2The new way of thinking that emerged in the mid-1500s is called the geocentric theory.Scientific Revolution.Enlightenment.American Revolution.
3Until the Scientific Revolution, the traditional authorities were Plato and Aristotle.the Church and ancient scholars.navigators and explorers.Aquinas and his followers.
4Which of the following posed theories that brought him into direct conflict with the Church? Francis BaconGalileoAristotlePtolemy
5Who wrote “Man is born free but everywhere is in chains”? LockeMontesquieuRousseauVoltaire
6How did Hobbes and Rousseau differ? Rousseau believed in the idea of a social contract; Hobbes did not.Rousseau believed an absolute monarchy was essential; Hobbes did not.Rousseau believed people were naturally good; Hobbes did not.Hobbes believed people needed protection from government; Rousseau did not.
7American colonists objected to the Stamp Act because they resented forced conscription in the British military to fight the Seven Years’ War.the Act restricted the colonists’ trade.contrary to British belief, Americans thought stamps were necessary.they objected to taxes levied by the British Parliament without representation.
8Tycho Brahe believed that the sun, planets, and moon all revolved around the earth.all planets revolved around the sun.the sun revolved around the earth but the other known planets revolved around the sun.there was only one planet in the solar system.
9Which of the following proposed the geocentric theory? AristotleCopernicusGalileoJohannes Kepler
10Which of following was written by Denis Diderot in order to promote knowledge? the EncyclopediaCandideLeviathanTwo Treatises on Government
11In which country were the Enlightenment reforms of Emperor Joseph II opposed by the church and the nobility?JapanRussiaPrussiaAustria
12to press for reform in the legislative process Why did King Louis XVI call a meeting of the Estates General to be held in spring 1789?to press for reform in the legislative processto begin the process of writing a new constitution for Franceto get approval for new taxes on the Third Estateto get approval to rescind tax exemptions for the First Estate
13Which of the following legislative bodies ended the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic? the National Assemblythe Legislative Assemblythe National Conventionthe Directory
14The French people welcomed Napoleon because they hoped he would help the collapsing French economy.he completely disavowed the ideals of the Revolution.he was the grandson of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.he promised order after the chaos of the Revolution.
15Part of the legacy of the French Revolution is that it has discouraged revolutions worldwide for 200 years.it has inspired people to fight for their rights in other parts of the world.citizens’ rights in Europe were never again restricted.all European monarchies became democracies.
16The Reign of Terror resulted in increased foreign opposition to the French Revolution.a strengthened National Assembly.peace throughout France.the election of Robespierre to the presidency.
17Why were Europeans outside of France horrified by the execution of Louis XVI? They were actually delighted by the execution of Louis XVI.They thought he was an honorable leader.They feared that the same fate might befall their monarchs.They feared Great Britain’s wrath.
18Many peasants came to oppose the Revolution because they were staunch Jacobins.they opposed the Revolution’s anticlerical moves and the draft.they were pacifists.they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas.
19Who did not benefit from The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen? artisanspeasantswomensans culottes
20The Congress of Vienna changed many national borders in Europe. restored monarchies in much of Europe.restricted the rights of citizens in monarchies.all of the above
21The Napoleonic Coderecognized the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.outlined Napoleon’s plan to dominate Europe.promoted order and authority over individual rights.required members of the military to be educated.
22Which of the following was one factor that allowed Britain to industrialize first? widespread famineBritish coloniesgovernment-owned factoriesa strong army
23Which of the following natural resources was most important for the early development of industry in Great Britain?CoalIron oreWaterTimber
24How did industrialization hurt skilled craft workers working in cottage industry? by leading to a labor movement that raised wagesby leading to a shortage of raw materialsby shifting populations from countryside to cityby undercutting prices for their products
25Which of the following was one effect of the factory system? More people joined the middle class.Workers became more skilled.The price of products increased.Workers dealt directly with merchants..
26Mass production which created an increase in the quantity of goods produced, led to More consumer goods available to more people.Higher wages and shorter hours.An increase in the cost of factory-made goods.An increase in the number of workers factories needed.
27Karl Marx and Frederick Engels argued that capitalism would inevitably lead to An energy crisis.Poverty and a workers’ revolution.An extensive welfare state.Enslavement of most of the population.
28The mercantile system in Britain was replaced by EntrepreneurshipSocialismDepartment storesLaissez-faire economics
29A region in northwestern England became known as “black country” because Laborers smudged coal dust on their faces to keep the sun out of their eyes.Iron-smelting factories polluted the airIndustries located there were all immensely profitable.The sand on the beaches was dark gray.
30The Luddite movement emerged in order to Agitate for a 10 hour dayOppose industrial changes that were putting weavers out of work.Direct strikes that were breaking out all over Europe.Abolish child labor.
31Which of the following was a result of the growth of the textile industry in Great Britain Fewer cotton farms in Great Britain.The huge population growth in the country.The expansion of agriculture in India.The spread of slavery in the United States.
32Britain’s colonial empire fueled the development of industry in that country because A. The nation had access to vast amounts of raw materials.B. The war machine required quick and efficient production of goods.C. The colonies provided slave labor for growing industries.D. Workers in the colonies earned far less than workers in Britain.
33Which of the following countries was the first to industrialize? United StatesGreat BritainFranceJapan
34What did Benjamin Disraeli, Emmeline Pankhurst, and the Chartists have in common? A) All worked to limit immigration.B) All sought to extend the voting rights.C) All donated large sums of money to orphanages.D) All opposed child labor.
35What was the effect of the Reform Act of 1832? A) It gave industrial cities representation in Parliament for the first time.B) It gave women the right to vote for members of Parliament.C) It regulated working conditions and minimum wages in industry.D) It created the United Kingdom by joining England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
36The Dreyfus affair had a lasting impact because it A) kept women from voting for another sixty years.B) led to the Revolution of 1848.C) barred Jews from holding military commissions for almost a century.D) inspired the Zionist movement.
37The Reform Act of 1832 was passed to address which of the following issues? A) widespread alcoholism in BritainB) unequal representation in ParliamentC) women’s lack of suffrageD) harmful conditions for child workers
38previously separated people of different ethnicities. “Europe no longer possesses unity of faith, of mission, or of aim The question of nationality can only be resolved by destroying the treaties of 1815 and changing the map of Europe and its public law.” —Giuseppe Mazzini, “On Nationality,” Study the passage by Giuseppe Mazzini. According to the passage, Mazzini advocated changing national boundaries that hadpreviously separated people of different ethnicities.been put in place by Napoleon.been put in place by Napoleon. kept people of different religions from mingling.been set by the Congress of Vienna.
39The passage by Giuseppe Mazzini illustrates the concept of “Europe no longer possesses unity of faith, of mission, or of aim The question of nationality can only be resolved by destroying the treaties of 1815 and changing the map of Europe and its public law.” —Giuseppe Mazzini, “On Nationality,” 1852The passage by Giuseppe Mazzini illustrates the concept ofCatholicismcommunismnationalismsocialism
40ended his military campaign in Naples. Study the map titled “The Unification of Italy, 1858–1870.” According to the map Garibaldisailed North to France.defected to Romelived in Florence.ended his military campaign in Naples.
41Savoy and Nice Lombardy and Rome Venetia and Rome Sardinia and Sicily According to the map titled “The Unification of Italy, 1858–1870,” which territories were given to France in exchange for help in unifying the northern Italian states?Savoy and NiceLombardy and RomeVenetia and RomeSardinia and Sicily
42The territory surrounding Rome Sardinia According to the map titled “The Unification of Italy, 1858–1870,” which area was the last to be annexed by Italy?SicilyThe territory surrounding RomeSardiniaThe northern states of Savoy, Lombardy and Venetia
43Which of the following statements most accurately describes the economy of Italy in the years after unification? Please make your selectionThe unification of industrial, agricultural, and banking states led to a strong national economy.Plentiful land and a well-developed transportation network resulted in a nation of small, prosperous farmers.Widespread poverty and unemployment led to violence and emigration.Rising industry led to rapid urbanization and a modern economy.
44What goal did Giuseppe Mazzini, Camillo di Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi all have in common? A democratic republic in ItalyThe unification of GermanyThe unification of ItalyThe return of Italy to the glory of the Roman Empire
45Giuseppe Garibaldi’s actions show that he was most committed to A. a republican government.B. achieving political power.C. the unification of Italy.D. the return of Italy to the glory of the Roman Empire.
46According to the map titled “The Unification of Germany, 1865–1871,” states that joined the German EmpireA. had been part of Denmark B. were in the South C. bordered the Russian Empire D. nearly tripled the size of Germany
47According to the map titled “The Unification of Germany, 1865–1871,” in which direction did the Prussian armies advance during the Austro-Prussian war?A. west B. north C. southeast D. northwest
48According to the map titled “The Unification of Germany, 1865–1871,” before 1866 Prussia a.was relatively small compared to other German states. b.was landlocked. c.was divided into two parts. d.controlled Belgium and the Netherlands.
49According to the map titled “The Unification of Germany, 1865–1871,” in which direction did the German armies advance during the Franco-Prussian War?A. west B. north C. east D. northeast
50German liberals who revolted in 1848 all wanted A. a constitutional monarchy.B. a republic.C. reforms that would promote individual rights.D. the Zollverein.
51What did Otto von Bismarck mean by the phrase “blood and iron”? A. Germany needed railroads to unite the country.B. Prussia would fight to obtain iron.C. He would continue to fight until he was named emperor.D. He would use the Prussian military as a force for German unification.
52The Treaty of NanjingA. benefited European countries at the expense of ChinaB. allowed the Chinese to try British citizens in Chinese courtsC. returned Shanghai to the ChineseD. strengthened the Qing dynasty
53The Meiji Restoration refers to the A. peace process between China and Japan in the late 1800’sB. period of unrest in China that preceded the 1911 revolutionC. Japanese emperor’s return to powerD. rebuilding of Japan’s imperial cities
54Which best describes political motives driving the new European imperialism in Africa? A. European leaders believed that controlling colonies would gain more respect from other leaders.B. European leaders wanted to develop industry in Africa and reap their profits.C. Population decline led European countries to look to Africa for workers to fuel industrialization in home countries.D. Europeans believed they had much to learn from Africans.
55Why did Britain begin exporting opium to China? A. to prevent opium from going to British subjectsB. to change the balance of trade in favor of BritainC. to make colonization of China easierD. to improve the health of Chinese citizens
56The Treaty of Kanagawa contributed to A. the shogun’s power.B. a rise in nationalism.C. the prestige of the TokugawasD. Japanese wealth through high tariffs.
57Why did the British occupy Egypt in 1882? A. to rebuild the Suez Canal to accommodate larger shipsB. to set up trading posts along the coastC. to maintain access to the Suez Canal when the Egyptian government appeared unstableD. to secure the Congo River to aid Leopold of Belgium
58Study the map titled ”Imperialism in Africa Study the map titled ”Imperialism in Africa.” Which country was the first to seize land in Africa?A. FranceB. BelgiumC. PortugalD. Italy
59Study the map titled ”Imperialism in Africa Study the map titled ”Imperialism in Africa.” By what year had almost all of Africa been colonized?A. 1850B. 1880C. 1912D. 1940
60Which of the following was one factor that allowed European nations to extend their control over Asia and Africa after 1800?A. military advantages such as superior waeponsB. the rise of great empires in Asia nd North AfricaC. the superiority of European trade networksD. European democratic traditions
61What led the British government to take control of India from the British East India Company? A. the Mughal RevoltB. the spice tradeC. missionary impulsesD. the Sepoy Mutiny
62Key terms that you NEED to know (from Chapter 12 – World War I) Triple Alliance Fourteen PointsTrench warfare Central PowersBolsheviks GenocideWoodrow Wilson Treaty of VersaillesTriple Entente Allied PowersTotal war League of NationsGrigory Rasputin MandatesU-Boats Balfour DeclarationFranz FerdinandPropagandaMarxism-LeninismZimmermann NoteGavrilo PrincipBattle of VerdunLeon TrotskyArmisticeNeutralGallipoli CampaignNew Economic Policy