15America: “The Golden Land” Free SchoolDecent jobsPeople ate wellWhy was it called that?
16It could take many years before you were reunited with your family Would everyone in yourfamily come together?It could take manyyears before you werereunited withyour familyUsually a father or anolder sibling wouldcome first. That personwould find work thensend money back for you.
17What did people bring with them? People brought whatever they couldcarry. Some had suitcases andtrunks. Most had bundles tiedtogether with string. People carriedbaskets, cardboard boxes, tins, andleather sacks.
30According to a U.S. law, ship companies had to pay the return fare for anyone who had to besent back from America. So,before leaving, ship doctorsexamined all passengers to see ifthey had any illnesses that wouldprevent them from being allowedto enter the U.S.
31Doctors vaccinated and disinfected all passengers. Men and boys often had their hair veryshort, and women and girls hadtheirs combed very carefully tolook for lice, which carried thedeadly disease typhus.
32The ship companies also had to prepare a manifest- a list of information about everybody onboard the ship. Each immigrantwas assigned a number, and theship’s captain listed everyone’snationality, age, sex, destination,and occupation.
34if they could read and write, They were askedif they could read and write,whether they were married, and how many pieces of baggage they had. The list wasgiven to the immigrationinspectors when the ship landed in America.
36How long would the trip last? If there were no bad stormsor other problems, the tripusually took about six tothirty-two days.
37Where would you sleep and eat on the ship?1st and 2nd class had a privatecabin to sleep in, and food wouldbe served in a dining room.Most immigrants were steerage.This area was below the deck onthe lowest level of the ship.
38Several hundred passengers were crammed into steeragewith no fresh air. They slept innarrow bunk-beds, sometimes3 high.There was 1 bath area for all ofsteerage, with sink faucets thatfrequently didn’t work.
40The food was not very good. They ate lukewarm soup, boiledpotatoes, and stringy beef.
41Some immigrants reported all they ate was herring, bread andpotatoes. The one good thingabout the herring is it curedseasickness.
42“ How can a steerage passenger remember he was a human being when he must first pick wormsfrom his food…and eat in hisstuffy, stinking bunk, or in thehot… atmosphere of acompartment where 150 mensleep?”
43Would you go straight to Ellis Island when you arrived in New York Harbor?All the ships were stopped inlower NY bay, where doctorsboarded. They checkedpassengers for contagiousdiseases.
44There were 2 small islands in the lower bay. If you were sick, you’d be put in a hospital on oneof them. If the doctors thoughtyou had been exposed to a disease,they’d place you on the otherisland for observation.
45Further up the bay, immigration officers would examine all 1st and2nd class passengers. The boatwould then dock at the tip ofManhattan and those that passedwere allowed to enter the country.All steerage passengers went to Ellis Island, no matter what.
46Even after arriving, frequently they stayed on board ship forone or more nights until bargescould take them to Ellis Islandfor further examinations.
47One passenger said,” Isn’t it strange that here we are coming to America where there iscomplete equality, but not quiteso for the newly arrived immigrants.”
48Ellis Island was like a miniature city. There were waiting rooms,dormitories for over a thousandpeople, restaurants, a hospital,baggage room, post office, banksto exchange foreign money, arailroad ticket office, medicaland legal examination rooms, baths,laundries, office areas forcharities, and courtrooms.
49When the barge pulled up to the dock at Ellis Island the first place you went wasThe Great Hall to be inspectedby doctors.
65If you were found sick, but Curable you were taken to thehospital until you were better.If your disease was contagiousand incurable, you were put in aspecial hospital until a ship couldtake you home.
66If you were marked with an “X” the doctors were uncertain that you would be able to work. Theygave you some intelligence teststhat included math problems,they would ask you to countbackwards, and do some puzzles.
72You could not have a job waiting for you. In 1885 US Congress passed a law that said employerscould not make contracts withimmigrants to bring them toAmerica. Congress was afraidthat immigrants would acceptlower wages than Americanworkers, and take jobs formthose that already lived here.
83Whether you passed all the examinations or were detained, you went down the staircase.Straight ahead led to themuch-feared detention roomsA turn to left led to theferry to Manhattan.A turn to the right at thebottom led you to the railroadticket office.
85Angel IslandIn 1905, construction of an Immigration Station began in the area known as China Cove.The station was finally put into operation in 1910.Known as "Ellis Island of the West”Within the Immigration Service it was known as "The Guardian of the Western Gate"Designed to control the flow of Chinese into the country, who were officially not welcome with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
86Angel IslandSome detainees expressed their feelings in poetry that they brushed or carved onto the wooden walls of the detention center.Others simply waited, hoping for a favorable response to their appeals, but fearing deportation.Many of the poems that were carved into the walls of the center are still legible today.
87Detention Center This facility was primarily a detention center. Beginning with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, a series of restrictive laws had prohibited the immigration of certain nationalities and social classes of Asians.Although all Asians were affected, the greatest impact was on the Chinese.
88Processed Picture Brides By 1920, an estimated 6,000 to 19,000 Japanese "picture brides" were processed through Angel Island.Immigrants from other Pacific Rim countries, including Russia, Korea, the Philippines, and Japan, were detained here.During World War I, "enemy aliens" (most of them German citizens who had been arrested on board ships in West Coast harbors) were held at the Immigration Station. These men were later transferred to permanent detention quarters in North Carolina.
90Japanese Picture Brides Arriving at Ellis Island
91Katherine Mauer with Asian Immigrants in Waiting Room
92Closing Angel IslandIn 1940, the government decided to abandon the Immigration Station on Angel Island.Their decision was hastened by a fire that destroyed the administration building in August of that year.On November 5, the last group of about 200 aliens (including about 150 Chinese) was transferred from Angel Island to temporary quarters in San Francisco.The so-called "Chinese Exclusion Acts", which were adopted in the early 1880s, were repealed by federal action in 1943, because by that time, China was an ally of the U.S. in World War II
93Prisoner Processing Center In 1941, following the departure of the Immigration Service from the island, the station property was turned back to the Army, and it became the North Garrison of Fort McDowell. When World War II began, the old detention barracks became a Prisoner of War Processing Center, and German and Japanese prisoners were processed there before being sent to permanent camps in the interior.
94Compare/Contrast Angel Island and Ellis Island What to do:Use a Venn Diagram to compare Angel Island to Ellis Island