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Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire

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1 Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire
Chapter IX: Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire


3 European Transition Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by 200AD The Franks was the only long lasting Germanic kingdom. Clovis (who converted to Christianity around 500 AD) created the Frankish kingdom Germans and Romans intermarried and created a new society Ordeal= physical trial used by Germanic peoples to determine guilt or innocence Wergild: amount of money paid by a criminal to the family of the person he had killed or injured The Germanic tribes used trial by ordeal. This meant a physical trial such a holding a red hot piece of iron. If unharmed=innocent


5 Charlemagne Established the missi dominici (two mwn who were sent out to local districts to ensure that the counts were carrying out the king’s orders Magyars= people of western Asia who settled on the plains of Hungary


7 Vikings Vikings were made part of European civilization by the Frankish policy of settling them and converting them to Christianity The Vikings loved adventure, spoils of war and trade…As a result, they attacked many areas of Europe…They were excellent shipbuilders, warriors and sailors


9 Middle Ages: Daily Life
Chivalry= a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold/ oath to defend the Catholic Church, defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests/ implied that knights should only fight for glory and not for material rewards Knights showed their fighting skills in contests called: tournaments The clergy, the nobility and the peasants and townspeople made up the three estates Count= a German noble who acted as the king’s representative in a certain local area Aristocratic women in feudal Europe: Legally hold property Most women were under the control of their fathers until they were married Many opportunities to play important roles Overseeing money matters and food supply (controller of servants)

10 Feudalism Vassalage=the heart of feudalism
Feudal contract= a set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and a vassal: The major obligation of a vassal to his lord was to perform military service. usually about 40 days a year. Also, when summoned, a vassal had to appear at his lord’s court to give the lord advice. Vassals were also responsible for making financial payments to the lord as well When a lord was away at court or war, management of his estate fell to the lady of the castle Fief= the grant of land made to a vassal



13 Christianity in Medieval Europe
Christianity had become the supreme religion of the Roman Empire by 500 The church developed a system of organization Saint Benedict: Founded a community of monks that established the basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church Monk= a man who separates himself from ordinary society in order to pursue a life of dedication to God. Missionaries= people sent out to carry a religious message Monks copied the scriptures and Latin in rooms called: scriptoria The separation between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the catholic Church of the West was called: The Great Schism 2: Gregory I strengthened the power of the papacy

14 The Magna Carta 1215, Runnymede, England
Resenting the monarchy’s expanding power; many nobles rebelled against King John. “Great Charter” Recognized the longstanding feudal idea of mutual rights and obligations between the lord and vassal. Eventually was used to strengthen the idea that a monarch’s power was limited, not absolute Under Edward I, the English Parliament emerged


16 The Byzantine Empire 400’s, as Germanic tribes moved into the western part of the Roman empire, the Eastern Roman empire continued to exist Justinian became emperor of the ERE in 527…codification of Roman law Over time, the ERE shrank because it became too big to control, so it became the Byzantine Empire (patriarch/ Eastern Orthodox instead of pope/ Roman Catholic) Great Schism (still hasn’t healed)


18 The Crusades 1000’s to 1200’s, European Christians went on a series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks (Muslims…called infidels by the Crusaders) The push for the crusades came when Alexius I asked for aid/ Pope Urban II agrees to help The European Christians called the Muslims of the Holy Land: infidels


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