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Part D.  Internal carotid arteries divide into  Anterior and middle cerebral arteries  These arteries supply most of the cerebrum  Vertebral arteries.

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Presentation on theme: "Part D.  Internal carotid arteries divide into  Anterior and middle cerebral arteries  These arteries supply most of the cerebrum  Vertebral arteries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part D

2  Internal carotid arteries divide into  Anterior and middle cerebral arteries  These arteries supply most of the cerebrum  Vertebral arteries join once within the skull to form the basilar artery  Basilar artery serves the brain stem and cerebellum

3  Posterior cerebral arteries form from the division of the basilar artery  These arteries supply the posterior cerebrum

4  Anterior and posterior blood supplies are united by small communicating arterial branches  Result—complete circle of connecting blood vessels called cerebral arterial circle or circle of Willis

5 Figure 11.13

6  Fetus receives exchanges of gases, nutrients, and wastes through the placenta  Umbilical cord contains three vessels  Umbilical vein—carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus  Umbilical arteries (2)—carry carbon dioxide and debris-laden blood from fetus to placenta

7  Blood flow bypasses the liver through the ductus venosus and enters the inferior vena cava  right atrium of heart  Blood flow bypasses the lungs  Blood entering right atrium is shunted directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale  Ductus arteriosus connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk (becomes ligamentum arteriosum at birth)

8  Ductus venosus – bypasses liver to heart → R atrium → foramen ovale opens to L atrium → blood that gets into R ventricle → pulmonary trunk → ductus arteriosus → aorta & pulmonary trunk connected → systemic circulation → placenta  At birth:  Foramen ovale closes  Ductus arteriosus collapses  Revert to normal circulation

9  17. Through what organ does the fetus receive gases & nutrients:  A. umbilical arteries  B. ductus arteriosus  C. uterus  D. placenta

10

11  18. Blood entering the fetal right atrium is shunted directly into the left atrium through the:  A. ductus arteriosus  B. ductus venosus  C. foramen ovale  D. fossa ovalis

12  Veins of hepatic portal circulation drain  Digestive organs  Spleen  Pancreas  Hepatic portal vein carries this blood to the liver  Liver helps maintain proper glucose, fat, and protein concentrations in blood

13  Major vessels of hepatic portal circulation  Inferior and superior mesenteric veins  Splenic vein  Left gastric vein

14 Figure 11.16

15 Figure 11.14

16  19. What does the hepatic portal vein deliver blood to?  A. liver  B. spleen  C. intestines  D. pancreas

17  Pulse – pressure wave of blood  Monitored at “pressure points” where pulse is easily palpated  beats/minute Figure 11.16

18

19  Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries  Systolic – pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction  Diastolic – pressure when ventricles relax  Write systolic pressure first and diastolic last (120/80 mm Hg)  Pressure in blood vessels decreases as the distance away from the heart increases

20 Figure 11.19

21  20. The lowest blood pressure would be found in the:  A. aorta  B. arteries  C. capillaries  D. veins  E. vena cava

22  BP – pressure blood exerts against inner wall of vessels  Systolic: 120 mmHg  Diastolic: 80 mmHg  Ascultatory – use stethoscope to listen to brachial artery

23 Figure 11.20a

24 Figure 11.20b

25 Figure 11.20c

26 Figure 11.20d

27  BP is blood pressure  BP is affected by age, weight, time of day, exercise, body position, emotional state  CO is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute  PR is peripheral resistance, or the amount of friction blood encounters as it flows through vessels  Narrowing of blood vessels and increased blood volume increases PR

28  Blood pressure = cardiac output x peripheral resistance  (cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)

29  21. The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute:  A. BP  B. CO  C. PR  D. HR

30  Neural factors  Autonomic nervous system adjustments (adrenal medulla -sympathetic division) – constricts vessels causing ↑ PR (peripheral resistance)  Atherosclerosis causes ↑ PR  Renal factors  Regulation by altering blood volume  ↑ volume or viscosity causes ↑ PR  Urinate water to ↓ PR  Renin – enzyme produced by kidneys  Renin → angiotensis II → vasoconstriction

31  Temperature  Heat has a vasodilation effect  Cold has a vasoconstricting effect  Chemicals  Various substances can cause increases or decreases  Epinephrine ↑ heart rate & BP  Nicotine ↑ BP  Alcohol & histamines ↓BP & cause vasodilation  Diet

32 Figure 11.21

33  Human normal range is variable  Normal  140–110 mm Hg systolic  80–75 mm Hg diastolic  Hypotension  Low systolic (below 110 mm Hg)  Often associated with illness  Hypertension  High systolic (above 140 mm Hg)  Can be dangerous if it is chronic

34  Substances exchanged due to concentration gradients  Oxygen and nutrients leave the blood  Carbon dioxide and other wastes leave the cells

35  Direct diffusion across plasma membranes – into interstitial fluid  Endocytosis or exocytosis – lipid insoluble substances  Some capillaries have gaps (intercellular clefts)  Plasma membrane not joined by tight junctions  Fenestrations of some capillaries  Fenestrations = pores


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