2AP Outline 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and GermanyPrelude to war: policy of neutralityThe attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of warFighting a multi-front warDiplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferencesThe United States as a global power in the Atomic Age22. The Home Front During the WarWartime mobilization of the economyUrban migration and demographic changesWomen, work, and family during the warCivil liberties and civil rights during wartimeWar and regional developmentExpansion of government power
3Terms to Know War in the Pacific War in Africa, Europe Treaty of VersaillesGood Neighbor PolicyBuenos Aires Conference, 1936Washington Naval Conference, 1922Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928Stimson DoctrineTrade Agreements ActElection of 1940Axis Alliance, Mussolini, HitlerAppeasement/Munich AgreementLend-Lease Act, 1941German-Soviet Non-Aggression PactSelective Training and Service ActTripartite PactMaginot LineBattle of Britain/ Operation Sea LionAtlantic Charter, 1941Hideki Tojo/Japan, China, EmbargoWar Powers ActCharles A. Lindbergh (1930s)America First CommitteeReciprocal Trade Agreements,Europe then JapanMobilization, National War Labor BoardJapanese-American Internment, Korematsu v. USWar in the PacificWar in Africa, EuropeEisenhower, Second Front, D-Day, Battle of the BulgeServicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Neutrality Acts,Four Freedoms SpeechRosie the Riveter, War Production BoardAfrican Americans in WarTuskegee Airmen, Phillip RandolphHolocaust and JewishWartime ConferencesCasablancaCairoTeheranQuebecYaltaPotsdamManhattan ProjectRobert OppenheimeLos Alamos, AlamogordoHarry S. TrumanDecision to drop bomb, NagasakiMarshall PlanIron Curtain
4Questions- Pre-World War II Basic questions you should be able to answer:How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930’s?Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War?How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict?How was FDR’s “Good Neighbor” policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890’s?
5Quiz 3-13 Respond to two of the following: How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration?Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China.What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality?
6United States Status After WWI After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans)Few international treaties:Washington Naval Conference-limits naval armamentsKellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws warDawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt paymentsTrade drives American motivesReduction of interference in Latin America (Good Neighbor)Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!
7FDR and Foreign Affairs Similar to Wilson, FDR wanted to use power to maintain orderMoral and just principlesHowever, must abide by public opinion which is IsolationistAppoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of StateBasic views:Isolation is not a lasting policyTechnology impacts distance of oceansImportant to maintain American interestsReciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners
8“Good Neighbor” Policy FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particularContinued attempt begun with HooverCooperation and non-interventionistExample: 1933 Montivideo International Conference- UruguayRepudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe DoctrineWithdrew troops from HaitiDid not send troops to Cuba1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement
9Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator Came to power in 1922Right Wing, anti-Socialist and CommunistWanted greatness like the Roman Empire for ItalyRepressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps)NationalistInvades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936
10Haile SelassieEthiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of NationsThis was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctionsHaile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre-coronation name, Ras Tafari.
11Hitler Rises to Power Germany has problems Economic Depression Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one groupNazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)
13Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise Economic depressionTreaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I)Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire)Striped Germany of military, navy, air forceAllies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources)German had to take explicit blame for the warPay War RepartitionsSocialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for controlCreated conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters
14Hitler and HindenburgNew Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic
15Hitler-Once in Power Hitler vows to make Germany great again To “Claim its rightful place in the Sun.”Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powersHitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf)Rearm GermanyUnite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland)Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies)Expand East “Lebensraub”- into Russian lands, Destroy communists
16European AppeasementOne of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle)The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands.The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful.By giving in to Hitler’s demands, it encouraged him to push further and brought another Global WarBritish Prime Minister Nevielle Chamberlain will always be remembered for his appeasement of Hitler. (“Peace in Our Time”) Munich Agreement
17Why did the Allies appease Hitler? Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harshAll consuming desire for peaceRearmamentNationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual locationAnschluss-Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland,1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig- Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-
18Failure of the League of Nations Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent warProblems: US is not part ofIt did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use forceOnly weapon was economic embargo and public pressureWhen Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia)The international body will have little or no effect
19China Still Weak After WWI China remains weak “Open Door” Reinforced Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung
20JapanWanted to expand it’s empire similar to France, Britain, and the US.Want to control China’s abundant natural resourcesJapan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the “Open Door” policy, all nations can trade with China.Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria
21Japan invades Manchuria 1931 Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials)Japanese military asserted rights to ManchuriaMilitary- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo.Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods
23Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria US President was Hoover (1932)Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression-US will not recognize territorial changes-League of Nations condemns the attack on ChinaJapan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored)No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing)200,000 civilians killedJapan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the “Open Door”
24Chinese FightChiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.
25American NeutralityThe Neutrality Act of members of congress, wanted to keep America out of warPopular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialistsImposed an embargo on warring nationsForbade American sale of war goods and ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countriesGave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent shipsNeutrality Act forbade loans to belligerent countriesNeutrality Act response to the Spanish Civil WarGoods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash (2 years only)
26More Neutrality Many groups in America wanted Isolation Irish, German- AmericansMidwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifistsLudlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war. (not approved)
27Spanish Civil War American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist cause Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Francisco Franco-Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks.Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For Whom the Bell Tolls)American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist causeFDR wanted to help but was hampered by isolationist law makers
28Picasso’s painting of German bombing of ancient city of Gurenica, during Span Civ War-
30German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact August 23, Hitler and Stalin sign a secret agreement to partition Poland-Germans invade Poland in the WestRussians invade Poland in the EastWorld War II in Europe begins- France and Britain had guaranteed Polish sovereigntyUS responds with a renewed Neutrality act “cash and carry” would aid allies alone
32Non Aggression PactGermans and Soviets share Poland-1939
33The “Phony War” Paris Falls June 1940 Refers to the period between Poland’s Surrendar and the attack on France and Britain.September 1939-April 1940Germany rapidly beat Poland “Blitzkrieg”France and Britain mobilized and waited for attackApril 1940 Denmark, Norway,May 1940 Belgium and FranceDunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the continent- Churchill now in chargeParis Falls June 1940England stands alone “Battle of Britain”
34Battle of Britain Brits were alone as of June 1940 Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude:“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”
35What will“…in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old."
36United States Reacts to War Debate 1940: Isolationist or Internationalist IsolationistsAmerica First CommitteeCharles A Lindberg“Intervention is detrimental to American interests”InternationalistsCommittee to Defend AmericaBest way to keep US out of war is to Help allies fight the GermansRoosevelt is sympathetic
39FDR Aids the AlliesSummer 1940 FDR asks congress to allow trade of 50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases for bases in the AtlanticAlthough population does not want to enter the war, 73% support aid to Britain.
401941 Lend Lease 1941 Lend Lease: Program to offer aid to Brits FDR in a “Fireside Chat” “If a neighbor’s home were on fire…”“lease, lend or otherwise dispose of” any items not vital to the nation’s defense.US is closer to the War- (US Ships secretly were supporting the British Navy by searching and reporting on U-boat locations)Hitler afraid to attack American Ships
41Atlantic Charter AUGUST 14, 1941 The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world.First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other;Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity;Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security;Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance;Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.
43Election of 1940 then the Draft FDR decides to Run for a third termThe Nation Needs emergency situation:War in EuropeProblems in AsiaWants to protect New Deal reformsRan against Wendell WillkieFDR Wins- then begins the processPrepare for War:DraftArmament build up
45Selective Service Act Sept. 1930 TIME(September 23, 1940) Last week Congress passed the conscription bill. This week the President sighed it. A new thing had entered U.S. life: although the U.S. had conscripted its citizens in two wars, never before had it conscripted them in peace. Some 16, men, aged 21 to 36, forthwith became liable to compulsory military service. How, when, whether conscription would actually touch them was prescribed in 1) the bill, and 2) the selective system which the Army & Navy had long since prepared against a martial day. The Bill laid down the general philosophy, rules, scope of conscription: No more than 900,000 conscripts can be called in any one year (the Army plans to call 800,000 a year). They will be kept in training for one year, will then enter an enlisted reserve where they will be subject to recall for emergency service for ten years or until they are 45. They will not be subject to periodic recalls for further training. But if Congress finds the nation in peril before their initial year's service ends, they can be held under arms indefinitely.
46Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941 To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness“…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger.That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history.The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency.Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.
47Four Freedoms Continued “The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world.The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world.The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”
48Significance of “Four Freedoms” Speech Represents FDR’s view that America needs to prepare for war and support Britain.FDR Prepares for WarIncreased Military appropriationsAliens are fingerprintedPeace time draft to raise 2 million troops
49Big Questions: Winning the War To what extent was the mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory?How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different?
50Key Ideas: America’s Response to Pearl Harbor and War US had started to prepare 1940Airplane production/designDraft/Selective Service-1940Build the “Arsenal of Democracy”-Harness the Industrial and Economic power of the US- and focus it toward War.Focus on building War material- Speficially Air power, Bombers, B17, B24, B29Germany was the biggest threat, Focus of first phase of WarThen Japan
51Meeting Before the War Before US enters War: August, 1941 Newfoundland Secret, FDR and Churchill meet to coordinateCreate the Atlantic Charter (a statement of principles agreed upon)Condemned AggressionEndorsed National Self Determination
52Pearl HarborAmerican Reaction to Pearl Harbor American reaction to Pearl Harbor was swift and violent. Immediate calls for war and revenge were heard throughout the country. Congress declared war and thousands of soldiers volunteered to fight. Americans were mad and they would never forget the treachery of the Japanese.
54Japan OffensiveHitler and Mussolini both declared war on the United States as a sign of support for the Japanese.Japan Attacks Polynesian Asia Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese forces began a systematic invasion of the Pacific. Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, French Indochina, and the Philippines were overrun. American forces in the Philippines were outnumbered and overwhelmed by Japanese forces.12,000 American prisoners were taken in the fall of the last Philippine strong hold called Bataan.“Bataan Death March”
56American “Arsenal of Democracy” America Mobilizes for War= (WPB)War Production Board- goal is to transform industrial production to War production, organize all industrial outputBoard had much power to control resources:Limited civilian goods- Rationing of food, fuel…Cars stopped being producedConservation and recycle movement, rubber, metal, grease,
57“Arsenal of Democracy” $320 Billion government spendingHuge amount was 6 times that of Roosevelt’s first two terms.
58Financing the War Taxes increase Income Loans/War Bonds million people file taxesmillion people file taxesGovernment starts a withholding $ from workersLoans/War Bonds$100 billion in bonds sold
59Problem of Inflation Prices rise with full inflation Full employment: GDP Doubles to $211.9 billionOffice of Price Administration is created to manage pricesFreezes pricesRations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to purchase goods)
60The Size of Government Explodes Hundreds of agencies created:National War Labor Boards- to manage labor practices and prevent strikesOffice of War Mobilization- to help coordinate agenciesLocal Draft Boards
61Internment of Japanese Americans Japanese immigrants had increased in the United States with the since early 1900When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor a great backlash was directed at Japanese Americans
62Japanese Relocation 120,000 Japanese lived on the West coast Were accused of potentially aiding Japanese espionageSome people, racist, and wanted to use the opportunity to take Japanese landFebruary 1942 FDR signed an executive order“Remove any and all persons who might pose a threat to national security.”Camps (Manzanar) were set up in the deserts of
63Japanese Internment Camps Japanese were relocated in Camps:Some Japanese sued for their rights:Korematus v. the United StatesSupreme Court upheld theInternment of the Japanese
64Japanese internmentIn the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian.Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese2/3 were American citizens and had never shown disloyalty
65Japanese American Heroes 33,000 Japanese Americans servedVolunteers442 Combat Regiment TeamThe 442nd received more medals than any other unit in US military history. Some survivors swear it's because they were kept in combat longer than white units.
66War in Europe Allies agreed that Europe was first priority North Africa-November 19421942 Bombing campaign against Germany begun1942- Sicily-September 1943 Italy Surrenders (German Army occupies and holds Northern Italy)1944 Rome FallsJune 6, 1944 D-Day- Allied Invasion of Normandy France, the Second Front is opened.December 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge (German counter attack in the Ardennes Forrest, 200K Germans attack Allies)May 7, 1945 Germany Surrenders (Hitler is dead, Russians conquer Berlin)
67War in the PacificStrategy of Island Hopping: bypass some islands controlled by Japanese and attack specific islands, to obtain air bases in an effort to bomb Japan more efficiently and to build up forces in an effort to invade Japan.1942 Major victory at Midway Island US takes out Japanese aircraft carriersTimeline of WWII (everything you wanted to know and more)
68African Americans and the War A. Phillip RandolphSegregation in MilitaryEnd of segregation in War Industries, Presidential Executive Order 8802
69Women and the War Rosie the Riveter: Women go to work in munitions factories, other jobs, and the military
70Propaganda Did the US engage in propaganda during this war? How and who was involved?Can you cite some examples?
71Wartime ConferencesFDR (and later Truman) will coordinate the effort with Allied leaders Churchill, and later StalinCasablanca-1943 FDR, Churchill, agreed on war aims: Sicily invasion, Unconditional Surrender- of Japan and GermanyCairo FDR and Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek- discussed war aims in Asia, Japan will lose all islands acquired, Korea independentTeheran-1943 The “Big Three” discussed 2nd front in Europe (France), Postwar Germany,Yalta-February 1945 “Big Three” Discussed the fate of Poland, Stalin asserted need for “Buffer Zone” and sphere of influence; Stalin promised to allow free elections; planned for the division of Germany after the war; Stalin promised to declare war on Japan in exchange for Japanese land/Kurile Islands; (FDR is dying and will be criticized for being manipulated by Stalin and “selling out” Eastern Europe to the Russians.Potsdam- Germany, July 1945, FDR dead, Truman, Churchill gone, new Brit- Clement Atlee, Stalin- discussed boundaries for Germany, German resources would pay for the war,
73“GI Bill of Rights”GI is the term used for American soldiers in WWII. (G.I. means General Issue)The Servicemen’s Readjustment ActProvided veterans a series of benefits:Low interest loans for homes, business, and farmsAid for education
74FDR Dies April 12, 1945 FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over FDR was elected to an unprecedented 4 termsHe was a extremely beloved leader.“Roosevelt had filled their lives through depression and war for more than a dozen years, allying their years and giving them hope. Now he was gone…”Election of 1944 running mate Harry S. Truman, from Missouri, a Democratic Senator, becomes President.
75Atomic Bomb Production Better Summarize:FDR authorized a secret program code named “Manhattan Project”1943, J. Robert Oppenheimer, led the team of physicists to develop and atomic weapon, to spit the atomLos Alamos, New MexicoJuly 1945, the bomb was ready (Truman had no idea any bomb like this was being worked on, when he took office)