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World War II Rise of Dictatorships Holocaust Beginning of WWII

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1 World War II Rise of Dictatorships Holocaust Beginning of WWII
Home Front Preparations Atlantic Front & Pacific Front Peace Talks

2 Main Idea Rise of Dictators- A failed treaty, changing Europe, and a global Depression led to the reemergence of nationalism and dictatorship.

3 Introduction Reemergence of European Nationalism

4 Key words to know Communism- is a socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. Fascism- is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and social interests secondary to the interests of the state or party Nazism- German brand of fascism Totalitarianism- state regulation of nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.

5 Characteristics of a Totalitarian State
Extreme Nationalist Government Control Anti-Semitic Militaristic Single Party- lacks democracy Rule by terror- secret police Control of Media- propaganda

6 Failures of WWI Treaty Caused anger and resentment (Germany and Russia) Germany blamed for the war Colonies were stripped New democracies struggled Many new countries lack democratic tradition. With lack of tradition people were not willing to let things get worse before they got better!!!

7 Post WWI map of new territories

8 Joseph Stalin Transforms USSR
The Model Communist State National Agriculture and Industry became the primary goals Stalin abolished privately owned farms and turned them into collectives Stalin created five-year plans that directed industrial growth (1937 2nd largest) Through fear and terror (Great Purge) Stalin created a Totalitarian state. (1939)

9 Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel”

10 USSR symbol represents ideas

11 Rise of Fascism in Italy
Benito Mussolini and his Black Shirts Economic Crisis and Fear of Communism opened the door for Fascism 1921 fascist party created, by 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of “black shirts” Declared himself the Il Duce “the leader” Totalitarian state in joint rule with the King

12 Benito Mussolini

13 Symbol of the Fascist

14 The Nazis Take Over Germany
Adolf Hitler’s rise to power! 1919 Hitler joins Nazi party Hitler tries to over through the government (Munich Beer Hall Revolution) and gets thrown in jail were he writes Mein Kempf. (Lays the ground work for Nazi Germany) Great Depression- war debts, fear of communism, lack of American loans, run away inflation, etc.

15 The Nazis take over Germany
Hitler’s rise to power Many agitated un-employed Germans joined Hitler’s “brown shirts” By 1932 Nazis had become the strongest party in the Reichstag 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor and destroyed the Weimer Republic and created the Third Reich

16 Hitler hoisting a Nazi Flag

17 Main Idea Holocaust- systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews.

18 Holocaust Why Jews? Scapegoats for causes and failures of the German economy and defeat of WWI

19 Holocaust Under the Nuremburg Laws, Jews were subjected to economic, social, and legal restrictions which made it virtually impossible to do anything. Government employees were let go Lost German citizenship Jobs Property Forced to wear Star of David

20 Holocaust Kristallnacht- “Night of Broken Glass”
Nazi storm troopers (SS) attacked Jewish homes businesses, and synagogues. Nov 30,000 Jews were arrested and many others were moved into ghettos Jews tried to flee to other countries, but nobody wanted them.

21 Holocaust “Final Solution”- policy of genocide
Wished to create a master race of Aryans Political opponents, gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, physically handy capped, mentally ill, etc. From ghettos to concentration camps Concentration camps- labor camps or death camps

22 Holocaust Mass Extermination Most death camps were in Poland
Prisoners went through countless inspections (selection) Strong worked, weak were gassed, shot, burned, drowned, etc. Experiments done on Jews Six million Jews died during the holocaust




26 Entrance to Auschwitz

27 Woman about to be executed

28 Jews rescued by Canadian Forces


30 Survivors

31 Children of the Holocaust

32 Survivor idea number

33 Jews rounded up for the Ghetto or transport!

34 Picture of Star of David on coats

35 Bags of hair

36 Expansion of the German Empire
Beginning of WWII Expansion of the German Empire Invasion of Poland Invasion of France Battle for Britain Operation Barbarossa

37 Main Idea Beginning of Hostility- Dictators’ imperialistic pursuits and appeasement by world powers set World War II in motion.

38 Clouds of War Write three key points in your notes!!!!
Beginning of War Clouds of War Write three key points in your notes!!!!

39 Aggression in the World
Militarist gain control of Japan Hideki Tojo- Japanese nationalist Manchurian Crisis 1931(imperialistic pursuit of raw materials) Italy becomes imperialistic 1935 Ethiopian crisis Civil War in Spain 1936 Francisco Franco (Fascist) receives support from Hitler and Mussolini to establish a totalitarian state in Spain

40 Japanese Empire 1932

41 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia

42 Map of Europe prior to WWI


44 Hitler moves to build his Empire
Hitler pushes for more “Lebensraum” Lebensraum- mean living space for Germans In 1935 Hitler begins to rebuild the military Rhineland- Hitler moves troops into a demilitarized zone 1936 Austria (March 12, 1938) Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact (September 30, 1938) Appeasement- giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.

45 Hitler's Empire Hitler’s expansion into Poland and the start of WWII
Great deal of German speaking people living in Poland Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939) Germany attacks Poland and by Sept. 3 BR & FR declare war on Germany War Comes to Europe Write three key points!!!

46 Main Idea German Blitz: Germany’s use of technology and superb strategy allowed them to dominate the early years of the war.

47 World War II Begins: German Blitz
For the next several months German and the Allied troops stared at each other at the Maginot Line (Phony War) Meanwhile… Stalin annexed former Russian possessions and took control of Poland. Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway through military deception then turned against the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. Fall of France in June of 1940

48 1 2 3 5 4

49 Battle for Britain Operation Sea Lion All out invasion of Britain
British controlled the sea, so Hitler would try to control the air Round the clock bombing of Britain Radar, Ultra, and RAF saved Britain from annihilation.

50 Hitler’ s big mistake Operation Barbarossa



53 Hitler's Big Mistake June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa
Hitler’s invasion of the East (Russia) Hitler invades with 3 million troops to Russia’s 2.9 million troops. Russian’s 2:1 advantage in tanks and airplanes

54 Hitler’s Mistake Attack in the East
By October Russian weather begins to set in. (Rain, then Snow) Scorched Earth Policy Battle for Stalingrad (Aug. 21, 1942 to Feb. 2, 1943) Oil and control of the Volga




58 War in the East

59 Hitler’s Failure Underestimated Red Army
Did not take weather into account Supply lines too far away from the front Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the Eastern Front.

60 WWII the American Experience
Isolationism and Neutrality Moving Towards War Preparation for war Fighting the War in Europe Fighting the War in the Pacific Peace Treaty Process

61 Main Idea Moving Towards War- Although isolationist feeling was strong and neutrality legislation supported such sentiments, by 1939 Roosevelt had slowly turned America toward internationalist approach. After Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, the US finally entered World War II.

62 Isolationism and Neutrality
Response to the growing conflict in Europe Isolationism- opposition to political entanglements with other countries WWI blamed on Bankers and “Merchants of Death” Neutrality Acts ( )- First three acts outlawed the sale of arms to warring nations or nations involved in Civil War

63 Moving Towards War Neutrality Act of established the policy of “cash and carry” By 1940 the Tripartite Pact was signed to try and keep the US out of war. (Germany, Italy, Japan) After the Tripartite Pact the US increases defense spending. FDR's speech regarding the Axis threat. March 1941 congress passes the Lend-Lease Act. His goal was to make America an “Arsenal for Democracy” Aid was sent to Britain and Russia

64 Moving Towards War German Wolf Pack- groups of German subs that preyed upon British shipping lines. 350,000 tons a month Sept. 1941, FDR allows Navy to sink subs in self-defense Later that year America started to arm merchant ships

65 Moving Towards War Atlantic Charter
Meeting between FDR and Churchill that hoped to rally support for the war. Collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas Charter would later become the blueprint of the United Nations after the war

66 Moving Towards War Japan Attacks the United States
By 1941 Japan and the US were the only two powers in the Pacific. Due to Japan’s imperialistic pursuits, the US created a trade embargo on Japan. Japan decided that war could not be averted and attacked the US at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor Speech Pearl Harbor Map Dec. 8, 1941 the US declared war on Japan


68 America Goes to War and the Adjustment at Home
World War II achieved all the things that the New Deal could not. Factories were employing again to make war goods and the economy recovered at a rapid pass. However, American culture and society would never be the same.

69 America Goes to War America built an army with the Selective Service
Young Americans crammed recruiting offices after Pearl Harbor 5 mil. Volunteers, 10 mil. Drafted Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps Minorities suit up in the military (Africans, Chinese, Japanese, Indians)

70 America Goes to War Adjustment at Home
Industrial Response (converted from peace time production to war time production) ex. Car industry War Production Board (rationed resource material vital to the production of war goods) Office of Price Administration (fought inflation, rationed foods) National War Labor Board (stabilized the work force) Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (limited right to strike)

71 America Goes to War Paying for the war 1941-1945 $321 Billion
Office of War Information Revenue Act of 1942 (raised taxes) Department of Treasury (issued war bonds)

72 America Goes to War Office of Scientific Research and Development (radar, sonar, DDT, penicillin, Manhattan Project) Labor takes shape Women (6 million) Minorities 2 million(A. Philip Randolph) Courage and Sacrifice


























98 Soft Underbelly of Europe
Atlantic Front Four Stages of War War for the Atlantic Operation Torch Soft Underbelly of Europe

99 Allied Forces in the West
December 1941 the big two met and decided to focus Allied resources on winning the Atlantic. Why the Atlantic versus the Pacific? US was in poor condition to fight the Japanese in the pacific (Active Defense) FDR considered Hitler the biggest threat Soviet Union desperate for help After German defeat Britain and Russia could aid in the Pacific

100 Allied Forces in the West
At the December meeting the big two outlined the battle plan for the Atlantic Four Stage War Control the Atlantic Liberation of North Africa Soft Underbelly of Europe All out invasion of France (D-Day)


102 Allied Forces in the West
Control the Atlantic Prior to 1943 German Wolf Packs were sinking ships on the east coast and in the Atlantic. (Hundreds of ships, tons of supplies numbering in the millions) To combat the U-boats advanced radar, sonar, convoy systems, and airplanes were used Battle of the Convoys BBC - History - The Battle of the Atlantic Game

103 Turing Points in the Atlantic Campaign
Battle for Stalingrad (January 31, 1943) 2nd Battle at El Alamein ( November, ) Why? USSR began to mount an offensive and secured oil reserves Middle East was safe from Nazi control Battle for the Suez Canal Battle at El Alamein

104 Allied Forces in the West
Operation Torch (Invasion of North Africa) Goals: Relieve pressure from the Suez Canal Create a jumping point into Europe (Italy) Nov ,000 Landed in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) After a month of heavy fighting Germany’s Africa Corp surrenders in May of 1943 BBC - History - Animated Map: The North African Campaign Casablanca Conference (January 14 to 24, 1943) The Big Two (Roosevelt and Churchill) Unconditional Surrender (proves that allies will go the distance)


106 Allied Forces in the West
Soft Underbelly of Europe (Italy) Goals: Force Italy to surrender Eliminate Mussolini Gain a southern front towards Germany July 10, ,000 American and British troops landed in Sicily. Marked the first time the Allies had set foot in Europe since 1940.


108 Allied Forces in the West
Soft Underbelly is really a tough old gut Battle of Monte Cassino (Jan.-May of 1944) Terrain made it difficult Gustov Line- heavy German fortifications across the center of Italy (Monte Cassino) Battle of Anzio (Battle to cut off the Gustov Line Jan-May of 1944) 54,000 died BBC - History - Animated Map: The Italian Campaign

109 D-Day: Invasion of France


111 Allied Forces in the West
Operation Overlord (D Day) Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Commander) Deception at Calais Bombing of transportation lines to cutoff reinforcements (Control the Air) Dropping of thousands of paratroopers, were used to disrupt enemy lines and transportation. (June 6, shortly after midnight) June 6th 1944 at 6:30 A.M. 176,000 troops landed on the beaches of Normandy

112 Deception at Calais

113 101st and 82nd Airborne land first in order to secure bridges and roads for the incoming invasion.

114 Landing at Omaha

115 Moving Supplies after the Gaining Control of the Beachheads

116 Allied Forces in the West
Five Beaches: Juno, Gold, Sword, Utah, and Omaha. Page 781. Hitler failed to send reinforcements to Rommel Battle lasted from June 6 to July 24 By the end there was over 1 mil. Troops in France BBC - History - Animated Map: The D-Day Landings

117 Allied forces in the West
Road to Germany August 25, 1944 Paris was liberated Within 6 weeks France was cleared of all German troops Animated Map: Liberation of France Sept. of 1944 Belgium and Luxembourg were also liberated from German rule


119 Allied Forces in the West
Battle of the Bulge October of 1944 Allies captured their first German Town Hitler responds with a desperate offensive Dec. 16, 1944 with 250,000 troops hundreds of tanks and planes

120 Allied Forces in the West
Battle of the Bulge Hitler prepares for the attack in secret Goal: Push deep into Belgium and swing towards Antwerp (Major shipping outpost) hoping to disrupt supply lines and lower morale of the allies

121 Allied Forces in the West
Battle of the Bulge Battered Bastards of Bastogne (101st Airborne) Patton’s 3rd army drives the Germans out of the Bulge Cost for Germans: 120,000 men, 600 tanks, and 1600 planes




125 Allied Forces in the West
Battle of the Bulge (last German offensive of the war) Yalta Conference: February 12, 1945 Feb. 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at a resort in Yalta Goal: 1. Preserve alliance with Stalin 2. Contain the Spread of Communism 3. Gain Soviet support for a new world peace keeping organization

126 Allied Forces move towards Victory
Remainder of the War in Europe Allies began to liberate concentration camps March 7,1945 the 1st Army crosses the Rhine Eisenhower is pressured to beat the Russians to Berlin Roosevelt dies on April 12, 1945(Busted Blood Vessel in Head)

127 V-E Day Remainder of the War
April 29, 1945 Hitler commits suicide May 8, 1945 German unconditionally Surrender (V-E Day) Cost of War: close to 60 millions people from 1939 to 1945

128 Image that illustrates the extent of the Japanese Empire by 1942.

129 Geographical Image of battles in the Pacific
Geographical Image of battles in the Pacific. Make sure that the students know what the arrows mean.

130 War in the Pacific

131 War in the Pacific Japanese Offensive
Japanese began to build an empire that included much of the Pacific islands. They eventually conquered the Philippines and captured thousands of American soldiers who would eventually become part of the Bataan Death March. 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan was setting in a good position.


133 War in the Pacific Active Defense- after Pearl Harbor the U.S. was in no condition to launch a full scale war in the Pacific. We relied on our Carriers to provide this active defense. Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)- first meeting of both fleets. Fighting done completely in the air. Victory for U.S. because the advance on Australia was stopped.



136 War in the Pacific Battle of Midway (June 1942)
Adm. Nimitz receives and decodes message stating that the Japanese fleet is coming to Midway in route to Hawaii. Nimitz sets up a surprise attack and destroys 4 of the Japanese carriers, therefore crippling the Japanese fleet. Battle of Midway was the turning point for the United States.


138 War in the Pacific Battle for Guadalcanal (August 1942)
First land engagement of the war Guadalcanal was important because it could serve as a stepping stone to the Philippines. Was a hand to hand fought battle that showed the pride and toughness of the Japanese military. U.S. won the battle and established an airfield to bomb the Philippines .


140 War in the Pacific Island Hopping (1943-1945)
U.S. military strategy that involves the hopping from island to island liberating each one so they can build an airfield to catapult bombers to the next island with the goal of moving towards Japan. Island Hopping was not easy, and America suffered many casualties while fighting many of the land battles. Some of the worst were Iwo Jima and the Marines Islands.


142 War in the Pacific The B-29 is like no other weapon of War
Range: 1500 miles Speed: 400mph Payload: 2000 lbs. The B-29 allowed the US to bypass islands and strategically hop from island to island. The Japanese could not match the effectiveness of this plane

143 War in the Pacific Battle of the Philippines and the Kamikaze Pilots
Philippines was the largest naval battle in the history of man kind Battle of Leyte Gulf would be the first place that Kamikaze pilots were used. Kamikaze pilots were suicide pilots that sought to crash their planes into carriers. After the Battle of the Philippines the American Fleet could move throughout the Pacific freely


145 War in the Pacific Battle of Iwo Jima (Sulfur Island)- Critical target, because US could use airfield to reach Japan. 20, 000 Japanese. Only 200 survived. 6,000 American Lives. Battle of Okinawa- Japanese unleashed heavy kamikaze attacks killing many Americans. Worse than Iwo Jima. 110,000 Japanese lives and 7,600 American lives lost. Americans began to wonder what it would be like trying to invade Japan after Okinawa.


147 War in the Pacific Atomic Bomb (Manhattan Project)
The atomic bomb cost $2 billion to build. Bomb was built by the OSRD and European Scientist who had fled Europe during Germany’s reign. No one really knew how much damage the bomb would create not even its creator J. Robert Oppenheimer.

148 War in the Pacific Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6th and August 14th 1945) Fearing an invasion of Japanese mainland Truman decided to drop the bomb. Hundreds of thousands of people would die or suffer from long term effects of the atomic bomb. August 14th 1945 Japanese Emperor surrendered ending WWII.

149 Peace Process of WWII Do we drop it or not. Page 791 End of the War
Yalta conference page 791 Nuremberg War Trials 792 Occupation of Japan 793

150 Essay Detail the order of events that forced America’s involvement in WWII. Now that America is officially at war, what problems did they face? How did American Government approach those problems? In what ways did America adjust and did the people adjust to meet the heavy demands of war?

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