2England in the Middle Ages England is a Province of Rome inhabited by Britons and CeltsScotland and Ireland are Celtic and Pict-never dominated by RomeRome falls/leavesGermanic tribes invadeBritons disappear as a entityAngles and Saxons come to dominate EnglandIreland is dominated eventually in part by Normans ,eventually by CromwellScotland and England fight almost until the American Revolution
5Anglo-Saxon EnglandWinners in England-the Angles and the Saxons, originally Germanic invadersMany Small independent kingdoms thatCombine into Three larger kingdomsThese kingdoms divided into shires in order to rule more efficiently and a shire - reeve (?) placed in power over themEventually Wessex rules most of EnglandAnd then it was time for what goes around comes around…
6Alfred the Great of Wessex Vikings invadeAlfred spends 10 years beating them backEventually he partially succeedsHis successors win back the rest of EnglandAnd then…It’s the Vikings again !1013 -they re-conquer England and Canute rules England as part of Scandinavia1042 -Vikings are poor rulers and the Anglo-Saxons are back in the driver’s seat again with Edward the Confessor
8The seeds of modern England Edward the Confessor dies childlessHis cousin in Normandy claims the throneThe Saxon nobles want Harold of Wessex , a relative of the Confessor by marriage, on throne, because he is pure SaxonHarold wants it tooHarold made King and immediately has to fight off the Vikings and soon thereafter, William of NormandyNormans are originally of Viking descent from the French coastSee themselves losing England after all that trouble with their one previous victory in EnglandWilliam the Conqueror feels it is his right through Edward’s oath to him and by birthWilliam also has an axe to grindWilliam invades England and kills HaroldBecomes William I
10William IIllegitimate son of a Duke and a tanner’s daughterChildhood and teens spent escaping people wanting to kill himOccasionally placed with strangers to hideMarried Matilda of Wessex, who was 4 ft. tallEdward the Confessor stated he was heir when he was “held” at William's manor
11The Bayeau Tapestry Linen tapestry commissioned to document the Battle of Hastings and William’s victory from his viewpoint (spin) by Bishop Otto in EnglandHarols shot dead with an arrow through his eye
12The wonderful and good William hearing of Harold’s perfidy
17William’s take on LifeMinimize everyone's power but especially the noblesKeep the power in your handsWatch closely for problems that will ariseKnowledge is power so get the goods on everyonePeople try to cheat the systemGet the data on them so they can not cheat youNever trust anyoneWhile fighting the French at the Battle of Mantes, he was thrown against the pommel of his saddle so violently that his intestines burst. Five weeks later -- on September 9, England's conqueror died. His servants stripped him bare and abandoned his body, but a kind-hearted knight arranged a funeral for him at the abbey of St. Stephen in Caen.The funeral was disrupted by the outbreak of a fire. After extinguishing it, the pallbearers tried to cram the king's bloated corpse into a too-small sarcophagus. The body exploded, creating a horrible smell that sent mourners running for the exits.
18Results in… Altering feudalism so King holds the power Weakens the nobles by scattering their fiefs wide and farSwear allegiance to the King and no one elseAll nobles are William’s vassals and no one else'sGather data via the Doomsday bookMonitor the nobles by having them to court and going to their homes and letting them put you up
19“there was no single hide nor a yard of land, nor indeed one ox nor one cow nor one pig which was left out".
20Evolution of England’s Political System Henry I:William’s son.set up a court system.Exchequer dept. of royal finances.Henry II:established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.grand jury.trial by jury.
24Richard the Lionhearted Succeeded his father Henry II as KingSpent less than 10 months in England as king because he was in the CrusadesEngland functioned well without himAsk me about his wife’s eyesHis brother , King John succeeds him as King
25King John (the one in Robin Hood) Nobles revolted regarding taxes John put on themForced John to sign the Magna Carta or dieHe signed at Runnymeade in 1215 and agreed to1. not place any new taxes without theapproval of the Great Council2. not take property without paying for it3. not to sell, buy, refuse or delay justice4. to trial by a jury of peers
26Why is the Magna Carta important? To the nobles?To the common people?To The West?To you?
27The Beginnings of the British Parliament 1260’s nobles revolt against Henry IIISimon de Montfort rules England for a bitWants the King’s council to be more representativeHe called a council that included nobles and middles class, knights and citizensRevolt crushed and Montfort killedBut… this becomes the basis of today's House of Lords and Commons in England and our Senate and Congress
28The Organization of the first British Parliament Great Council:middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.eventually called Parliament.by 1400, two chambers evolved:House of Lords nobles & clergy.House of Commons knights and burgesses.
29Copy of Medieval drawing of Simon Montfort made in 1244 that was destroyed
31Edward I English Legal system divided into three branches: having to do with taxes and financial accountinghaving to do with cases between private citizenshaving to do with the King or government
32William WallaceLed revolt of the Scots against Edward I, or Edward Long Shanks the Spider KingMovie “Braveheart”Executed 1305Revolts against EnglandOwen GlendowerLed revolt of Welsh against Henry IVRevolt foundered when the New French King withdrew his financial supportOwen failed but was never capturedLast Prince of Wales
33Henry IV.Brutal KingDidn't learn from Henry II and murdered an archbishopMarried a second wife (Joan) who was rumored to have poisoned his first and who was later convicted of witchcraft by Henry VMany rebellions because he was so hatedNeeded money for the military and Parliament had to approve so they said “Ok, if you agree that we are free to voice dissenting opinions and will not be punished by arrest for it, we’ll give you the money you want”Basis of our right to freedom of speech
35Meanwhile in France…. France is bigger and more diverse than England Small dukes of Frankish descent hold powerThere is no central government that matters until the last of Charlemagne's descendents dies
36Capetian Dynasty Last of the Frank kings dies Hugh Capet elected by nobles to rule in 987Only rules a small island-The Ile-de-FranceHolds on to power by cultivating their right to rule throughhereditary and divine rightLouis the Fat has the most power and land of any of the Capetians
37Germany Italy Different from England and France Strong tradition of elected kingship and power held in the hands of large wealthy land blocsStrong desire to expand territories, gather wealth, and allegiance to one’s “motherland”Strong desire to rebuild Charlemagne's empireChaos and anarchyPapal state, many other small states and the Byzantium empire rule over the peninsulaMuslims hold SicilyGerman princes view Italy as an extension of Charlemagne's empire and their responsibility
38Otto I (Otto the Great)German Feudal nobles elect Otto as King, in 936 ADOtto has a thing about Italy; he wants it “bad”He conquers a bit of it and later joins with the Pope to help him control other Italian lordsIn return he gets to rule northern Italy and is crowned by Pope as the Holy Roman EmperorThe rule of Otto and his sons lasts 800 years
39Otto’s descendents Henry III- Henry IV- Saw Church as a tool of his government that should do as he saidThree popes objected so he got rid of them and had his man elected as PopeHenry IV-Saw the Church in the same light as his father, Henry III. Conflict with Pope Gregory VII over lay investiture. Both Gregory and Henry wanted to appoint bishops. Gregory excommunicated Henry who suddenly realized he was up a creek without a paddle and had better “fix” the situation
42Concordat of WormsHenry V ( the miscreant Henry IV’s son) and the Pope later settle the issue of lay investitureKing grants only worldly powers to church officials such as land or appoint them as his counselorsChurch grants only spiritual powers and can elect their bishops, popes and such
46Frederick Barbarossa 1152 to 1190. He liked Italy tooMilan declined his request to govern them so he destroyed it and drove the people outLombard League was formed and fought against FrederickPeace settlement said the Lombard city states could govern themselves but had to recognize Frederick as overlordCities are growing in power in Europe.The Times they are a-changing
48Pope Innocent III The Height of Medieval Papacy and Church Power He said Pope is over all temporal and spiritual powersBelieved all blessing, coronation, and investiture of rulers dependent upon the PopeSupported genocide against heretics-CatharsUsed interdict and excommunication to control KingsCalled for two crusades
50Germany and Italy in a nutshell Italy remains split into small kingdomsGermany remains a jumble of independent city states and feudal statesNeither unified until the 1800’sHow did this affect other European countries? Such as England or France?How did it affect Italy and Germany?
52Not important to see what is what. See all the jumbles colors Not important to see what is what. See all the jumbles colors. Each is a kingdom . See why each strives for mastery and chaos and war is the result?
53So, as we go into the High Middle Ages Germany and Italy split and disorganizedThe Church has reached the height of it’s Power and PrestigeEngland and France-Feudal nobles and Kings struggle for power. Weak king and the nobles gain some power. Strong King and the nobles lose power.Cycle of war and conquestMost people are serfs legally tied to a manorMinimal tradeSimplest of economiesFew artisans, artists, scientists, educatedShort, Brutal lives for majority of people on earth at this time
54Better things are coming though by unexpected and undesirable agents.
61ResultsBetter weapons and warfare techniques evolved including the astrolabeTrade increases with the East and other EuropeansExploration increased in an effort to reach the place where silk was madeBetter medical techniques, hygiene, the concept of zero, spices enter the Europeans worldThe Muslim world views any verbal or physical interest in their affairs as the sign of another Crusade