Presentation on theme: "St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1"— Presentation transcript:
1 St John’s PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 2Skill Acquisition
2 Skill Characteristics and definitions of skill Difference between motor and perceptual abilitiesDifference between skill and abilityTypes of skill – cognitive, perceptual and psychomotorClassification of skill, use of skill continua (open – closed, discrete – serial – continuous, gross – fine, self paced – externally paced).
3 Characteristics of Skill EconomicLearnedCoordinatedGoal directedEfficient,effortlessFluent, smoothPredeterminedAesthetic
4 Skill and Ability Ability is……… Skill is……. Motor abilities are innate inherited traits that determine an individual’s coordination, balance ability and speed of reactionsSkill is…….behaviourA learned ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both
5 Motor or Perceptual Ability? Perceptual – receiving, recognising, selecting, organising information from our sensesMotor – Underlying characteristics, innate traitsSkills require the combination of two or more of these motor abilities Sometimes knows as psycho-motor abilities Leads to – perceptual skills, psycho-motor skill
6 Psychomotor Abilities Gross Motor AbilitiesDynamicStaticDynamicFlexibilityStrengthExplosiveTrunkExtent
7 Psychomotor Abilities Reaction Time - Simple, ChoiceDexterity -Manual, FingerLimb CoordinationControl PrecisionRate ControlArm Speed, Wrist Finger SpeedArm Hand Steadiness Aiming
8 Skill Classification Open Closed Gross Fine Self Paced Externally PacedDiscrete Serial ContinuousJan03Q2Ans
10 Information Processing Input – senses, receptors, proprioception, perception, selective attentionMemory – functions and characteristics of short-term sensory storeShort-term memory and long-term memory;Strategies to improve memory, chunking, chaining, mental rehearsal and practiceDecision making – reaction time, simple reaction time, choice reaction time,Response time, movement time and the relationship between themAnticipation temporal and spatialFactors affecting reaction time, Hick’s law, psychological refractory period, single channel hypothesisMotor programmes and sub routines Factors affecting efficiency information processing systems & strategies for improvement
11 The Senses Vision (eyes) Most important - 90% of information Info on movement of objects (ball/ players etc) own position.The SensesAudition (ears)Identification of what we cannot see (team-mate calling for ball)Important in certain sports – hear racket make good strike on ballProprioception/Kinaethesis (body awareness)Awareness of body’s position in space, sense of balance, limb position, limb movementTouch – feel grip on racket/floor, ball
12 Information Processing Summary DCRSTSSShort-term memoryLong-term memoryDisplayMovement/executiveSensory InputDecision makingPerceptionSelective AttentionFeedbackKinaethesisJan04Q5badrallyAns
13 Display Perception D C R Acquiring, selecting , interpreting, and organising sensory informationInvolves D C R – Detection Comparison RecognitionD C RShort-term memoryLong-term memoryInterpreting and organisingDisplaySensory InputPerceptionAcquiring and selecting
14 Feedback Concurrent Intrinsic Extrinsic Negative Knowledge of performanceTerminalKnowledge of ResultsPositive
15 Feedback – Stages of Learning CognitiveAssociativeAutonomousIntrinsic(KP)Extrinsic(KR)TerminalConcurrentNegativePositiveJune02Q1Ans
17 Decision Making Identify Stimulus Programme Response Select Response InputOutputShort Term MemoryLong Term Memory
18 Improving memory Chunking Chaining Mental Rehearsal Chunking is organising material into meaningful units by breaking information down, thereby greatly increasing recall capacity.Parts of a skill are practised individually, in the correct order, before being linked together and expanded. This allows for the memorising of the whole movementmental rehearsal of movement can produce effects similar to practising the actual movements, including memorising movement sequences.
19 “time between onset of stimulus and initiation of response” AnsReaction TimeJan04Q4“time between onset of stimulus and initiation of response”Movement Time“time from the initiation of the first movement to the end of the movement”Response Time(Reaction Time + Movement Time)“from the onset of the stimulus to the completion of the response action or movement”ReactionMovementResponse
20 Can I react faster?Reaction time is affected by the number of stimuli –:Simple reaction time – one stimulus one responseChoice reaction timeRespond correctly when faced with several stimuli each requiring a different responseRespond correctly to a specific stimuli from a choice of manyHicks Law
21 Can I react faster? Compatibility between the stimulus and response Stimulus intensityIf the stimulus is predictableBy previous experience or practice – cue detection, set piecesAnticipationAnxiety ManagementAgeGender
22 AnticipationEvent anticipation is the ability to predict what will occurSpatial anticipation - an athlete's ability to predict where an event will occurTemporal anticipation is the ability to predict when the event will occur or the timing of an action
23 Single Channel Hypothesis 0.2R1S1Psychological Refractory Period0.050.150.2S2R20.35PRPJan02Q5Ans
24 From Standing to Scoring the Winning Goal Sustained Coordinated Skill PerformancesSport Specific SkillsFundamental Motor SkillsPsychomotor abilities
25 Executive Plan Sub-Routines Forward SwingExecutive PlanContactBackswingFollow ThroughSub-RoutinesBall dropRecoveryGripStanceLimb Coordination, Control Precision, Arm Speed, rate Control, Aiming, Trunk Strength, Gross Coordination, Extent FlexibilityMotor abilities
26 Learning and Performance Learning – stages of learning, use of guidance, how feedback differs between the different stages of learningLearning plateaus – causes and solutionsMotivation – intrinsic, extrinsic, tangible and intangibleLearning theories – operant conditioning, positive and negative reinforcement and punishmentCognitive/insight theoriesBandura’s observational model of learning, social learning theoryMotor learning –Schmidt’s schema theory (recall, recognition, initial conditions, response specifications, sensory consequences, response outcomes)Transfer of learning (positive, negative, zero, bilateral, proactive and retroactive) o impact of practice on improving learningGoal setting – benefits and types, principles of effective goal setting.
27 How do we get from him….. …..to him? Developing and adapting our genetic traits through experience, guidance and maturationfrom him…..…..to him?
28 What is learning?A relatively permanent change in behaviour or performance due to past experience and/or practiceHow is that change in behaviour achieved?Does it happen all at once?
29 Learning Theories Get into pairs Make 3 paper balls Learn to juggle in pairs by using each of the learning theories or forms of guidanceStimulus responseObservational learningSchema theoryVerbalVisualMechanical
30 Operant Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist Theories Associating a stimulusShapingwith a responseMaking a connection between a stimulus and a responseSRJune03Q5S R bondAns
31 Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist Theories Bond formed by success/rewardPositive reinforcement - strengthens bondSRNegative reinforcement – strengthens bond – withdraw aversive actionsPunishment – weakens the bondJune02Q2Ansvolleyball
32 Thorndike’s Laws of Learning Law of Readiness – physically and mentally ready/able to do taskLaw of Exercise – bond strengthened by repetition of stimulus/action reinforcementPracticeLaw of Effect – if the effect is good it will be repeatedSR
33 Cognitive Theories Periods of rapid progression and plateau InsightfulnessCognitive TheoriesNot S RUnderstanding of relationship between process and outcomeConstant reorganisation of response in the light of new experiences
34 Observational Learning/Modelling Important cuesModel characteristicsConcentration spanReceiving and processing stimuliAttentionRetentionMental rehearsalPhysically ableFeedbackMotor reproductionAthletic performanceMotivationPerformanceJune02Q5Ans
35 Schmidt’s Schema Theory Schema – a set of rules/relationships that allow the performer to decide upon a solution to a problemLearning is derived from past experience and an understanding of the new situationDoes not accept that there is a motor programme for every physical actionAnsJan04Q3
36 Response Specification Recall SchemaRecognition SchemaInitial ConditionsWhere we are – knowledge of environmentBody PositionLimb PositionSensory ConsequencesSensory FeedbackDuring and after movementUse of all sensesKPResponse SpecificationWhat have I got to do?DirectionSpeedForceResponse OutcomesCompare actual with intended outcomeKR
37 Recall Schema Recognition Schema What is my goal? Where am I starting? How close did I get? KRModify my responseSelect and adapt a responseRecognition SchemaPerform a motor actionWhat does it feel like? KP
38 Stages of Learning Cognitive Associative Autonomous Beginner June04Q3badsmashCognitive Associative AutonomousBeginnerUnderstanding what to doCognitive imagesInitial plan of actionDirected to important aspectsShort phaseAlmost automaticPerformed easilyLittle conscious control, habitualConsistent, highly skilledDetect & correct errorsCan give attention to other aspects of displayPractice PhaseBasics acquiredSmoother, less errorsCan detect gross errorsLonger phaseVariety of conditions
39 Transfer of Learning Positive Bi-lateral Old – New Situation Zero RetroactivePro-activeNegative
40 Highlight important cues Forms of GuidanceMental ImageAccurateUse with visualVisualEarly StagesVerbalHighlight important cuesCue wordsDemo’sOn own with expertsPhysical RestrictionSafetyManual/mechanicalJan05Q4Forced ResponseEarly StagesRemedialAns
41 Motivation is why people do what they do Jan02Q1AnsMotivation is why people do what they doInternal mechanisms - our inner drives towards achieving a goal or outcome;External stimuli mean the pressures and rewards that we gain, seek or avoid, from those around usArousal means how intense is our behaviour.
42 MotivationTable tennisIntrinsic – from within – participation for sheer fun/enjoyment (self-satisfaction);Extrinsic – from without/outside – playing for rewardsExternal rewardTangible –concrete, such as badges and medals;Intangible – untouchable such as praise from others
43 MotivationThe vast majority of research into motivation has concluded that intrinsic motivation is far better than extrinsicPerformer may end up doing the activity just for the reward; Enjoyment of the activity is lost;Extrinsic reward if not valued will not develop intrinsic motivation;Extrinsic rewards can lose their power
44 Skill acquisition in practical situations Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the following factors and explain how to improve performanceFactors to consider when developing skill and planning training/coaching sessionsTeaching styles – command, reciprocal, discovery and problem solvingMethods of presenting practice; whole, progressive part and whole-part-whole.Types of practice: massed, distributed, variable and mental practice.Methods of guidance: verbal, visual, manual and mechanicalFeedback – types of feedback, Knowledge of Performance, Knowledge of Results, terminal, concurrent, delayed, positive and negative, intrinsic, extrinsic
45 Spectrum of teaching styles Adapted from Mosston & Ashworth A B C D E F G H I JTeachers decisionsLearners decisions
46 Games for understanding Game AppreciationPerformanceLearnerTactical AwarenessSkill executionMaking appropriate decisionsWhat to doHow to do
47 Schema Theory - Teaching Implications To develop recall schemaPractice in a wide variety of situationsUse appropriate type of feedback to develop recognition schemaSchema Theory relevant to both learning new responses and adapting old responses to new situationsKnowledge of wide variety of situations allows variety of responseMore successful response
48 Organising Practice New Skill Practice time is short Simple Skill Low motivationYoung learners -short attentionTo simulate fatigueMassedDistributedAdverse conditionsLearners are able, fit and experiencedHighly motivatedlearnerComplex SkillFatigue may be dangerousJune05Q5Ans
49 Motivation & PracticeChallenging, Interesting, Attainable, Relevant, EvaluatedBeginnersUnderstand the relevance of training drills;Receive positive feedback based on knowledge of results;Selective simple feedback on knowledge of performance.Skilled performersKnowledge of performance regarding fine precise movements;Help in developing kinaesthetic feedback;Some Negative feedback.
50 Types of goals Outcome goals – relates to end result More unpredictable, less controlled, chose easy win/lose situations, lose motivation quicklyPerformance goals – relates to performance judged against other performances – better the last performance e.g. timeFeel in control, selects realistic tasks, defeat not major set back – better.Process goals – relates to technique or tacticsSimilar to performance goals
51 Goal Setting specific S M A measurable R T achievable recorded Why?How?specificMilestones/TargetsClear routeMotivationalDevelops self-efficacyHelps monitor progressSMARTmeasurableachievablerecordedtime boundAnsJan05Q1
52 Goal-setting Benefits: Makes performer persist Focuses attention on certain skills - directsMotivates – sustains, diversifiesBoosts confidenceReduces stressHelps achievement of long-term goalsReduces anxiety