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High Middle Ages 1000-1260 AD.

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Presentation on theme: "High Middle Ages 1000-1260 AD."— Presentation transcript:

1 High Middle Ages AD

2 England in the Middle Ages
England is a Province of Rome inhabited by Britons and Celts Scotland and Ireland are Celtic and Pict-never dominated by Rome Rome falls/leaves Germanic tribes invade Britons disappear as a entity Angles and Saxons come to dominate England Ireland is dominated eventually in part by Normans ,eventually by Cromwell Scotland and England fight almost until the American Revolution

3 Ireland and the Normans

4 Are these modern day Picts?

5 Anglo-Saxon England Winners in England-the Angles and the Saxons, originally Germanic invaders Many Small independent kingdoms that Combine into Three larger kingdoms These kingdoms divided into shires in order to rule more efficiently and a shire - reeve (?) placed in power over them Eventually Wessex rules most of England And then it was time for what goes around comes around…

6 Alfred the Great of Wessex
Vikings invade Alfred spends 10 years beating them back Eventually he partially succeeds His successors win back the rest of England And then… It’s the Vikings again ! 1013 -they re-conquer England and Canute rules England as part of Scandinavia 1042 -Vikings are poor rulers and the Anglo-Saxons are back in the driver’s seat again with Edward the Confessor

7 Alfred commissions the first British Navy

8 The seeds of modern England
Edward the Confessor dies childless His cousin in Normandy claims the throne The Saxon nobles want Harold of Wessex , a relative of the Confessor by marriage, on throne, because he is pure Saxon Harold wants it too Harold made King and immediately has to fight off the Vikings and soon thereafter, William of Normandy Normans are originally of Viking descent from the French coast See themselves losing England after all that trouble with their one previous victory in England William the Conqueror feels it is his right through Edward’s oath to him and by birth William also has an axe to grind William invades England and kills Harold Becomes William I


10 William I Illegitimate son of a Duke and a tanner’s daughter Childhood and teens spent escaping people wanting to kill him Occasionally placed with strangers to hide Married Matilda of Wessex, who was 4 ft. tall Edward the Confessor stated he was heir when he was “held” at William's manor

11 The Bayeau Tapestry Linen tapestry commissioned to document the Battle of Hastings and William’s victory from his viewpoint (spin) by Bishop Otto in England Harols shot dead with an arrow through his eye

12 The wonderful and good William hearing of Harold’s perfidy

13 The Norman calvary

14 The Norman ships look awfully Viking because they are!

15 William and his round table PR
William and his round table PR. Actually he ruled and trusted no one and did not want their advice

16 Haley’s comet

17 William’s take on Life Minimize everyone's power but especially the nobles Keep the power in your hands Watch closely for problems that will arise Knowledge is power so get the goods on everyone People try to cheat the system Get the data on them so they can not cheat you Never trust anyone While fighting the French at the Battle of Mantes, he was thrown against the pommel of his saddle so violently that his intestines burst. Five weeks later -- on September 9, England's conqueror died. His servants stripped him bare and abandoned his body, but a kind-hearted knight arranged a funeral for him at the abbey of St. Stephen in Caen. The funeral was disrupted by the outbreak of a fire. After extinguishing it, the pallbearers tried to cram the king's bloated corpse into a too-small sarcophagus. The body exploded, creating a horrible smell that sent mourners running for the exits.

18 Results in… Altering feudalism so King holds the power
Weakens the nobles by scattering their fiefs wide and far Swear allegiance to the King and no one else All nobles are William’s vassals and no one else's Gather data via the Doomsday book Monitor the nobles by having them to court and going to their homes and letting them put you up

19 “there was no single hide nor a yard of land, nor indeed one ox nor one cow nor one pig which was left out". 

20 Evolution of England’s Political System
Henry I: William’s son. set up a court system. Exchequer  dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.


22 Thomas Beckett’s Murder

23 Canterbury Cathedral

24 Richard the Lionhearted
Succeeded his father Henry II as King Spent less than 10 months in England as king because he was in the Crusades England functioned well without him Ask me about his wife’s eyes His brother , King John succeeds him as King

25 King John (the one in Robin Hood)
Nobles revolted regarding taxes John put on them Forced John to sign the Magna Carta or die He signed at Runnymeade in 1215 and agreed to 1. not place any new taxes without the approval of the Great Council 2. not take property without paying for it 3. not to sell, buy, refuse or delay justice 4. to trial by a jury of peers

26 Why is the Magna Carta important?
To the nobles? To the common people? To The West? To you?

27 The Beginnings of the British Parliament
1260’s nobles revolt against Henry III Simon de Montfort rules England for a bit Wants the King’s council to be more representative He called a council that included nobles and middles class, knights and citizens Revolt crushed and Montfort killed But… this becomes the basis of today's House of Lords and Commons in England and our Senate and Congress

28 The Organization of the first British Parliament
Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords  nobles & clergy. House of Commons  knights and burgesses.

29 Copy of Medieval drawing of Simon Montfort made in 1244 that was destroyed


31 Edward I English Legal system divided into three branches:
having to do with taxes and financial accounting having to do with cases between private citizens having to do with the King or government

32 William Wallace Led revolt of the Scots against Edward I, or Edward Long Shanks the Spider King Movie “Braveheart” Executed 1305 Revolts against England Owen Glendower Led revolt of Welsh against Henry IV Revolt foundered when the New French King withdrew his financial support Owen failed but was never captured Last Prince of Wales

33 Henry IV. Brutal King Didn't learn from Henry II and murdered an archbishop Married a second wife (Joan) who was rumored to have poisoned his first and who was later convicted of witchcraft by Henry V Many rebellions because he was so hated Needed money for the military and Parliament had to approve so they said “Ok, if you agree that we are free to voice dissenting opinions and will not be punished by arrest for it, we’ll give you the money you want” Basis of our right to freedom of speech

34 Joan and Henry

35 Meanwhile in France…. France is bigger and more diverse than England
Small dukes of Frankish descent hold power There is no central government that matters until the last of Charlemagne's descendents dies

36 Capetian Dynasty Last of the Frank kings dies Hugh Capet elected
by nobles to rule in 987 Only rules a small island- The Ile-de-France Holds on to power by cultivating their right to rule through hereditary and divine right Louis the Fat has the most power and land of any of the Capetians

37 Germany Italy Different from England and France
Strong tradition of elected kingship and power held in the hands of large wealthy land blocs Strong desire to expand territories, gather wealth, and allegiance to one’s “motherland” Strong desire to rebuild Charlemagne's empire Chaos and anarchy Papal state, many other small states and the Byzantium empire rule over the peninsula Muslims hold Sicily German princes view Italy as an extension of Charlemagne's empire and their responsibility

38 Otto I (Otto the Great) German Feudal nobles elect Otto as King, in 936 AD Otto has a thing about Italy; he wants it “bad” He conquers a bit of it and later joins with the Pope to help him control other Italian lords In return he gets to rule northern Italy and is crowned by Pope as the Holy Roman Emperor The rule of Otto and his sons lasts 800 years

39 Otto’s descendents Henry III- Henry IV-
Saw Church as a tool of his government that should do as he said Three popes objected so he got rid of them and had his man elected as Pope Henry IV- Saw the Church in the same light as his father, Henry III. Conflict with Pope Gregory VII over lay investiture. Both Gregory and Henry wanted to appoint bishops. Gregory excommunicated Henry who suddenly realized he was up a creek without a paddle and had better “fix” the situation

40 The Climb to Canossa

41 Henry at the Door

42 Concordat of Worms Henry V ( the miscreant Henry IV’s son) and the Pope later settle the issue of lay investiture King grants only worldly powers to church officials such as land or appoint them as his counselors Church grants only spiritual powers and can elect their bishops, popes and such

43 The Actual Concordat in the Vatican Library

44 Worms Cathedral


46 Frederick Barbarossa 1152 to 1190.
He liked Italy too Milan declined his request to govern them so he destroyed it and drove the people out Lombard League was formed and fought against Frederick Peace settlement said the Lombard city states could govern themselves but had to recognize Frederick as overlord Cities are growing in power in Europe. The Times they are a-changing

47 Three views of Frederick Barbarossa

48 Pope Innocent III The Height of Medieval Papacy and Church Power
He said Pope is over all temporal and spiritual powers Believed all blessing, coronation, and investiture of rulers dependent upon the Pope Supported genocide against heretics-Cathars Used interdict and excommunication to control Kings Called for two crusades


50 Germany and Italy in a nutshell
Italy remains split into small kingdoms Germany remains a jumble of independent city states and feudal states Neither unified until the 1800’s How did this affect other European countries? Such as England or France? How did it affect Italy and Germany?


52 Not important to see what is what. See all the jumbles colors
Not important to see what is what. See all the jumbles colors. Each is a kingdom . See why each strives for mastery and chaos and war is the result?

53 So, as we go into the High Middle Ages
Germany and Italy split and disorganized The Church has reached the height of it’s Power and Prestige England and France-Feudal nobles and Kings struggle for power. Weak king and the nobles gain some power. Strong King and the nobles lose power. Cycle of war and conquest Most people are serfs legally tied to a manor Minimal trade Simplest of economies Few artisans, artists, scientists, educated Short, Brutal lives for majority of people on earth at this time

54 Better things are coming though by unexpected and undesirable agents.

55 Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade

56 Why crusade? Economics Healing the east-West religious schism
Religious fervor Oversupply of Knights The Turks and trade

57 Setting Out on Crusade

58 Christian Crusades: East and West

59 Knights Templar


61 Results Better weapons and warfare techniques evolved including the astrolabe Trade increases with the East and other Europeans Exploration increased in an effort to reach the place where silk was made Better medical techniques, hygiene, the concept of zero, spices enter the Europeans world The Muslim world views any verbal or physical interest in their affairs as the sign of another Crusade

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