may be dangerous Young learners - short attention Low motivation Adverse conditions June05Q5 Ans

50 Motivation & Practice Challenging, Interesting, Attainable, Relevant, Evaluated Beginners Understand the relevance of training drills; Receive positive feedback based on knowledge of results; Selective simple feedback on knowledge of performance. Skilled performers Knowledge of performance regarding fine precise movements; Help in developing kinaesthetic feedback; Some Negative feedback.

51 Types of goals Outcome goals – relates to end result More unpredictable, less controlled, chose easy win/lose situations, lose motivation quickly Performance goals – relates to performance judged against other performances – better the last performance e.g. time Feel in control, selects realistic tasks, defeat not major set back – better. Process goals – relates to technique or tactics Similar to performance goals

52 Goal Setting S M A R T specific measurable achievable recorded time bound How? Why? Jan05Q1 Milestones/Targets Clear route Motivational Develops self-efficacy Helps monitor progress Ans

53 Goal-setting Benefits: Makes performer persist Focuses attention on certain skills - directs Motivates – sustains, diversifies Boosts confidence Reduces stress Helps achievement of long-term goals Reduces anxiety


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