Voices from the past: "I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this Government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many long months of toil and struggle… Questions?
World War II …You ask what is our policy. I will say, it is to wage war with all our might, with all the strength that God can give us, to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime… Questions?
World War II …You ask what is our aim? I can answer in one word: Victory. Victory at all costs. Victory in spite of all terror. Victory however long and hard the road may be. For without victory there is no survival. Questions? Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain, 1940.
World War II - Given as Britain was being bombed by the German air force, awaiting invasion by the German army across the English Channel. - France had surrendered, leaving Britain to face the threat of Mussolini and Hitler alone. - Interesting fact: - Churchill is considered one of the greatest public speakers of the 20 th century… - Yet he struggled with stuttering when he spoke…
World War II Objectives for today: 1. To understand the causes of World War II. 2. To identify why the United States got involved in the war. 3. To observe the scope and scale of the war. 4. To forecast the future effects of the war. Text: Chapter 29
World War II Review The Great Depression in the U.S. had ripple effects all around the globe. Germany, Italy, and other European nations were particularly hard hit. Question: How does this set the stage for strict dictators to rise to power? Poverty, joblessness and despair opened the door for fascist dictators to rise to power in several European nations. Trains will run on time! – Benito Mussolini, Italy
World War II Review These dictators blamed the ruin and economic disaster of their countries on foreigners, Communists, and in some cases, Jews. Facism: a military dictatorship built on racist and nationalistic principles. Benito Mussolini – Italy Adolf Hitler – Germany
Outline 1. Causes of WWII 2. U.S. Involvement 3. Scope and Scale of WWII 4. Future Effects of WWII
Causes Appeasement Germany: Hitler absorbed Austria and Czechoslovakia with no resistance (1938-39). Italy: Mussolini supported the overthrow of the Spanish Republic and invaded Ethiopia (1935-36). Japan: Takes Manchuria and Peking (1931, 1937). The U.S., unwilling to get involved in another European conflict, passes the Neutrality Act in 1935. FDR signs the act reluctantly.
Causes This map shows the spread of dictatorships in Europe during WWII.
Involvement The U.S. eased into WW II. The American public was in no mood for another war. Hitler takes Czechoslovakia and Poland, and Britain and France respond by declaring war on Germany. Roosevelt urges Congress to allow the U.S. to sell weapons to G.B. and France. Cash and carry policy: Allies buy weapons with cash and transport in their own ships.
Involvement Hitler invades Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium. France surrenders, G.B. stands alone. U.S. steps up aid, providing 50 old WW I destroyers. Lend-lease policy: the U.S. lends war supplies that would be returned by G.B. U.S. gets involved in the battle for the Atlantic.
Germany turns on the USSR, a former ally through their non-aggression pact. Churchill in response to U.S. aid to the USSR: I have only one purpose, the destruction of Hitler…If Hitler invaded Hell I would at least make a favorable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons.
Involvement Pearl Harbor The U.S. sought peace with Japan, which was rejected by Japan. December 7, 1941 Air Raid on Pearl Harbor. This is no Drill. Conspiracy theory? Japanese victories in the Pacific: Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Bataan, Philippines, Burma, East Indies.
Scope and Scale German success in Europe: Occupies most of Europe, North Africa, deep into the Soviet Union. Turning Point: The Battle of Stalingrad Four months of desperate, house-to-house fighting The city was destroyed, 1.5 million dead. The Red Army surrounds Hitlers freezing army in February 1943.
Scope and Scale North Africa American and British forces push Erwin Rommel (The Desert Fox) and his Afrika Korps out of North Africa This ends the war in North Africa. Exposes the soft underbelly of Europe.
Scope and Scale Italy: British and American invade Italy Mussolini is overthrown and the new government quickly surrenders.
Scope and Scale Normandy Invasion June 6, 1944 Operation Overlord 176,000 Allied troops Largest amphibious force in history 60 mile coastline in France
Scope and Scale Soviet advance Closing in from the east. Eventually meet the American forces in Germany.
Scope and Scale The End of the War - 1945 Feb 4: The Yalta Conference Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin (The Big Three) Discuss final invasion of Germany Agree to create a peace organization in San Francisco later that year.
Scope and Scale April 12: Roosevelt Dies Massive cerebral hemorrhage in Georgia. V.P. Harry Truman sworn in. April 24: Manhattan Project Top secret plan to develop atomic bomb revealed to Truman. He is reluctant to use it.
Scope and Scale April 30: Hitler Commits Suicide In a bomb-proof Berlin bunker, Hitler marries his mistress, Eva Braun. He poisons her, then kills himself. His remains are never recovered. May 7: German Surrender The Germans officially surrender to Gen. Eisenhower at Rheims, France. To the Soviets in Berlin. V Day is May 8.
Scope and Scale August 6: Hiroshima Enola Gay drops the bomb on this industrial city of 344,000. 80,000 die immediately, 100,000 seriously injured. 98% of citys buildings leveled. Even the makers of the weapon are astounded by its destructive capability. Ethical questions surround Trumans decision to use the bomb. August 9: Nagasaki August 14: Japan Surrenders Gen. MacArthur accepts the formal, unconditional surrender of Japan aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Effects of WW II War Deaths American Civil War – 620,000 WWI combat total – 10,000,000 dead (16X) WWII combat total – 30,000,000 dead (48X) WWII total death – 55,000,000 dead (88X) Populations today: Australia – 20 mil. Canada – 33 mil. South Korea – 49 mil. Italy – 58 mil.
Effects of WW II The Final Solution 6 million Jews perish in concentration camps. Slavs, East Europeans, gypsies and homosexuals are likewise killed in the millions. Further reading: Art Spiegelmans Maus I and II
Effects of WW II American Losses in the Pacific Iwo Jima March 16, 1945 (1 month long) 25,000 U.S. Marines die Last line of radar defense for Japan Okinawa April 1, 1945 (Easter Sunday/April Fools) 80,000 American casualties Costliest of the Pacific battles
Effects of WW II Future Ramifications Eastern Europe and parts of China were given to Stalin in return for his declaration of war against Germany. Similar to the Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI. The Soviets begin building a bloc of buffer states: Eastern Europe, China, North Korea, etc. In part, the U.S. decided to drop the bomb on Japan as a deterrent to the new threat of the Soviets. This ushers in a new world order in which the U.S.A. and USSR vie for world dominance, commonly known as THE COLD WAR To be continued…
Homework Thinking Maps Discussion Webs: Should the U.S. have entered WW II? Should one country intervene militarily in the affairs of another to protect property owned by its citizens? Timeline Choose a topic from the following list:
Projects Topics for further exploration: (Groups of 3) The Manhattan Project Concentration camps New weaponry in WWII Normandy Beach landing Japanese internment Social change in the U.S. during WWII Dunkirk evacuation Iwo Jima Swiss neutrality
Projects Find, read and print one source of information. No wikipedia! Only authoritative sources. Share information and discuss the important facts to be shared with the class. You choose the method by which your topic will be shared. 5 minute allotment.