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St Johns PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 1b Opportunities for participation Provision and Barriers.

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Presentation on theme: "St Johns PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 1b Opportunities for participation Provision and Barriers."— Presentation transcript:

1 St Johns PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 1b Opportunities for participation Provision and Barriers

2 Providing for active leisure – who does what? Characteristics and goals of the public, private and voluntary sectors Advantages and disadvantages of each Concept of ‘best value’ in the public sector The role of schools

3 Recreation – Who Provides? Who Provides? National Government Voluntary Sector Private Sector Local Authority Compulsory Tendering Best Value, PFI Taxes Policies Sport Eng Q3

4 Public Sector Multi-Sport – Leisure Centres Pools Outdoor sport facilities Parks Adventure playgrounds Skateboard parks Dual use sports halls Public Good Paid from taxation Lottery Social provision - disadvantaged Subsidised Use Local Authority Leisure Plans Development/Refurbishment of facilities Targeting under represented groupsCommunity Health

5 Private Sector Small – medium size facilities Specialist areas – squash, health & fitness Profit driven – high value services High quality – high cost Cherry pick – leave large high cost to public sector No public service committment

6 Voluntary Sector Not for profit Provision for members + social responsibility remit Volunteer organisers 5 million people, 1 billion hours Clubs – some very exclusive Facilities – owned, leased, rented Players pay to pay Annual subscription Funded by bar/social club, fund raising Lottery/Local Authority grant aided Sport Clubs – all sports! Ramblers, Environmental groups Cycling clubs, jogging clubs

7 Best Value Designed to drive up the quality of provision in the public sector and use money more efficiently Compulsory Competitive Tendering Tendering against private sector 2000 – Best Value Challenge, Consult, Compare, Compete Both strategies have resulted in improvement in public services Q4

8 Advantages - Disadvantages React quickly to meet a demand Can meet individual needs Can restrict membership Costs of joining are relatively high Restriction on numbers will mean that some people are unable to join Social exclusivity or actual discrimination against certain groups A sport may suffer from exclusivity image

9 Advantages - Disadvantages Huge range of activities at all levels People with enthusiasm and drive can provide the opportunity Costs are very low so rarely an economic disincentive Financial support from local and national government, and local business sponsorship Unplanned and relatively uncontrolled No equal opportunities remit Continuity cannot be guaranteed Financial support from national and local bodies cannot be guaranteed It can still be socially exclusive

10 Advantages - Disadvantages This sector must act in the public good for the local community - must provide physical recreation facilities Resources allocated from local and national taxation No need to make a commercial profit –can make loss if in the public or community interest Funds limited by national and local tax policies L. Authorities in disadvantaged areas have less money to spend L. Authorities cannot borrow money so easily to invest in facilities for the future

11 Participation - the role of schools Characteristics of each Nat Curric Key Stage Objectives of each NC Key Stage What schools provide and the impact on pupils’ experiences Development of school club links – PESSCLS, Whole Sport plans School Sports Co-ordinator, Sports Colleges Active Sports Sports Leaders UK TOPS programme Benefits to individuals, community and government

12 PE – National Curriculum Aims Physical confidence, skilfullness and competence Opportunities to be creative, competitive and challenged Positive attitudes towards active, healthy lifestyles..knowledge of the body in action Plan, Perform and Evaluate actions – ‘critical performer’ Discover aptitudes, abilities and preferences, choices about lifelong physical activity. Opportunities for all Jan07Q2 Ans Perform in a range of activities

13 NC Structure Key Stages 1-4 (Y0-2, Y3-6, Y7-9, Y10-11) Content areas – Games, athletic activities, swim, gymnastics, dance, outdoor & adventure Theoretical and Practical elements Progression from general > specialised Areas of Assessment End of KS Levels – statements – Levels Exceptional achievement

14 PE NC- Structure - March 2009 KS1 – dance, games, gym KS2 – dance, games, gym + 2 from swim, athletic, outdoor/adventure KS3 – 4 from games, gym, dance, athletic, adventure/outdoor or life saving/swimming, fitness and health KS4 – 2 from the above

15 Role of the Government Department of Culture, Media and Sport “from the playground to the podium” National Sports Councils/Sport England – advise, invest in and promote community sport Exchequer or Lottery funding Sport pathways – community sport, sport clubs, coaching/officiating, volunteers, facilities

16 Effects on School Provision 2001 “The Government’s Plan for Sport” lead to “Game Plan” Major increase in participation – health benefits, reduction in crime, increased social inclsuion Improved international success – ‘feel good’ Grass roots focus on under-represented groups NGB - PESSCL, Whole Sport Plans, Active Sports Schools - TOPS programme, Sports Leaders UK, Sports Colleges, School Sport Coordinators

17 Aim - deliver high quality PE and sport to all young people, regardless of ability. Using the power of sport to improve the lives of young people. Top Tots (18m – 3y), Top Start (3-5) Top Play (4-9), Top Sports (7-11), Top Link (14-16), Top Sportsability (Disabled)

18 YST - Schools PESSCL enhance the take-up of sport opportunities by 5-16 year olds. “By % of school children to spend a min of 2hrs/week PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum” 5 hour offer Specialist Sports Colleges - PE and sport at the centre of the curriculum Raise attainment in the school and local hub School Sport Partnerships (SSPs) are groups of schools working together – primary & secondary. Partnership Dev Manager > School Sports Co- ordinators

19 STEP ON (11-14) In PE introduced to sports leadership and volunteering, learn how to plan and manage their own sports season. STEP IN (14 -16) Through volunteering learn to manage and support school-based sporting events. STEP OUT (16-19 ) Move from school to community- based volunteering. Leadership Academies (14- 19) provide the opportunity to refine and develop volunteering skills and experiences.

20 Raise school standards of attainment in PE and Sport through high quality teaching and learning Develop an enhanced, inclusive curriculum & e-c programme that maximises participation in PE and Sport Whole school improvement - overall personal development & wellbeing of all learners to raise standards and achievement Community (Primary) develop high quality teaching and learning in partner primary schools, maximising resources & sharing of good practice. Community (Secondary ) work with partner secondary schools to provide high quality learning opportunities and standards in PE and Sport Community (wider inc business /employer partners ) to develop sport opportunities, promoting participation and achievement in Physical Activity and Community Sport. School Sport College - Objectives

21 Active Sports now superseded by Whole Sport Plans (2009) English NGBs - Whole Sport Plans British NGB – One Stop Plans Planning for grass roots to elite level NGBs able to direct own funding Measured against Key Performance Indicators Active SchoolsActive CommunitiesWorld Class Programme School Aged Children16+ Community SportElite Performers Youth Sports TrustSport EnglandUK Sport/ NIS

22 Youth Sport Trust Raising standards in PE and School Sport Increasing the quality and quantity of PE and school sport Opportunities for young leaders and volunteers Supporting talent and competition Sport England Increasing participation: Community sport Children and Young People: School/Club Links School/Community links FE /community links Sustaining Participation: Player pathways Competitive club sport Volunteering Coaching/ officiating UK Sport World Class Performance Olympic and Paralympic Success Drug Free Sport World Class events International sporting relations Key Partners NGBs, Local Clubs, Schools, Further Education, Higher Education and Local Authorities The sporting relay race

23 Sports Leaders UK To create an army of volunteers for sport (and other activities) from young people aged 9-19 Level 1 - Level 3

24 Barriers to participation & solutions Equal opportunity, discrimination, stereotyping, inclusiveness, prejudice - examples from sport Target groups: Disability Socio-economic class Ethnic group Gender Solutions to overcome discrimination in sport to raise participation.

25 Barriers to Participation - Exam Focus Barrier to Participation What Easy marks Why Harder marks Action Hard marks June05Q2 Ans

26 Barriers to Particpation Stereotype Esteem Opportunity Provision

27 Glossary – you need to know these

28 National Database of where to participate Sports Equity Alliance made up of:- Sporting Equals Women’s Sports Foundation English Federation of Disability Sport Sport Equity Targets – NGBs. Local Authorities Opportunities

29 Barriers to Participation - Disability Barriers Stereotype, Opportunity, Esteem, Provision Stereotype Esteem Opportunity Provision PE Separate? Integrated? Sport Social expectations Role model Media Coverage? Acceptance Respect Legal right Public provision Private restriction? Work Professional, Coach, Administrator Opps? Participation Range of choice Facilities Finance Training Coaching Elite-Performer Respected for performance or for overcoming disability

30 Disability Sport - Types Adapted – version of standard type Wheelchair basketball, rugby, volleyball Wheelchair marathons Blind football, bowls Integrated – with able- bodied Separate – own activities Adapted or Designed Q7Jan03 Ans

31 Inclusion spectrum Inclusive – everyone included Modified – changes to rules/ equipment to include disabled people Parallel – same activity, but approach differs according to disability Included – specially adapted activities Separate – disabled people practice/ prepare in isolation

32 Disability Sport England – Disability Sport Events Creates opportunities for participation in sport for people with all disabilities, at all levels (mostly grass roots) Develops profile classification system Parasport - Disability Sport Institute Charity responsible for selecting, preparing, entering, funding and managing Britain' s teams at the Paralympic Games and Paralympic Winter Games

33 British Paralympic Association BPA is umbrella body Co-ordinates arrangements for British disabled athletes to compete internationally Organises special Olympic Games for disabled (Paralympics) Members include: DSE, National Disability Sports Organisations, Scottish Association for the Disabled, GB Wheelchair BBA

34 National body responsible for developing sport for disabled people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations British Amputees and Les Autres Sports Association British Blind Sport WheelPower-British Wheelchair Sport Mencap Sport UK Deaf Sport Advisory body on sports disability to LA recreation departments, education departments, schools and NGBs

35 Overcoming the barriers - Disability Sport England Equity targets Local Authorities NGB The law Local Govt access policies NC – equal opportunities Media & broad- casting guidelines Access & employment law Disabled Sports Associations - BDSA Terminology Differently-abled? Those with a disability Sport provision Integrated Separate Adapted Disability politics, activists Disability Knowledge Type (physical mental), degree Technological research

36 Ethnicity and Ethnic differences Proportion of ethnic minorities in sport does not reflect proportions within society On average fewer ethnic minorities participate in most sports However in certain sports participation is at a greater level than should be expected Lack of black coaches/ selectors/ managers/ administrators Presumptions made about intellectual ability ‘Privileged white culture’ holding onto advantages Opposition to black involvement/lack necessary experience

37 Barriers to Participation - Racism Barriers Stereotype, Opportunity, Esteem, Provision Stereotype Esteem Opportunity Provision PE Teacher expectations - Sport Social expectations Role model Media Type of Coverage Equal reward Prize, Pay, Appearance money Recognition-Status Role models – push pull scenario Acceptance Respect Legal right Public provision Private restriction? Work Performer but Coach, Administrator Opps? Participation Range of choice Stacking, Centrality Facilities Finance Training Coaching Elite-Performer Respected for performance But genetic? Genetics Performance due to genetic superiority? Q2Jan04 Ans

38 Sporting Equals Works to develop policy and practice to promote racial equality in sport Sport for Communities Project, providing grants to increase participation in sport by ethnic minorities, migrants and refugees Developing a Standard for Local Authority Sport and Leisure Services; “Promoting Racial Equality Through Sport”

39 Overcoming the barrier of racism Sport England Local Authorities Sport Equity (targets) NGB Individual sport initiatives e.g. “Kick racism out of Football” The law Ethnic sport organisations Local Govt anti- discrimination policies NC – equal opportunities Research & education Media & broad- casting guidelines Anti- discrimination legislation

40 Barriers for women History - traditional attitudes of sport’s ‘manliness’, male preserve More sports for males/some ban women/unfriendly More role models - predominantly male coaches Discrimination against women - adverse publicity Some NGBs slow to mix Lack of transport/financial support/child care/time/partner support Lack of promotional materials Poor timing of activities Racism - ethnic minorities may face cultural barriers Disabled women may face further barriers

41 Women’s own attitudes Lack of self-confidence Lack of motivation ‘Myth’ of developing masculinity Alleged unsuitability to competitive sport Lack of positive self-image Many women prefer group activities, many female activities are individual

42 Media coverage and stereotyping Less coverage than males, sport promotion male- dominated Sexist comments common Women presented as physically inferior, weaker than men Women’s sport presented as less interesting Women porttrayed as passive and non- competitive; men expected to compete and achieve Sports derived from competitive and violent activities - considered masculine Girls PE based on posture and grace - socially acceptable

43 WSF The Foundation’s achievements include: Women into Coaching - free training for women in sports coaching and leadership Women in Sport Magazine, resource packs and guides for schools and clubs Providing women with information about funding Improve, increase and promote opportunities for women and girls in sport and physical activity Campaign for change through raising awareness and influencing policy

44 Barriers to Participation - Sexism Barriers Stereotype, Opportunity, Esteem, Provision Stereotype Esteem Opportunity Provision PE Girl’s games, Different PE activities Sport Male dominion Non-feminine Mothers Social expectation Time Childcare Media Amount coverage Type of Coverage Equal reward Prize, Pay, Appearance money Recognition- Status Media, society, role models Acceptance Respect Legal right Public provision Private restriction Work Performer, Coach, Administrator Participation Range of choice Custom – female appropriate Facilities Finance Training Coaching Elite-Performer Sexuality Respected for performance/ appearance?

45 Traditional class discrimination in sport Sport was used by upper classes as a form of social control Sports divided on a class basis, excluding working classes from aristocratic sports Upper classes with the necessary time and money for sporting pursuits Control of physical resources by upper classes who also limited level of involvement of working classes

46 Barriers to Participation - Class Historical Working Class Family poverty Earn the right to leisure Excluded Middle Class Salaried Control over time Had money Control of leisure/sport Exclusive rules Upper Class Leisure as right Gifted amateur Had time & money Exclusive Socio-Economic Wealth differential Opportunities to participate restricted by: Cost of equipment, travel, membership Social Exclusivity Restrictive membership policies Private clubs; Reluctance to cross social barriers Ideological Egalitarian Equal work – equal pay Equality of opportunity Meritocracy Social Darwinism Born to rule Fixed place within society

47 Overcoming the socio-economic barrier Sport England Local Authorities Sport Aid Sport Equity Targets NGB Public provision CCT Best Value Resource issues Discrimination issues Whole Sport Plans Government – urban & social regeneration

48 Barriers to Participation - Exam Focus Barrier to Participation What Easy marks Why Harder marks Action Hard marks June05Q2 Ans


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