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The Politics of Reconstruction Reconstructing Society The Collapse of Reconstruction Chapter 12.

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1 The Politics of Reconstruction Reconstructing Society The Collapse of Reconstruction
Chapter 12

2 The Defeated South Q: Based upon your observations of the map below, how were the North and the South effected differently as a result of the Civil War? A: Because the majority of battles took place in the South, many Southern houses, farms, bridges, and railroads were destroyed.

3 Main Idea Northern leaders had different ideas for dealing with the many issues and challenges of restoring the southern states to the Union

4 After the Civil War The Civil War was the most costly war in American History in terms of total devastation. At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. These casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam.

5 Amazing War Losses

6 Ruins in Front of the Capitol – Richmond, VA, 1865

7 Grounds of the Ruined Arsenal with Scattered Shot and Shell - Richmond, VA, April 1865

8 Guns and Ruined Buildings Near the Tredegar Iron Works - Richmond, VA, April 1865

9 Above: Charleston, South Carolina
Right: Atlanta, Georgia

10 Crippled Locomotive, Richmond & Petersburg Railroad Depot - Richmond, VA, 1865

11 This famous photo was taken looking across the ruins of the railroad bridge in Fredericksburg, Virginia A Southern armored railroad gun has gone as far as it can on these rails, typifying Civil War destruction of Southern railroad tracks. (Virginia)

12 · Newly freed slaves, freedmen, had no land, jobs, or education.
Left and right: post-Civil War Ohio Atlanta, GA

13 Reconstruction Main Idea – Radical Republicans in Congress opposed Abraham Lincoln’s and Andrew Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction and instead implemented its own plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War.

14 Reconstruction Reconstruction ( )– def. – period during which the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War and included the process by which the federal government readmitted former Confederate states

15 Plans for Reconstruction
Lincoln and Johnson Radical Republicans

16 Lincoln and Johnson Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan –
argued that the southern states had never left the Union because secession was illegal– one nation indivisible when 10% of voters pledged allegiance to the U.S. – state could be readmitted to U.S. very lenient – goal was to readmit southern states as quick as possible, not to punish the South “with malice towards none, with charity for all…to bind up the nation’s wounds” Nothing included about African-Americans Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction – also very lenient toward the South

17 Radical Republicans Radical Republicans – northern members of Congress, led by Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens, who opposed Lincoln’s Ten Percent plan and Johnson’s plan Wanted to punish the southern slave owners Wanted to give African-Americans the right to vote

18 Congressional Reconstruction
Radical Republicans took control of Reconstruction policy in 1866 14th Amendment – states were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American SIG - granted citizenship rights to African-Americans Reconstruction Act of 1867 – divided former Confederacy into 5 military districts (military occupation), set up new requirements to gain readmission to the Union

19 Congressional Reconstruction
Johnson’s impeachment – Radical Republicans impeached Johnson, but he was not removed from office Impeach – def. formal charge of misconduct in office 15th Amendment – voting rights were guaranteed regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” SIG - gave African American men the right to vote

20 Politics in Post War South
Republican Party in the South relied on 3 groups African Americans – right to vote guaranteed by 15th Amendment Sharecropping – many African-Americans rented land from plantation owners in return for a share or percentage of the total crop produced Scalawags – Southerners who became Republicans Carpetbaggers – Northerner Republicans who moved to the South

21 The Collapse of Reconstruction
Anti-Black Violence Election of 1876 Compromise of 1877

22 The Collapse of Reconstruction
Anti-Black violence – goal was to prevent African Americans from voting Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – violent terrorist organization devoted to white supremacy

23 The Collapse of Reconstruction
Election of 1876 – Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) vs. Samuel Tilden (Democrat) Tilden won the popular vote, Hayes won the electoral college South upset and disputed the election

24 The Collapse of Reconstruction
Compromise of 1877 – agreement to settle the disputed election Hayes (Republican) = president Republicans would end military occupation of the South ended White Democrats took control of southern state governments = “Redemption” SIG – Reconstruction is ended white southern Democrats passed “Jim Crow Laws” – called for segregation of the races throughout the South African Americans denied their constitutional rights

25 Cultures Clash on the Prairie & Settling on the Great Plains
Chapter 13

26 Cultures Clash Main Idea – The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined. Settlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships.

27 Settlers Push Westward
Background: Following the Civil War, the westward movement of settlers increased in the region between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. Great Plains – def. – the grassy lands that extend through the western-central portion of the United States Settlers focused on settling and farming the Great Plains SIG – multiple conflicts with Native Americans resulted Native American groups were placed on reservations throughout the Great Plains

28 Cattle Become Big Business
Background: Following the Civil War, railroads reached the Great Plains at the same time that the demand for beef increased in eastern cities. Cowboy – def. - herder of cattle on the Great Plains who could round up, rope, brand, and care for cattle during long cattle drives in the American West Long cattle drive – transporting of cattle over unfenced grazing lands between Texas and railroad centers on the Great Plains

29 Settlers Move Westward to Farm
Transcontinental Railroad Homestead Act Oklahoma Land Rush

30 Transcontinental Railroad
Background: Following the Civil War, railroads became very important in opening western lands to settlers and transporting crops to eastern markets Transcontinental Railroad (est. 1869)– linked eastern and western markets and led to increased settlement of western lands from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean

31 Homestead Act Homestead Act (1862) – offered 160 acres of land in the West (for free) to any citizen who would settle and farm the land for 5 years 600,000 families took advantage of this government offer Many homesteaders were southerners – both White and African-American

32 Oklahoma Land Rush Oklahoma Land Rush (1889) – land-hungry settlers raced to claim lands in a massive land rush, people who left too early = Sooners

33 Support for Farmers New Technology Agricultural Education

34 New Technology steel-tipped plow – invented by John Deere, helped farmers slice through heavy soil mechanical reaper – invented by Cyrus McCormick, increased speed of harvesting wheat barbed wire – prevented animals from trampling crops or wandering off from farms SIG – made farming more efficient and prosperous

35 Agricultural Education
Morrill Act (1862) – federal government gave land to states to build agricultural schools (ex: Virginia Tech) SIG – innovations and education led to more productive harvests

36 Results Overall – By 1900, the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountain region of the American West was no longer a mostly unsettled frontier, but instead it became a region of farms, ranches and towns

37 The Expansion of Industry & Big Business and Labor
Chapter 14 - Sections 1+3

38 The Expansion of Industry & Big Business and Labor
Main Idea – At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fueled an industrial revolution. The expansion of industry resulted in the growth of big business and prompted laborers to form labor unions to better their lives.

39 Inventions Promote Change
Bessemer Steel Process Light Bulb Electricity Telephone Airplane Assembly-Line Manufacturing

40 Bessemer Steel Process
(Henry Bessemer) – def. - new manufacturing process to make steel SIG - new steel products used for building railroads and skyscrapers

41 Light Bulb (Thomas Edison) – new development to serve as a source for light SIG – made work less dependent on natural sunlight

42 Electricity (Thomas Edison) - new power source for businesses and homes SIG – electric power ran industrial machines that could be located anywhere

43 Telephone (Alexander Graham Bell) – revolutionized communications in business SIG – saved time and created new clerical jobs for women in business

44 Airplane (Wright Brothers) – allowed for movement of goods and eventually people by air travel First flight = Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903 SIG – led to the creation of a U.S. airmail system by 1920

45 Assembly-Line Manufacturing
(Henry Ford) – broke industrial tasks down into simpler parts and improved efficiency in production of cars SIG – allowed for increased efficiency in production for many industrial products

46 Leaders of Industry (aka “Robber Barons”)
Andrew Carnegie J.P. Morgan John D. Rockefeller Cornelius Vanderbilt

47 Andrew Carnegie Steel Industry
Scottish immigrant who rose from “rags to riches” Carnegie Steel Company – made more steel than any other company in US Developed a monopoly – def. – complete control over an industry’s production, wages, and prices when all competitors are bought out

48 J.P. Morgan Banking and Finance
Formed a holding company – def. – corporation that did nothing but buy out stock of other companies Bought out Carnegie Steel in 1903 to create U.S. Steel = world’s largest business

49 John D. Rockefeller Oil Industry
Standard Oil Company – controlled 90% of all U.S. oil production Controlled other companies by forming a trust – def. – several corporations made an agreement to be run by one executive board that ran the trust like one big company Standard Oil

50 Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads
Dominated control of much of the nation’s railroad lines in the Northeast and Midwest

51 Reactions Against Industrialists
Carnegie, Morgan, Rockefeller, and Vanderbilt were called “Robber Barons” by critics Critics said they were making money in a corrupt manner

52 Reactions Against Industrialists
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) – made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with or “restrained” free trade SIG - limited impact at first – corporations were able to win court cases and continue consolidation tactics Unsafe working conditions and low pay caused workers/laborers to form Labor Unions devoted to improving the lives of workers

53 Labor Unions Emerge Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor (AFL) American Railway Union (ARU) International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union

54 Knights of Labor founded by Uriah Stephens in 1869
Open to all workers regardless of skill level, race or gender Supported an 8 hour workday

55 American Federation of Labor (AFL)
founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886 Open to skilled workers only Favored collective bargaining – def. – negotiation between management and representatives of labor to reach an agreement on wages, hours, and working conditions Used strikes when necessary

56 American Railway Union (ARU)
founded by Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) Open to all workers within a specific industry (railroads) regardless of skill level Used strikes when necessary – involved in the Pullman Strike

57 International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union
founded by Pauline Newman Labor union devoted to female workers in the textile industry Used strikes when necessary Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire - New York City in 1911 146 people (mostly women) died as a result

58 Strikes Turn Violent Haymarket Square Pullman Strike Homestead Strike

59 Haymarket Square Chicago 1886
Bomb exploded in a crowd of policemen, police fired into strikers public started to turn against labor unions

60 Pullman Strike near Pittsburgh 1892
Carnegie Steel plant went on strike when wages were cut Violence broke out - Pennsylvania National Guard called in to break up the strike

61 Homestead Strike Chicago 1894
Pullman employees went on strike after wages were cut Violence broke out – U.S. Army sent in by President Cleveland to break up the strike

62 Strikes Turn Violent SIG – violence in strikes caused the public to turn against labor unions

63 The New Immigrants Chapter 15 – Section 1

64 New immigrants Main Idea – Immigration reached a new high in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most immigrants during this time period came from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Asia. These immigrants often faced hardships and hostility from native-born Americans.

65 The “Golden door” Old Immigrants New Immigrants Asian Immigrants

66 Through the golden door
Background: Millions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries “push” factors (reasons to leave their homeland) = famine, land shortages, religious or political persecution “pull” factors (reason to come to the U.S. ) = economic opportunity, freedom from persecution

67 Old immigrants – immigrants who came to the U.S. prior to 1871, usually from countries in Northern and Western Europe Ex: Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden Many worked on canals or railroads, or in textile mills in the North and Midwest

68 New immigrants – immigrants who came to the U.S. from 1871 to 1921, usually from countries in Southern and Eastern Europe Ex: Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, Austria-Hungary Many worked in textile or steel mills, or in coal mines in the Northeast Many worked in clothing industry in New York City

69 Asian immigration smaller numbers of immigrants from China and Japan came to the West coast of the U.S. between Ex: China, Japan Many Chinese immigrants helped to build the Transcontinental Railroad

70 Entering the United states
Ellis Island Angel Island

71 Ellis island – immigration center in New York harbor (1892-1924)
Located near the Statue of Liberty = first view of U.S. for many immigrants Immigrants had to pass inspection to gain entry to the U.S. Inspection = physical exam, legal/document inspection, proof of no criminal record, proof of ability to work SIG – 17 million immigrants entered the U.S. through Ellis Island

72 Angel island – immigration center in San Francisco (1910-1940)
Inspection process was more difficult than at Ellis Island SIG – 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered U.S. through Angle Island

73 assimilation Most immigrants settled in urban ethnic neighborhoods = areas with people of the same ethnicity, culture, religion, and language Made assimilation into American society easier Most immigrants worked hard to learn English, adopt American customs, and become American citizens Public schools = essential in the process of assimilating children of immigrants

74 Melting pot – a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs

75 nativism – favoritism of native-born Americans combined with anti-immigrant feelings Fear that immigrants would take jobs for lower pay than American workers Resentment that many immigrants did not give up their unique cultural identities Prejudice based on religious, cultural, and racial differences

76 Immigration Restriction Legislation
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – 10 year ban on all Chinese immigration Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 – aimed at severely restricting the immigration totals of Southern and Eastern European immigrants




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