2The Search for Peace (1919-1939) A. The Legacy of the Great WarDuring WWI 8.5 million soldiers were killed.2. The Treaty of Versailles in 1919 punished Germany.a. Germany had to disarm.b. Germany lost all of it’s colonies.c. Germany was ordered to pay $33 billion for the war damage.3. Worldwide depressiona. Germany could not pay it’s war reparations.b. Great Britain, France and Italy cannot repay their debts to the United States.
34. Revolution in Russia at the end of the war creates 4. Revolution in Russia at the end of the war creates a communist Soviet Union.5. The United States becomes isolationist throughout the 20’s and 30’s.B. Failed efforts to prevent another war.League of nations formed in 1920a. the US never joinedb. unanimous votes were needed to prevent war2. Washington Conference 1922a. US, England, France, Italy and Japan agree not to build battleships for 10 years.
43. Kellogg – Briand Pact (1928) a. outlawed war: signed by 62 countries, including Germany4. London Naval Conferencea. extended the Washington Conference to include subs, cruisers and destroyers
5The Rise of Fascist Dictatorships Conditions for Dictatorship1. Inflation and unemployment during the Depression led to political unrest throughout Europe.2. Dictators rose to power by promising to end the chaos and depression.3. Fascism: a political philosophy in which a military dominated government controls all aspects of society. (Totalitarianism)a. citizens have no personal rights; all opposition is brutally destroyedb. a dictator is often a major component of Fascism
6B. Benito Mussolini - Italy 1. Founded the Fascist Party: Occupied Rome and became Prime Minister through force.3. Called Il Duce which means “the leader”: invaded Ethiopia. It was the first step to becoming an Italian power and recreating the Roman Empire.
8C. Adolf Hitler - Germany 1. Failed artist and architect, uneven military career, a drifter who had no friends2. Found a niche in the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZIS) and quickly became their leader.Munich Beer Hall Putz: a failed attempt by the Nazis to forcefully takeover the government.a. Hitler was put into prison where he wrote Mein Kampf; his plan to restore German power, eliminate Jews from Europe and takeover the worldb. He blames Jews, Communists and intellectuals for Germany’s woes.
94. 1932: The Nazi Party wins 40% of the seats in Parliament : The Nazi Party wins 40% of the seats in Parliament Hitler was elected to Prime Minister.a. the middle class and the unemployed supported the Nazi Party.b. The Nazis forced Hindenburg to declare Hitler Chancellor of Germany1) Hitler now has total power and begins to eliminate all opposition.2) He came to be called “ Der Fuhrer”
115. Nazi policies:The government held tight control of society and reduced all opposition to the NAZIS.b. Germany was able to rearm and military service became mandatory.c. Hitler wanted to unite all German speaking people.
12d. Anti-Semitism becomes official government policy 1) Jews lost their citizenship2) The government authorized the destruction of Jewish synagogues.3)Kristallnacht (1938) Nazi Stormtroopers destroyed Jewish property and burned businesses.
131) 1935 – annexation of the Rhineland e. Hitler wanted to expand German territory saying they needed more “ Lebensraum”.1) 1935 – annexation of the Rhineland2) 1938 – “Anschluss” annexation of Austria3) 1939 – annexation of CzechoslovakiaRhinelandCzechoslovakiaAnschluss
14This 1938 postcard celebrates the incorporation of Austria into Germany. The caption reads: "One People, One Empire, One Leader".
15Japan is an island nation and wanted to expand it’s empire. D. Militarists in JapanJapan is an island nation and wanted to expand it’s empire.a. They are seeking a strong navy, industrial resources, and an Asian Empire.invasion of Manchuriaintense military buildup: naval ships and planesFull scale war with ChinaInvasion of Manchuria 1931War with China 1937
16(Above) Oskar Schindler (center) enjoys himself at a dinner party with Nazi officials in Krakow, April 28, (Right) In 1946, Oskar Schindler (second from the right) poses with a group of Jews he rescued. Among those pictured are: Manci Rosner, Edmund Horowitz, Ludmila Pfefferberg-Page, Halinka Horowitz, and Olek Rosner.(top right) Amon Goeth, Commandant of Platzow work camp
23Response to FascismShakeup in international relations: The US formally recognizes the Soviet Union. It is a strategic move in case of war.: Germany and Italy form an Alliance known as the Axis Powers. (it will later include Japan)
24B. Attempts to head off war 1. Western nations followed a policy of appeasement throughout German expansion in the 1930s. They fear a new World War with Germany.2. Munich Conference – 1938 – Hitler and Chamberlain meet.a. gave Germany control of the Sudetenland.3. The US passed neutrality laws (1935 – 1939)a. Roosevelt becomes convinced that we have to prepare for war.b. Public opinion still favors isolationism.
25WAR ! C. The start of the war. March of 1939: Germany invades all of Czechoslovakia and threatens Poland.a. August 1939: Great Britain and France call upon the Soviet Union to join them in resisting further German expansion.2. August 1939: the Soviet Union and Germany sign a non-aggression pact and agree to divide Poland.3. September of 1939: Germany invades Poland with its’ Blitzkrieg, G.B. and France declare war.
26D. The US response to war1. The election of 1940 was filled with promises to keep the US out of war.2. Great Britain needs supplies but cannot afford to buy them. FDR proposes a Lend-Lease act.a. Congress approves it early in 1941b. $7 billion is appropriated for planes, tanks, ships etc. to non-Axis countries.1) By the end of the war $50 billion in supplies was given to the Allies (90% to G.B.)
27Manchuria Korea China Philippines French Indochina E. Japan 1. The Japanese continue to expand in Asia, angering the US2. Trade between the US and Japan ends. Japan could no longer purchase US oil, gasoline and steel. Japan was secretly planning an attack on the US.KoreaChinaPhilippinesFrenchIndochina
28The War IntensifiesA. The Axis Powers Attack!1. Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan2. Hitler wanted to defeat France and Great Britain before the US entered the war.1940May: Germany attacks France; after three weeks of fighting, France is defeated and remnants of their armed forces escape to Great Britain for the rest of the war.August: Germany unleashes the “blitzkrieg” on Great Britain.September: US Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act to send supplies to Great Britain.
291941April: Germany invades the Soviet Union with it’s Blitzkrieg; throughout the Spring, the US begins arming merchant vessels against German U-boat attacks.July: Japan invades French IndochinaAugust: F.D.R. and Winston Churchill(GB) sign the Atlantic Charter.1. They agree that the US and GB will not keep territory at the end of the war.2. All countries will choose their own government.3. Freedom of trade for all countries.
30December 7th: “ A date which will live in infamy…” 1941December 7th: “ A date which will live in infamy…”Early on Sunday morning, hundreds of Japanese planes bombed the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.This surprise attack destroyed 8 battleships and 150 US planes. 2,335 soldiers and sailors were killed.The next day Congress declared war on Japan. The Allied powers created an Alliance of 26 nations led by the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union.
39New taxes and war bonds were created to raise money for the war effort.
40Congress enacted the Selective Service Act of 1940; 300,000 women also volunteered. (W. A. C.)
41“Rosie the Riveter” – Between 1940 and 1944, 4 million women joined the labor force to replace departing soldiers.
42A system of rationing was used to help conserve goods needed in the war effort. Families were given government coupons for goods such as gas, heating fuel, tires, coffee, sugar, meat, butter, canned goods, clothing and shoes.
45To boost morale, the government promoted the war through the use of movies, songs, and radio shows with patriotic themes. USO tours brought entertainers and celebrities to the soldiers on the front lines.
46German, Italian and Japanese Americans faced anger and prejudice from other citizens. The government officially placed many Japanese Americans in internment camps and seized their property.
47By the time the US entered the war, they faced fighting in two theaters, on many fronts, and against German, Italian and Japanese forces firmly in control!
48America fights in WWIIA. The United States fights in two theaters at the same time.European Theater – was divided into two fronts.a. Western front – Germany attacked France and England.b. Eastern front – Germany attacked the Soviet Union.2. The Pacific theater was fought against Japan
51B. The European Theater1. Axis Advancesa. By 1942 Germany and Italy controlled virtually all of Europe and North Africa.b. German U-boats controlled the Atlantic. In the first half of 1942 they sunk over 500 ships off the East Coast of the US)c. Soviet forces were under siege at Stalingrad.d. German forces beefed up Italian armies in North Africa.2. Two battles broke the Axis advance.a. Battle of El Alamein, a British victory in Egypt.b. Battle of Stalingrad, a Soviet victory. Defensive fighting and harsh winters destroyed 2/3 of German forces.
533. Allied strategy in 1943Battle of the Atlantic; search and destroy German U-boats1) sonar, faster ships and the bombing of German shipyards turned the tide for the Allies.b. Intensified air campaigns on German territory to destroy military production and undermine morale of German citizens by bombing cities.c. Open a second European front in the Mediterranean (Italy) to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union.1) By cutting off supply lines from Italy, the Allies defeated the Axis troops in N. Africa by 1943.2) July 1943: the Allies invade Sicily3) September 1943: Allies invade southern Italy4) June 1944: Allies invade Rome and drive North
54Soviet Union will begin an offensive Rome, June 1944S. Italy, Sept. 1943Sicily, July 1943North Africa 1943
55a. General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the operation. 4. Operation Overlord – the long-awaited Allied invasion of German occupied France.a. General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the operation.b. Dummy installations and false clues fooled the Germans. They expected an invasion at Calais.c. D-Day June 6, 1944 the Allies crossed the English Channel to land on the beaches of Normandy.1) 5,000 troop transports carried 150,000 American, British and Canadian troops across the Channel.2) 23,000 Airborne troops dropped behind enemy lines.3) The Allies penetrated 15 miles in the first week.4) Paris was liberated by August 25th.MAP
57d. In conjunction with the invasion, the Allies moved north d. In conjunction with the invasion, the Allies moved north from Italy into France and the Soviets pressed Germany from the East.5. By September of 1944 the Allies crossed the German border.a. Battle of the Bulge – one last failed German offensive.C. The end of the war in Europe.1. February of 1945 – the Allied leaders (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) met for the Yalta Conference to plan the post- war peace.2. Spring of 1945 – the Allies bomb Berlin and drive into the heart of Germany.3. In April, Hitler commits suicide.4. May 8th, 1945 VE DAY Germany agrees to unconditional surrender.
58D. The Pacific Theater1. In 1942 there were many Japanese victories.The US lost the Philippine Islands1) 70,000 captured POWs were brutalized during the Bataan Death March. 10,000 Americans died during a forced march to a prison camp.b. By summer, Japan was ready to strike at India, Australia and Hawaii.c. Three battles turned the tide in the Allies favor.1) Battle of Coral Sea: stopped the Japanese advance.2) Battle of Midway: the Japanese fleet was decimated by American Aircraft Carriers.3) Guadalcanal: 1st American offensive in the Pacific.
602. Allied Victoriesa. The Allies adopted a strategy of Island Hopping: attack and seize only certain held Japanese islands. Bypassed islands would be cut off from supplies and troops.b. 1943: victories at the Gilbert and Marshall Islandsc. 1944: victories at the Mariani Islands and Saipan the Philippine Sea and at Guam which now meant American bombers could reach Japan.d. 1945: the Allies returned to the Philippines; two battles took place at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Okinawa was the bloodiest battle in the Pacific – 49,000 US and 100,000 Japanese deaths.1) Kamikaze (Divine Wind) Pilots
62e. FDR dies in April, Harry Truman becomes President and is faced with the biggest decision of the war.f. August 1945: Japan is all but defeated yet continue to fight to the last man. Surrender is refused.1) August 6th, The US drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.2) August 9th, The US drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki.September 2, 1945 – VJ Day