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UNIT IX – KINGDOM PLANTAE Big Campbell –Ch 29, 30, 35 – 39 Baby Campbell –Ch 17, 31 – 33 Hillis –Ch 21, 24 - 28.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT IX – KINGDOM PLANTAE Big Campbell –Ch 29, 30, 35 – 39 Baby Campbell –Ch 17, 31 – 33 Hillis –Ch 21, 24 - 28."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT IX – KINGDOM PLANTAE Big Campbell –Ch 29, 30, 35 – 39 Baby Campbell –Ch 17, 31 – 33 Hillis –Ch 21,

2 All Eukaryotic All Multicellular All Autotrophic - photosyn Non-motile All have cell walls composed of cellulose Most contain organs and organ systems KINGDOM PLANTAE

3 KINGDOM PLANTAE, cont - Photosynthesis Oxidation Reduction

4 KINGDOM PLANTAE, cont - Photosynthesis

5 CALVIN CYCLE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Also known as Dark Reaction, Light- Independent Rxn Occurs in stroma of chloroplasts “Synthesis” part of photosynthesis; utilizes ATP, NADPH generated in Light Reaction + CO 2 to produce organic molecules Anabolic; endergonic Requires enzyme Rubisco Three basic steps  Carbon Fixation  Reduction  Regeneration of RuBP

6 KINGDOM PLANTAE, cont - Photosynthesis

7 I. EVOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS Evolved from green algae known as charophytes Land Adaptations  Obtaining Resources  Organs  Vascular tissue in plants o xylem o phloem  Apical meristem (need for increased resources such as H 2 O, CO 2, sunlight)  Embryophytes (plants with embryos)  Support  Lignin – complex carb in cell walls; “wood”, strong, in trees  Maintaining Moisture  cuticle  stomata/guard cells

8 I. EVOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS, cont  Reproduction  Alternation of Generations  Developing embryo protected, nourished by female parent plant  Walled spores produced in sporangia  Production of gametes within multicellular organs

9 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION

10 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Bryophytes Mosses, liverworts, hornworts Non-vascular Dominant Stage = Gametophyte May have been helped by fungal mycorrhizae to aid in nutrient uptake from soil

11 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Bryophyte Life Cycle

12 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Pterophytes Seedless vascular plants Ferns Dominant Stage = sporophyte Branched sporophytes not dependent on gametophytes for nutrition

13 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Fern Life Cycle

14 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Seed Plants

15 Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Reduced Gametophyte  Microscopic; can develop from spores inside sporangia; protects from environmental stresses & protects them from drying out. Advantages of Seeds  Protection due to seed coat  Contain a food source of starch for developing embryo  Dormancy  Easily dispersed Heterosporous (two kinds of spores)  Megaspore → female gametophyte → egg  Microspore → male gametophyte → sperm

16 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Gymnosperms Vascular Plants with seeds “Naked seed”  Seed is not protected by a fruit Cone-bearing plants Ginkgo, cycads, and conifers “Evergreens” Most have needles Reproduction occurs in the cone

17 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Gymnosperms

18 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Angiosperms Flowering plants Most successful of all plants primarily due to 2 important adaptations:  Flower  Fruit Angiosperms divided into 2 groups:  Monocots - 1 embryonic seed leaf (lilies, palms, grasses, grain crops)  Eudicots - 2 embryonic seed leaves (roses, peas, sunflowers, oaks, maples)

19 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Classification of Angiosperms

20 II. PLANT CLASSIFICATION, cont Angiosperm Life Cycle

21 A CLOSER LOOK AT PLANT STRUCTURE & GROWTH

22 III. PLANT STRUCTURE Three Tissue Types Dermal –Plant’s outer protective covering; helps reduce water loss and protect plant (cuticle, epidermis) Vascular – Long distance transport of materials between root and shoots Ground – includes cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, and support.

23 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Tissues Dermal  Outer protective covering  Epidermis  Root hairs  Trichomes (hairlike outgrowths of shoot epidermis that can secrete sticky fluids or toxic comp. for protection against insects)  Cuticle  Periderm in woody plants

24 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Tissues Vascular – Xylem Transports water, minerals Two types of “cells”  Vessel Elements  Tracheids –Phloem Transports nutrients Composed of  Sieve Tube Members  Companion Cells 

25 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Tissues Ground  Remaining plant tissue  Location of photosynthesis, hormone production, storage, etc  Made up of three cell types  Parenchyma o Most abundant cell type o Living cells with thin, flexible primary cell walls o Perform most of the metabolic functions  Collenchyma o Living cells with uneven, thickened primary cell walls o Flexible support, storage  Sclerenchyma o Provide structural support o Contain secondary cell walls, strengthened with lignin o Dead at maturity

26 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont Organs in Vascular Plants  Roots oRoot hairs  Stems oApical bud - tip oAxillary bud – by stem  Leaves oBlade oPetiole

27 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Roots Function  Root Hairs

28 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Roots

29 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Stems Function – Support, transport, storage of some glucose

30 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Stems Vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) Surrounded by ground tissue (xylem faces pith and phloem faces cortex)  Mostly parenchyma; some collenchyma, sclerenchyma for support

31 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Leaves Main organ of photosynthesis

32 III. PLANT STRUCTURE, cont - Leaves Epidermis  Cuticle  Stomata & Guard Cells Mesophyll  Ground tissue between upper & lower epidermis  Parenchyma cells  Made up of 2 regions  Palisade  Spongy

33 IV. PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Indeterminate Growth Growth carried out through increased cell numbers and increased cell size Meristem  Embryonic tissue capable of unlimited growth;  Two types  Apical Meristem –Found at tips –Known as primary growth  Lateral Meristem –Cylinders of cells that extend the length of the plant –Increases girth of plant –Known as secondary growth

34 IV. PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT, cont Angiosperm Reproduction

35

36 Pollination Double Fertilization  One sperm fertilizes egg contained in ovule; forms zygote  Nucleus of second sperm fuses with diploid cell in embryo sac  Triploid cell develops into food-storing tissue called endosperm

37 IV. PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT, cont Angiosperm Reproduction Co-Evolution of Flowers and Pollinators

38 IV. PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT, cont Angiosperm Reproduction – Seed Development

39 Plant Nutrition

40 V. WATER TRANSPORT Water Transport  Osmosis  Hyper, Hypo, Iso Water moves from high to low water potential  Ψ = Ψ s + Ψ p  Solute potential of pure water = 0  Solute present; solute potential is negative  Pressure potential increased by cell wall Plasmolysis  Cell in hypertonic environment  Cell membrane pulls away Turgor pressure  Cell in hypotonic environment  Influx of water

41 V. WATER TRANSPORT, cont Uptake of Water & Minerals Root hairs greatly increase surface area, absorptive capacity Water and solutes enter through epidermis and cortex of root Movement into xylem can happen in 2 ways:  Symplastic – Water & solutes cross cell wall, cell membrane into epidermal cell. Plasmodesmata allow solution to move from cell to cell without crossing cell membranes all the way to xylem  Apoplastic – Solution does not move into epidermal cells; stays in extracellular spaces. Crosses no cell membranes until it reaches Casparian strip – a continuous waxy barrier that forces solution through selectively permeable cell membrane of endodermal cell, then enters xylem.

42 V. WATER TRANSPORT, cont Uptake of Water & Minerals

43 V. WATER TRANSPORT, cont Transport of Xylem Sap From Roots to Shoots Transpiration  Loss of water vapor from leaves pulls water from roots (transpirational pull)  Cohesion and adhesion of water Root pressure  At night, low transpiration, roots cells continue to pump minerals into xylem  Generates pressure, pushing sap upwards; guttation  Not as great a force as transpiration

44 V. WATER TRANSPORT, cont Control of Transpiration Photosynthesis-Transpiration compromise…. Guard cells control the size of the stomata Xerophytes - Plants adapted to arid environments; have thick cuticle, small spines for leaves CAM, C 4 plants

45 VI. NUTRIENT TRANSPORT Essential Nutrients Required by Plants Macro  Carbon  Oxygen  Hydrogen  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sulfur  Potassium, calcium, magnesium Micro  cofactors of enzymes  chlorine, iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, nickel

46 VI. NUTRIENT TRANSPORT, cont Phloem Cells

47 VI. NUTRIENT TRANSPORT, cont Transport of Phloem Sap Sugar Source – Plant organ that produces sugar; leaves Sugar Sink – Organ that consumes or stores sugar; growing roots, stems, fruit Translocation – Process of sugar transport  Sugar is actively transported into phloem tube  Raises solute concentration; lowers ψ  Water moves into phloem tube; increases pressure at the source end  Forces sap to move toward area of lower pressure  Pressure gradient by movement of sugar out of phloem tube at sink end  Xylem moves water from sink to source

48 VII. PLANT RELATIONSHIPS Mutualism  Rhizobium bacteria  Nitrogen fixation  Found in roots of legume (bean) plants  Mycorrhizae fungi  Increase plant root surface area Parasitism  Mistletoe Epiphytes  Live attached to plant but nutritionally self-supportive  Orchids Carnivorous  Venus Flytrap  Pitcher Plants  Insects provide needed minerals

49 Control Systems in Plants

50 VIII. PLANT RESPONSES Tropisms o Movement toward or away from a stimulus  Phototropism  Gravitropism  Thigmatropism

51 IX. PLANT HORMONES Chemical signals that coordinate activities of an organism Produced in one part of the body and then transported to other parts of the body Bind to specific receptor; triggers a signal transduction pathway Low concentrations; have a profound effect

52 IX. PLANT HORMONES, cont Auxin IAA (indoleacetic acid) Found in seed embryo, meristems of apical buds and young leaves Stimulates elongation of cells Functions include stem elongation, root growth, differentiation, branching, fruit development; apical dominance; tropisms Produced by developing seeds

53 IX. PLANT HORMONES, cont Cytokinins Promote cell division, cytokinesis Found in roots, actively growing tissues Stimulate root growth and differentiation, germination Slow down aging of flowers, leaves Work with auxins to control apical dominance; that is, the ability of the terminal bud to suppress the growth of axillary buds

54 IX. PLANT HORMONES, cont Gibberellins Isolated by Japanese farmers; originally thought it was due to a fungus Acts as growth regulator Stimulate cell division and elongation in stems and leaves Enhance effects of auxins Found in roots and young leaves

55 IX. PLANT HORMONES, cont Abscisic Acid ABA Inhibits growth; maintains seed dormancy; causes stomata to close during dry conditions Found in leaves, stems, roots, unripe fruit

56 IX. PLANT HORMONES, cont Ethylene Gaseous hormone Stimulates fruit ripening  Breaks down cell walls, “softens” fruit  Triggers breakdown of starch to glucose Separates leaf from stem; autumn leaf drop  Stimulates formation of an abscission layer  Works in opposition to auxins

57 X. PHOTOPERIODISM Internal plant clock Based on relative lengths of day and night, especially night Allows plants to respond to seasonal changes Due to light receptors known as phytochromes

58 X. PHOTOPERIODISM, cont Critical night length controls flowering Short-day Plant  Light period shorter than a critical length to flower  Flower in late summer, fall, winter  Poinsettias, chrysanthemums Long-day Plant  Light period longer than a critical period to flower  Flower in late spring, early summer  Spinach, iris, radish, lettuce Day-neutral Plant  Unaffected by photoperiod  Tomatoes, rice (is nice!), dandelions

59 X. PHOTOPERIODISM, cont


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