Presentation on theme: "World War II Rise of Dictatorships Holocaust Beginning of WWII Home Front Preparations Atlantic Front & Pacific Front Peace Talks."— Presentation transcript:
World War II Rise of Dictatorships Holocaust Beginning of WWII Home Front Preparations Atlantic Front & Pacific Front Peace Talks
Main Idea Rise of Dictators- A failed treaty, changing Europe, and a global Depression led to the reemergence of nationalism and dictatorship.
Introduction Reemergence of European NationalismReemergence of European Nationalism
Key words to know Communism- is a socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. Fascism- is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and social interests secondary to the interests of the state or party Nazism- German brand of fascism Totalitarianism- state regulation of nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State Extreme Nationalist Government Control Anti-Semitic Militaristic Single Party- lacks democracy Rule by terror- secret police Control of Media- propaganda
Failures of WWI Treaty Caused anger and resentment (Germany and Russia) –Germany blamed for the war –Colonies were stripped New democracies struggled –Many new countries lack democratic tradition. With lack of tradition people were not willing to let things get worse before they got better!!!
Post WWI map of new territories
Joseph Stalin Transforms USSR The Model Communist State –National Agriculture and Industry became the primary goals –Stalin abolished privately owned farms and turned them into collectives –Stalin created five-year plans that directed industrial growth ( nd largest) –Through fear and terror (Great Purge) Stalin created a Totalitarian state. (1939)
Joseph Stalin Man of Steel
USSR symbol represents ideas
Rise of Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini and his Black Shirts –Economic Crisis and Fear of Communism opened the door for Fascism –1921 fascist party created, by 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of black shirts –Declared himself the Il Duce the leader –Totalitarian state in joint rule with the King
Symbol of the Fascist
The Nazis Take Over Germany Adolf Hitlers rise to power! –1919 Hitler joins Nazi party –Hitler tries to over through the government (Munich Beer Hall Revolution) and gets thrown in jail were he writes Mein Kempf. (Lays the ground work for Nazi Germany) –Great Depression- war debts, fear of communism, lack of American loans, run away inflation, etc.
The Nazis take over Germany Hitlers rise to power –Many agitated un-employed Germans joined Hitlers brown shirts –By 1932 Nazis had become the strongest party in the Reichstag –1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor and destroyed the Weimer Republic and created the Third Reich
Hitler hoisting a Nazi Flag
Main Idea Holocaust- systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews.
Holocaust Why Jews? –Scapegoats for causes and failures of the German economy and defeat of WWI
Holocaust Under the Nuremburg Laws, Jews were subjected to economic, social, and legal restrictions which made it virtually impossible to do anything. –Government employees were let go –Lost German citizenship –Jobs –Property –Forced to wear Star of David
Holocaust Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass –Nazi storm troopers (SS) attacked Jewish homes businesses, and synagogues. Nov –30,000 Jews were arrested and many others were moved into ghettos –Jews tried to flee to other countries, but nobody wanted them.
Holocaust Final Solution- policy of genocide –Wished to create a master race of Aryans –Political opponents, gypsies, Jehovahs Witnesses, homosexuals, physically handy capped, mentally ill, etc. –From ghettos to concentration camps –Concentration camps- labor camps or death camps
Holocaust Mass Extermination –Most death camps were in Poland –Prisoners went through countless inspections (selection) –Strong worked, weak were gassed, shot, burned, drowned, etc. –Experiments done on Jews –Six million Jews died during the holocaust
Entrance to Auschwitz
Woman about to be executed
Jews rescued by Canadian Forces
Children of the Holocaust
Survivor idea number
Jews rounded up for the Ghetto or transport!
Picture of Star of David on coats
Bags of hair
Beginning of WWII Expansion of the German Empire Invasion of Poland Invasion of France Battle for Britain Operation Barbarossa
Main Idea Beginning of Hostility- Dictators imperialistic pursuits and appeasement by world powers set World War II in motion.
Beginning of War Clouds of War Write three key points in your notes!!!!
Aggression in the World Militarist gain control of Japan –Hideki Tojo- Japanese nationalist –Manchurian Crisis 1931(imperialistic pursuit of raw materials) Italy becomes imperialistic –1935 Ethiopian crisis Civil War in Spain 1936 –Francisco Franco (Fascist) receives support from Hitler and Mussolini to establish a totalitarian state in Spain
Japanese Empire 1932
Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
Map of Europe prior to WWI
Hitler moves to build his Empire Hitler pushes for more Lebensraum –Lebensraum- mean living space for Germans –In 1935 Hitler begins to rebuild the military –Rhineland- Hitler moves troops into a demilitarized zone 1936 –Austria (March 12, 1938) –Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact (September 30, 1938) –Appeasement- giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
Hitler's Empire Hitlers expansion into Poland and the start of WWII –Great deal of German speaking people living in Poland –Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939) –Germany attacks Poland and by Sept. 3 BR & FR declare war on Germany –War Comes to EuropeWar Comes to Europe –Write three key points!!!
Main Idea German Blitz: Germanys use of technology and superb strategy allowed them to dominate the early years of the war.
World War II Begins: German Blitz For the next several months German and the Allied troops stared at each other at the Maginot Line (Phony War) Meanwhile… Stalin annexed former Russian possessions and took control of Poland. Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway through military deception then turned against the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. Fall of France in June of 1940
Battle for Britain Operation Sea Lion –All out invasion of Britain –British controlled the sea, so Hitler would try to control the air –Round the clock bombing of Britain –Radar, Ultra, and RAF saved Britain from annihilation.
Hitler s big mistake Operation Barbarossa
Hitler's Big Mistake June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa –Hitlers invasion of the East (Russia) –Hitler invades with 3 million troops to Russias 2.9 million troops. –Russians 2:1 advantage in tanks and airplanes
Hitlers Mistake Attack in the East –By October Russian weather begins to set in. (Rain, then Snow) –Scorched Earth Policy –Battle for Stalingrad (Aug. 21, 1942 to Feb. 2, 1943) Oil and control of the Volga
War in the East
Hitlers Failure Underestimated Red Army Did not take weather into account Supply lines too far away from the front Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the Eastern Front.
WWII the American Experience Isolationism and Neutrality Moving Towards War Preparation for war Fighting the War in Europe Fighting the War in the Pacific Peace Treaty Process
Main Idea Moving Towards War- Although isolationist feeling was strong and neutrality legislation supported such sentiments, by 1939 Roosevelt had slowly turned America toward internationalist approach. After Japans attack on Pearl Harbor, the US finally entered World War II.
Isolationism and Neutrality Response to the growing conflict in Europe –Isolationism- opposition to political entanglements with other countries –WWI blamed on Bankers and Merchants of Death –Neutrality Acts ( )- First three acts outlawed the sale of arms to warring nations or nations involved in Civil War
Moving Towards War Neutrality Act of established the policy of cash and carry By 1940 the Tripartite Pact was signed to try and keep the US out of war. (Germany, Italy, Japan) After the Tripartite Pact the US increases defense spending. FDR's speech regarding the Axis threat.FDR's speech regarding the Axis threat. March 1941 congress passes the Lend-Lease Act. His goal was to make America an Arsenal for Democracy Aid was sent to Britain and Russia
Moving Towards War German Wolf Pack- groups of German subs that preyed upon British shipping lines. 350,000 tons a month Sept. 1941, FDR allows Navy to sink subs in self- defense Later that year America started to arm merchant ships
Moving Towards War Atlantic Charter –Meeting between FDR and Churchill that hoped to rally support for the war. –Collective security, disarmament, self- determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas –Charter would later become the blueprint of the United Nations after the war
Moving Towards War Japan Attacks the United States –By 1941 Japan and the US were the only two powers in the Pacific. –Due to Japans imperialistic pursuits, the US created a trade embargo on Japan. –Japan decided that war could not be averted and attacked the US at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor Speech Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor Speech – Pearl Harbor MapPearl Harbor Map –Dec. 8, 1941 the US declared war on Japan
America Goes to War and the Adjustment at Home World War II achieved all the things that the New Deal could not. Factories were employing again to make war goods and the economy recovered at a rapid pass. However, American culture and society would never be the same.
America Goes to War America built an army with the Selective Service –Young Americans crammed recruiting offices after Pearl Harbor –5 mil. Volunteers, 10 mil. Drafted –Womens Auxiliary Army Corps –Minorities suit up in the military (Africans, Chinese, Japanese, Indians)
America Goes to War Adjustment at Home –Industrial Response (converted from peace time production to war time production) ex. Car industry –War Production Board (rationed resource material vital to the production of war goods) –Office of Price Administration (fought inflation, rationed foods) –National War Labor Board (stabilized the work force) –Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (limited right to strike)
America Goes to War Paying for the war – $321 Billion –Office of War Information –Revenue Act of 1942 (raised taxes) –Department of Treasury (issued war bonds)
America Goes to War –Office of Scientific Research and Development (radar, sonar, DDT, penicillin, Manhattan Project) –Labor takes shape Women (6 million) Minorities 2 million(A. Philip Randolph) Courage and Sacrifice Courage and Sacrifice
Atlantic Front Four Stages of War War for the Atlantic Operation Torch Soft Underbelly of Europe
Allied Forces in the West December 1941 the big two met and decided to focus Allied resources on winning the Atlantic. Why the Atlantic versus the Pacific? –US was in poor condition to fight the Japanese in the pacific (Active Defense) –FDR considered Hitler the biggest threat –Soviet Union desperate for help –After German defeat Britain and Russia could aid in the Pacific
Allied Forces in the West At the December meeting the big two outlined the battle plan for the Atlantic Four Stage War –Control the Atlantic –Liberation of North Africa –Soft Underbelly of Europe –All out invasion of France (D-Day)
Allied Forces in the West Control the Atlantic –Prior to 1943 German Wolf Packs were sinking ships on the east coast and in the Atlantic. (Hundreds of ships, tons of supplies numbering in the millions) –To combat the U-boats advanced radar, sonar, convoy systems, and airplanes were used –Battle of the ConvoysBattle of the Convoys –BBC - History - The Battle of the Atlantic GameBBC - History - The Battle of the Atlantic Game
Turing Points in the Atlantic Campaign Battle for Stalingrad (January 31, 1943) 2 nd Battle at El Alamein ( November, ) –Why? USSR began to mount an offensive and secured oil reserves Middle East was safe from Nazi control –Battle for the Suez Canal Battle at El AlameinBattle at El Alamein
Allied Forces in the West Operation Torch (Invasion of North Africa) –Goals: Relieve pressure from the Suez Canal Create a jumping point into Europe (Italy) –Nov ,000 Landed in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) –After a month of heavy fighting Germanys Africa Corp surrenders in May of 1943 –BBC - History - Animated Map: The North African CampaignBBC - History - Animated Map: The North African Campaign Casablanca Conference (January 14 to 24, 1943) –The Big Two (Roosevelt and Churchill) –Unconditional Surrender (proves that allies will go the distance)
Allied Forces in the West Soft Underbelly of Europe (Italy) –Goals: Force Italy to surrender Eliminate Mussolini Gain a southern front towards Germany –July 10, ,000 American and British troops landed in Sicily. Marked the first time the Allies had set foot in Europe since 1940.
Allied Forces in the West Soft Underbelly is really a tough old gut Battle of Monte Cassino (Jan.-May of 1944) Terrain made it difficult –Gustov Line- heavy German fortifications across the center of Italy (Monte Cassino) –Battle of Anzio (Battle to cut off the Gustov Line Jan-May of 1944) 54,000 died BBC - History - Animated Map: The Italian Campaign
D-Day: Invasion of France
Allied Forces in the West Operation Overlord (D Day) –Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Commander) –Deception at Calais –Bombing of transportation lines to cutoff reinforcements (Control the Air) –Dropping of thousands of paratroopers, were used to disrupt enemy lines and transportation. (June 6, shortly after midnight) –June 6 th 1944 at 6:30 A.M. 176,000 troops landed on the beaches of Normandy
Deception at Calais
101 st and 82 nd Airborne land first in order to secure bridges and roads for the incoming invasion.
Landing at Omaha
Moving Supplies after the Gaining Control of the Beachheads
Allied Forces in the West –Five Beaches: Juno, Gold, Sword, Utah, and Omaha. Page 781. –Hitler failed to send reinforcements to Rommel –Battle lasted from June 6 to July 24 –By the end there was over 1 mil. Troops in France BBC - History - Animated Map: The D- Day LandingsBBC - History - Animated Map: The D- Day Landings
Allied forces in the West Road to Germany –August 25, 1944 Paris was liberated –Within 6 weeks France was cleared of all German troops –Animated Map: Liberation of FranceAnimated Map: Liberation of France –Sept. of 1944 Belgium and Luxembourg were also liberated from German rule
Allied Forces in the West Battle of the Bulge –October of 1944 Allies captured their first German Town –Hitler responds with a desperate offensive –Dec. 16, 1944 with 250,000 troops hundreds of tanks and planes
Allied Forces in the West Battle of the Bulge –Hitler prepares for the attack in secret –Goal: Push deep into Belgium and swing towards Antwerp (Major shipping outpost) hoping to disrupt supply lines and lower morale of the allies
Allied Forces in the West Battle of the Bulge –Battered Bastards of Bastogne (101 st Airborne) –Pattons 3 rd army drives the Germans out of the Bulge –Cost for Germans: 120,000 men, 600 tanks, and 1600 planes
Allied Forces in the West Battle of the Bulge (last German offensive of the war) Yalta Conference: February 12, 1945 –Feb. 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at a resort in Yalta –Goal: 1. Preserve alliance with Stalin 2. Contain the Spread of Communism 3. Gain Soviet support for a new world peace keeping organization
Allied Forces move towards Victory Remainder of the War in Europe –Allies began to liberate concentration camps –March 7,1945 the 1 st Army crosses the Rhine –Eisenhower is pressured to beat the Russians to Berlin –Roosevelt dies on April 12, 1945(Busted Blood Vessel in Head)
V-E Day Remainder of the War –April 29, 1945 Hitler commits suicide –May 8, 1945 German unconditionally Surrender (V-E Day) –Cost of War: close to 60 millions people from 1939 to 1945
War in the Pacific
Japanese Offensive –Japanese began to build an empire that included much of the Pacific islands. –They eventually conquered the Philippines and captured thousands of American soldiers who would eventually become part of the Bataan Death March. –6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan was setting in a good position.
War in the Pacific Active Defense- after Pearl Harbor the U.S. was in no condition to launch a full scale war in the Pacific. We relied on our Carriers to provide this active defense. Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)- first meeting of both fleets. Fighting done completely in the air. Victory for U.S. because the advance on Australia was stopped.
War in the Pacific Battle of Midway (June 1942) –Adm. Nimitz receives and decodes message stating that the Japanese fleet is coming to Midway in route to Hawaii. –Nimitz sets up a surprise attack and destroys 4 of the Japanese carriers, therefore crippling the Japanese fleet. –Battle of Midway was the turning point for the United States.
War in the Pacific Battle for Guadalcanal (August 1942) –First land engagement of the war –Guadalcanal was important because it could serve as a stepping stone to the Philippines. –Was a hand to hand fought battle that showed the pride and toughness of the Japanese military. –U.S. won the battle and established an airfield to bomb the Philippines.
War in the Pacific Island Hopping ( ) –U.S. military strategy that involves the hopping from island to island liberating each one so they can build an airfield to catapult bombers to the next island with the goal of moving towards Japan. –Island Hopping was not easy, and America suffered many casualties while fighting many of the land battles. Some of the worst were Iwo Jima and the Marines Islands.
War in the Pacific The B-29 is like no other weapon of War –Range: 1500 miles –Speed: 400mph –Payload: 2000 lbs. –The B-29 allowed the US to bypass islands and strategically hop from island to island. –The Japanese could not match the effectiveness of this plane
War in the Pacific Battle of the Philippines and the Kamikaze Pilots –Philippines was the largest naval battle in the history of man kind –Battle of Leyte Gulf would be the first place that Kamikaze pilots were used. –Kamikaze pilots were suicide pilots that sought to crash their planes into carriers. –After the Battle of the Philippines the American Fleet could move throughout the Pacific freely
War in the Pacific Battle of Iwo Jima (Sulfur Island)- Critical target, because US could use airfield to reach Japan. 20, 000 Japanese. Only 200 survived. 6,000 American Lives. Battle of Okinawa- Japanese unleashed heavy kamikaze attacks killing many Americans. Worse than Iwo Jima. 110,000 Japanese lives and 7,600 American lives lost. Americans began to wonder what it would be like trying to invade Japan after Okinawa.
War in the Pacific Atomic Bomb (Manhattan Project) –The atomic bomb cost $2 billion to build. –Bomb was built by the OSRD and European Scientist who had fled Europe during Germanys reign. –No one really knew how much damage the bomb would create not even its creator J. Robert Oppenheimer.
War in the Pacific Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6 th and August 14 th 1945) –Fearing an invasion of Japanese mainland Truman decided to drop the bomb. –Hundreds of thousands of people would die or suffer from long term effects of the atomic bomb. –August 14 th 1945 Japanese Emperor surrendered ending WWII.
Peace Process of WWII Do we drop it or not. Page 791 End of the War –Yalta conference page 791 –Nuremberg War Trials 792 –Occupation of Japan 793
Essay Detail the order of events that forced Americas involvement in WWII. Now that America is officially at war, what problems did they face? How did American Government approach those problems? In what ways did America adjust and did the people adjust to meet the heavy demands of war?