4Key words to knowCommunism- is a socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production.Fascism- is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and social interests secondary to the interests of the state or partyNazism- German brand of fascismTotalitarianism- state regulation of nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.
5Characteristics of a Totalitarian State Extreme NationalistGovernment ControlAnti-SemiticMilitaristicSingle Party- lacks democracyRule by terror- secret policeControl of Media- propaganda
6Failures of WWI TreatyCaused anger and resentment (Germany and Russia)Germany blamed for the warColonies were strippedNew democracies struggledMany new countries lack democratic tradition. With lack of tradition people were not willing to let things get worse before they got better!!!
8Joseph Stalin Transforms USSR The Model Communist StateNational Agriculture and Industry became the primary goalsStalin abolished privately owned farms and turned them into collectivesStalin created five-year plans that directed industrial growth (1937 2nd largest)Through fear and terror (Great Purge) Stalin created a Totalitarian state. (1939)
11Rise of Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini and his Black ShirtsEconomic Crisis and Fear of Communism opened the door for Fascism1921 fascist party created, by 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of “black shirts”Declared himself the Il Duce “the leader”Totalitarian state in joint rule with the King
14The Nazis Take Over Germany Adolf Hitler’s rise to power!1919 Hitler joins Nazi partyHitler tries to over through the government (Munich Beer Hall Revolution) and gets thrown in jail were he writes Mein Kempf. (Lays the ground work for Nazi Germany)Great Depression- war debts, fear of communism, lack of American loans, run away inflation, etc.
15The Nazis take over Germany Hitler’s rise to powerMany agitated un-employed Germans joined Hitler’s “brown shirts”By 1932 Nazis had become the strongest party in the Reichstag1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor and destroyed the Weimer Republic and created the Third Reich
17Main IdeaHolocaust- systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews.
18HolocaustWhy Jews?Scapegoats for causes and failures of the German economy and defeat of WWI
19HolocaustUnder the Nuremburg Laws, Jews were subjected to economic, social, and legal restrictions which made it virtually impossible to do anything.Government employees were let goLost German citizenshipJobsPropertyForced to wear Star of David
20Holocaust Kristallnacht- “Night of Broken Glass” Nazi storm troopers (SS) attacked Jewish homes businesses, and synagogues. Nov30,000 Jews were arrested and many others were moved into ghettosJews tried to flee to other countries, but nobody wanted them.
21Holocaust “Final Solution”- policy of genocide Wished to create a master race of AryansPolitical opponents, gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, physically handy capped, mentally ill, etc.From ghettos to concentration campsConcentration camps- labor camps or death camps
22Holocaust Mass Extermination Most death camps were in Poland Prisoners went through countless inspections (selection)Strong worked, weak were gassed, shot, burned, drowned, etc.Experiments done on JewsSix million Jews died during the holocaust
36Expansion of the German Empire Beginning of WWIIExpansion of the German EmpireInvasion of PolandInvasion of FranceBattle for BritainOperation Barbarossa
37Main IdeaBeginning of Hostility- Dictators’ imperialistic pursuits and appeasement by world powers set World War II in motion.
38Clouds of War Write three key points in your notes!!!! Beginning of WarClouds of WarWrite three key points in your notes!!!!
39Aggression in the World Militarist gain control of JapanHideki Tojo- Japanese nationalistManchurian Crisis 1931(imperialistic pursuit of raw materials)Italy becomes imperialistic1935 Ethiopian crisisCivil War in Spain 1936Francisco Franco (Fascist) receives support from Hitler and Mussolini to establish a totalitarian state in Spain
44Hitler moves to build his Empire Hitler pushes for more “Lebensraum”Lebensraum- mean living space for GermansIn 1935 Hitler begins to rebuild the militaryRhineland- Hitler moves troops into a demilitarized zone 1936Austria (March 12, 1938)Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact (September 30, 1938)Appeasement- giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
45Hitler's Empire Hitler’s expansion into Poland and the start of WWII Great deal of German speaking people living in PolandNonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939)Germany attacks Poland and by Sept. 3 BR & FR declare war on GermanyWar Comes to EuropeWrite three key points!!!
46Main IdeaGerman Blitz: Germany’s use of technology and superb strategy allowed them to dominate the early years of the war.
47World War II Begins: German Blitz For the next several months German and the Allied troops stared at each other at the Maginot Line (Phony War)Meanwhile… Stalin annexed former Russian possessions and took control of Poland.Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway through military deception then turned against the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg.Fall of France in June of 1940
49Battle for Britain Operation Sea Lion All out invasion of Britain British controlled the sea, so Hitler would try to control the airRound the clock bombing of BritainRadar, Ultra, and RAF saved Britain from annihilation.
53Hitler's Big Mistake June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa Hitler’s invasion of the East (Russia)Hitler invades with 3 million troops to Russia’s 2.9 million troops.Russian’s 2:1 advantage in tanks and airplanes
54Hitler’s Mistake Attack in the East By October Russian weather begins to set in. (Rain, then Snow)Scorched Earth PolicyBattle for Stalingrad (Aug. 21, 1942 to Feb. 2, 1943)Oil and control of the Volga
59Hitler’s Failure Underestimated Red Army Did not take weather into accountSupply lines too far away from the frontBattle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the Eastern Front.
60WWII the American Experience Isolationism and NeutralityMoving Towards WarPreparation for warFighting the War in EuropeFighting the War in the PacificPeace Treaty Process
61Main IdeaMoving Towards War- Although isolationist feeling was strong and neutrality legislation supported such sentiments, by 1939 Roosevelt had slowly turned America toward internationalist approach. After Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, the US finally entered World War II.
62Isolationism and Neutrality Response to the growing conflict in EuropeIsolationism- opposition to political entanglements with other countriesWWI blamed on Bankers and “Merchants of Death”Neutrality Acts ( )- First three acts outlawed the sale of arms to warring nations or nations involved in Civil War
63Moving Towards WarNeutrality Act of established the policy of “cash and carry”By 1940 the Tripartite Pact was signed to try and keep the US out of war. (Germany, Italy, Japan)After the Tripartite Pact the US increases defense spending. FDR's speech regarding the Axis threat.March 1941 congress passes the Lend-Lease Act. His goal was to make America an “Arsenal for Democracy” Aid was sent to Britain and Russia
64Moving Towards WarGerman Wolf Pack- groups of German subs that preyed upon British shipping lines.350,000 tons a monthSept. 1941, FDR allows Navy to sink subs in self-defenseLater that year America started to arm merchant ships
65Moving Towards War Atlantic Charter Meeting between FDR and Churchill that hoped to rally support for the war.Collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seasCharter would later become the blueprint of the United Nations after the war
66Moving Towards War Japan Attacks the United States By 1941 Japan and the US were the only two powers in the Pacific.Due to Japan’s imperialistic pursuits, the US created a trade embargo on Japan.Japan decided that war could not be averted and attacked the US at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor SpeechPearl Harbor MapDec. 8, 1941 the US declared war on Japan
68America Goes to War and the Adjustment at Home World War II achieved all the things that the New Deal could not. Factories were employing again to make war goods and the economy recovered at a rapid pass. However, American culture and society would never be the same.
69America Goes to War America built an army with the Selective Service Young Americans crammed recruiting offices after Pearl Harbor5 mil. Volunteers, 10 mil. DraftedWomen’s Auxiliary Army CorpsMinorities suit up in the military (Africans, Chinese, Japanese, Indians)
70America Goes to War Adjustment at Home Industrial Response (converted from peace time production to war time production) ex. Car industryWar Production Board (rationed resource material vital to the production of war goods)Office of Price Administration (fought inflation, rationed foods)National War Labor Board (stabilized the work force)Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (limited right to strike)
71America Goes to War Paying for the war 1941-1945 $321 Billion Office of War InformationRevenue Act of 1942 (raised taxes)Department of Treasury (issued war bonds)
72America Goes to WarOffice of Scientific Research and Development (radar, sonar, DDT, penicillin, Manhattan Project)Labor takes shapeWomen (6 million)Minorities 2 million(A. Philip Randolph) Courage and Sacrifice
98Soft Underbelly of Europe Atlantic FrontFour Stages of WarWar for the AtlanticOperation TorchSoft Underbelly of Europe
99Allied Forces in the West December 1941 the big two met and decided to focus Allied resources on winning the Atlantic.Why the Atlantic versus the Pacific?US was in poor condition to fight the Japanese in the pacific (Active Defense)FDR considered Hitler the biggest threatSoviet Union desperate for helpAfter German defeat Britain and Russia could aid in the Pacific
100Allied Forces in the West At the December meeting the big two outlined the battle plan for the AtlanticFour Stage WarControl the AtlanticLiberation of North AfricaSoft Underbelly of EuropeAll out invasion of France (D-Day)
102Allied Forces in the West Control the AtlanticPrior to 1943 German Wolf Packs were sinking ships on the east coast and in the Atlantic. (Hundreds of ships, tons of supplies numbering in the millions)To combat the U-boats advanced radar, sonar, convoy systems, and airplanes were usedBattle of the ConvoysBBC - History - The Battle of the Atlantic Game
103Turing Points in the Atlantic Campaign Battle for Stalingrad (January 31, 1943)2nd Battle at El Alamein ( November, )Why?USSR began to mount an offensive and secured oil reservesMiddle East was safe from Nazi controlBattle for the Suez Canal Battle at El Alamein
104Allied Forces in the West Operation Torch (Invasion of North Africa)Goals:Relieve pressure from the Suez CanalCreate a jumping point into Europe (Italy)Nov ,000 Landed in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria)After a month of heavy fighting Germany’s Africa Corp surrenders in May of 1943BBC - History - Animated Map: The North African CampaignCasablanca Conference (January 14 to 24, 1943)The Big Two (Roosevelt and Churchill)Unconditional Surrender (proves that allies will go the distance)
106Allied Forces in the West Soft Underbelly of Europe (Italy)Goals:Force Italy to surrenderEliminate MussoliniGain a southern front towards GermanyJuly 10, ,000 American and British troops landed in Sicily. Marked the first time the Allies had set foot in Europe since 1940.
108Allied Forces in the West Soft Underbelly is really a tough old gutBattle of Monte Cassino (Jan.-May of 1944) Terrain made it difficultGustov Line- heavy German fortifications across the center of Italy (Monte Cassino)Battle of Anzio (Battle to cut off the Gustov Line Jan-May of 1944) 54,000 diedBBC - History - Animated Map: The Italian Campaign
111Allied Forces in the West Operation Overlord (D Day)Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Commander)Deception at CalaisBombing of transportation lines to cutoff reinforcements (Control the Air)Dropping of thousands of paratroopers, were used to disrupt enemy lines and transportation. (June 6, shortly after midnight)June 6th 1944 at 6:30 A.M. 176,000 troops landed on the beaches of Normandy
115Moving Supplies after the Gaining Control of the Beachheads
116Allied Forces in the West Five Beaches: Juno, Gold, Sword, Utah, and Omaha. Page 781.Hitler failed to send reinforcements to RommelBattle lasted from June 6 to July 24By the end there was over 1 mil. Troops in France BBC - History - Animated Map: The D-Day Landings
117Allied forces in the West Road to GermanyAugust 25, 1944 Paris was liberatedWithin 6 weeks France was cleared of all German troopsAnimated Map: Liberation of FranceSept. of 1944 Belgium and Luxembourg were also liberated from German rule
119Allied Forces in the West Battle of the BulgeOctober of 1944 Allies captured their first German TownHitler responds with a desperate offensiveDec. 16, 1944 with 250,000 troops hundreds of tanks and planes
120Allied Forces in the West Battle of the BulgeHitler prepares for the attack in secretGoal: Push deep into Belgium and swing towards Antwerp (Major shipping outpost) hoping to disrupt supply lines and lower morale of the allies
121Allied Forces in the West Battle of the BulgeBattered Bastards of Bastogne (101st Airborne)Patton’s 3rd army drives the Germans out of the BulgeCost for Germans: 120,000 men, 600 tanks, and 1600 planes
125Allied Forces in the West Battle of the Bulge (last German offensive of the war)Yalta Conference: February 12, 1945Feb. 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at a resort in YaltaGoal: 1. Preserve alliance with Stalin 2. Contain the Spread of Communism 3. Gain Soviet support for a new world peace keeping organization
126Allied Forces move towards Victory Remainder of the War in EuropeAllies began to liberate concentration campsMarch 7,1945 the 1st Army crosses the RhineEisenhower is pressured to beat the Russians to BerlinRoosevelt dies on April 12, 1945(Busted Blood Vessel in Head)
127V-E Day Remainder of the War April 29, 1945 Hitler commits suicideMay 8, 1945 German unconditionally Surrender (V-E Day)Cost of War: close to 60 millions people from 1939 to 1945
128Image that illustrates the extent of the Japanese Empire by 1942.
129Geographical Image of battles in the Pacific Geographical Image of battles in the Pacific. Make sure that the students know what the arrows mean.
131War in the Pacific Japanese Offensive Japanese began to build an empire that included much of the Pacific islands.They eventually conquered the Philippines and captured thousands of American soldiers who would eventually become part of the Bataan Death March.6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan was setting in a good position.
133War in the PacificActive Defense- after Pearl Harbor the U.S. was in no condition to launch a full scale war in the Pacific. We relied on our Carriers to provide this active defense.Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)- first meeting of both fleets. Fighting done completely in the air. Victory for U.S. because the advance on Australia was stopped.
136War in the Pacific Battle of Midway (June 1942) Adm. Nimitz receives and decodes message stating that the Japanese fleet is coming to Midway in route to Hawaii.Nimitz sets up a surprise attack and destroys 4 of the Japanese carriers, therefore crippling the Japanese fleet.Battle of Midway was the turning point for the United States.
138War in the Pacific Battle for Guadalcanal (August 1942) First land engagement of the warGuadalcanal was important because it could serve as a stepping stone to the Philippines.Was a hand to hand fought battle that showed the pride and toughness of the Japanese military.U.S. won the battle and established an airfield to bomb the Philippines .
140War in the Pacific Island Hopping (1943-1945) U.S. military strategy that involves the hopping from island to island liberating each one so they can build an airfield to catapult bombers to the next island with the goal of moving towards Japan.Island Hopping was not easy, and America suffered many casualties while fighting many of the land battles. Some of the worst were Iwo Jima and the Marines Islands.
142War in the Pacific The B-29 is like no other weapon of War Range: 1500 milesSpeed: 400mphPayload: 2000 lbs.The B-29 allowed the US to bypass islands and strategically hop from island to island.The Japanese could not match the effectiveness of this plane
143War in the Pacific Battle of the Philippines and the Kamikaze Pilots Philippines was the largest naval battle in the history of man kindBattle of Leyte Gulf would be the first place that Kamikaze pilots were used.Kamikaze pilots were suicide pilots that sought to crash their planes into carriers.After the Battle of the Philippines the American Fleet could move throughout the Pacific freely
145War in the PacificBattle of Iwo Jima (Sulfur Island)- Critical target, because US could use airfield to reach Japan. 20, 000 Japanese. Only 200 survived. 6,000 American Lives.Battle of Okinawa- Japanese unleashed heavy kamikaze attacks killing many Americans. Worse than Iwo Jima. 110,000 Japanese lives and 7,600 American lives lost. Americans began to wonder what it would be like trying to invade Japan after Okinawa.
147War in the Pacific Atomic Bomb (Manhattan Project) The atomic bomb cost $2 billion to build.Bomb was built by the OSRD and European Scientist who had fled Europe during Germany’s reign.No one really knew how much damage the bomb would create not even its creator J. Robert Oppenheimer.
148War in the PacificBombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6th and August 14th 1945)Fearing an invasion of Japanese mainland Truman decided to drop the bomb.Hundreds of thousands of people would die or suffer from long term effects of the atomic bomb.August 14th 1945 Japanese Emperor surrendered ending WWII.
149Peace Process of WWII Do we drop it or not. Page 791 End of the War Yalta conference page 791Nuremberg War Trials 792Occupation of Japan 793
150EssayDetail the order of events that forced America’s involvement in WWII. Now that America is officially at war, what problems did they face? How did American Government approach those problems? In what ways did America adjust and did the people adjust to meet the heavy demands of war?