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World War II ( ) US Involvement ( )

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Presentation on theme: "World War II ( ) US Involvement ( )"— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II (1939-1945) US Involvement (1941-1945)

2 What’s Essential? Causes of the War (underlying and direct)
Reasons for American Neutrality (various acts/events) Reason for American entrance: Pearl Harbor Wartime goals of the Allies

3 Essential to Know (con’t)
American Homefront (women, blacks, Japanese internment) Yalta and Potsdam Conferences and their significance Decision to drop atomic bomb and its lasting effects

4 What do we know about the world as a result of WWI?

5 The Road Towards American Intervention

6 Causes for World War II DIRECT:
UNDERLYING: Treaty of Versailles Nationalism Worldwide Depression Dictatorships The policy of appeasement American Isolationism DIRECT: Germany invading Poland on September 1st, 1939

7 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
Roosevelt openly expressed his favor for an Allied victory & took steps to ready the U.S. for war In 1937, FDR unsuccessfully tried to convince world leaders to “quarantine the aggressors” Everything changed in with the Nazi-Soviet Pact & the German invasion of Poland But, FDR was able to get $1 billion from Congress to expand the U.S. navy


9 US=Turtle

10 The Axis Powers!!!

11 Hitler and Nazi Germany
Rise to power result of weakness of previous government (1933- became Chancellor) Charismatic speaker, preached German nationalism, denounced Versailles Treaty Blamed Jews, communists for Germany’s problems Promised return of German pride

12 Benito Mussolini in Italy
Fascist leader who took control of Italy in 1922 Wanted to create another Roman Empire Invaded Ethiopia in 1935 Along with Hitler supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War (combat experience)

13 Japanese Expansion Sought total control of Pacific (resources)
1931- military occupation of Manchuria 1936- Japan signs Pact with Germany, Italy Nanking Massacre- December 1937

14 Dr. Seuss Explains it all
Handout Can you tell what events are being described? How can these cartoons be a product of their time and could taken out of historical context?

15 America: The Great Neutrilizer

16 American Neutrality Domestic: U.S. in midst of Great Depression, public intent on remaining neutral 1935: First Neutrality Act (no sale of arms to belligerent nations) 1937: Arm sales only on “cash and carry” basis FDR warns of impending problems President Roosevelt

17 Isolationism in the United States
Economic, military reasons for neutrality Tried to prevent mistakes that led to WWI involvement FDR: “Let no one imagine that we will escape…that this western hemisphere will not be attacked”—outraged many isolationists Hitler and Mussolini

18 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
“The destroyer-for-bases deal is the most important action in the reinforcement of our national defense that has been taken since the Louisiana Purchase” —FDR When WW II began in 1939, FDR got Congress agree to a cash & carry policy to aid the Allies: The U.S. would trade with the Allies but would not offer loans & would not deliver American products to Europe In addition, FDR traded 50 old destroyers with England for 8 naval bases in Western Europe FDR responded with all-out aid to the Allies but did not call for war

19 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
Isolationists Appalled by this departure from neutrality & FDR’s involvement of the US in a foreign war Their “Fortress of America” idea argued that Germany was not a threat to the US “The future of western civilization is being decided upon the battlefield of Europe” —CDAAA chair, William Allen White Interventionists Groups like the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies called for unlimited aid to England They argued that the events in Europe did impact the security of US St. Louis Dispatch headline: “Dictator Roosevelt Commits Act of War”

20 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
Interventionists had the majority of public sentiment on their side: Congress appropriated $10 billion for preparedness in 1940 FDR called for America’s 1st peacetime draft In the election of 1940, FDR was overwhelmingly elected for an unprecedented 3rd term

21 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
By 1940, England remained the only active opposition to Hitler but was running out of money FDR called for a Lend-Lease Act: US can sell or lend war supplies to Allied nations Congress put $7 billion to allow England full access to US arms US Cash and Carry Program X

22 Lend-Lease Supply Routes

23 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
England desperately needed help escorting these supplies through the u-boat infested Atlantic FDR allowed for US patrols in the western half of the Atlantic German attacks on US ships led to an undeclared naval war in 1941 & allowed US ships to fully deliver war supplies to Allies US Cash and Carry Program X X

24 Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941
To Congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness “…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger. That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history. The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency. Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.

25 Four Freedoms “The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”

26 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
In 1941, FDR & Churchill met to secretly draft the Atlantic Charter: The U.S. & Britain discussed military strategy if America were to enter the war They discussed post-war goals of liberty, free trade, & disarmament Review Handout In 1941, Hitler broke the Nazi-Soviet Pact & attacked Russia

27 From Neutrality to Undeclared War
FDR brought US to the brink of war & opened himself to criticism: In Sept 1941, US polls showed 80% of Americans supported US neutrality in WW II FDR had to wait for the Axis to make a decisive move…which Japan delivered on Dec 7, 1941

28 European Appeasement 1938- Hitler invades Austria, Sudetenland on Czech border Munich Conference (1938): Chamberlain and Daladier allow Hitler to do this (appeasement) Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” British rearmament

29 German “blitz” of Warsaw
War Erupts!!! March Hitler breaks Munich agreement, invades rest of Czechoslovakia August Hitler signs nonaggression pact with rival USSR, turns attention west September 1, “blitzkrieg” invasion of Poland; Britain and France declare war on Germany German “blitz” of Warsaw

30 Hitler’s Wild Ride in Europe While the U.S. Watches
World War II ( ) Hitler’s Wild Ride in Europe While the U.S. Watches

31 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Hitler Moves in Europe April Hitler seizes Norway, Denmark May- Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg By June, Hitler controls France, turns attention to Britain Fall Battle of Britain London heavily bombed but Churchill remains defiant British Prime Minister Winston Churchill

32 The United States and Britain
1939- Roosevelt revises Neutrality Act, allows for arms trade Public opinion divided Election of FDR wins 3rd term 1940: Destroyers for Bases Deal 1941: Lend-Lease Act

33 “Destroyers for Bases”: called for 50 American destroyers to be exchanged for the use of 8 British naval bases along the North Atlantic coast “Lend-lease”: made it possible to lend or lease supplies to any country whose interests were vital (GB)- $50 billion

34 The U.S. Enters the War The “destroyers for bases” deal allowed the U.S. to extend its influence August Atlantic Charter: Churchill and FDR agree to defend democracy, free trade and economic advancement The U.S. destroyer Greer attacked in September 1941 US directly involved in naval warfare USS Greer Atlantic Charter

35 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
United States and Japan Japan wanted to extend influence in Far East July 1940: U.S. embargo of raw materials to Japan 1941: Lend-Lease aid to China Anticipating attack in the Philippines December 7, 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

36 Images of Pearl Harbor

37 FDR addresses Congress after Pearl Harbor attack
America Enters War Pearl Harbor attack devastates nation FDR: “A date which will live in infamy” December 8, FDR receives war declaration from Congress against Japan Germany, Italy declare war on United States FDR addresses Congress after Pearl Harbor attack

38 Japanese Internment February, 1942: FDR issues Executive Order
Over 100,000 Japanese-Americans on West Coast moved to the interior Japanese farms/businesses bought for far less value

39 Allied Military Strategy (1941-1945)
A.) Arsenal of Democracy

40 Mobilizing for War 1940- Economy focuses on military mobilization
Massive industrial output (twice as productive as Germany, 5 times Japan) Primary focus: tanks, planes, battleships War Production Board Military draft, training Wartime propaganda

41 Mobilizing for War (con’t)
Wars Power Act= set precedent for executive authority. President gained power to reorganize the federal government and create new agencies (Handout)

42 Organizing the Economy
Outproduce enemies will gain victory within the war 1941: Government pouring vast amounts into defense productions. 6 Months after PH: allocations topped off at $100 billion for equipment and supplies Factories pimped out for production (TOTAL WAR) pg. 896

43 New Workers (Pg. 897) Mexicans (Bracero Program) 200,000 for short term employment (Farm workers) Native Americans (Sioux and Navajo) build ordinance depots and military training centers African Americans (Opportunities in all areas) Women

44 Home Front 1941-1945 Dynamics of Families Internment of the Japanese
Double V Campaign for African Americans Women and new gender role Latino Americans (Zoot Suit Riots) “The Good War”

45 Mural Activity Essential Question: How would you depict the “Great Arsenal of Democracy” effectiveness with the American Home Front?

46 The Liberation of Europe
FDR: Liberate Europe first and pursue an “active defense” in the Pacific Battle of Atlantic: Hitler’s “Wolf Packs” vs. Allied Navies Clear Germany from North Africa Late 1942: Only Tunisia was controlled by Axis Powers Erwin Rommel, the “Desert Fox”

47 Allied Advances in Europe (1943-1944)
January, 1943: Allies agree to fight until they win “unconditional surrender” February 1943: SU takes back Stalingrad and moves westward Same time, Allied victory in Tunisia secures Africa

48 Allied Advancements Cont…
July 10, 1943: The invasion of Italy. Fighting continues from July 1943 to June 1944 (70,000 Allied troops killed) Separate peace was signed with new Italian government in September, 1943

49 Unconditional Surrender in Europe (1944-1945)
Britain and U.S. air raid strategic sights in Germany (Flying Fortresses) June 6, 1944: D-Day and the Allied invasion of Normandy Battle at Normandy lasted from June 6-July 24 August 25, 1944: France liberated

50 Germany’s Last Gasp Effort
Hitler was caught between Allied troops coming from the West and Stalin’s forces coming from the East. December 1944: Battle of the Bulge April 25, 1945: Russia and Allied Forces meet at the Elbe River May 8, 1945: Germany surrenders (V-E DAY)

51 YALTA CONFERENCE (February 1945)
Plans for German surrender Stalin agrees to hold free elections and help with Japan Broken promises, USSR’s position strengthened Initiated Cold War Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

52 Allied Military Strategy in the Pacific (1941-1945)
By 1942, Japan had controlled almost the entire area of the Pacific Allies were able to hold on to Hawaii and Samoa “Active defense” campaign: -Battle of the Coral Sea (May,1942) -Battle of Midway (June, 1942) -Battle of Guadalcanal (Aug Feb. 1943)

53 The Pacific Theatre Cont…
The Allies took control of several islands in the Pacific under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur -Iwo Jima (1945) -Okinawa (1945) The recapture of the Philippines was the highlight (Oct March 1945)

54 “The Alternative to Surrender is Prompt and Utter Destruction”
August 6, 1945: Atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima (at least 75,000 killed) August 9, 1945: Atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki

55 World War II- The Homefront
American industry key to victory Built tanks, bombs, guns, ships, ammunition, etc. War bonds (borrowed $$$ from Americans) raised about $50 billion for war effort Women “filling in” for men off at war Victory Gardens “Rosie the Riveter” inspired many women to contribute

56 Blacks in WWII WWII effort directly led to later civil rights movement
Patton’s “Black Panther” Battalion at Battle of the Bulge Tuskegee Airmen July, 1948: Truman signs Executive Order integrating US military

57 “The War is Over” Japan surrenders to Allied Forces on the U.S. Missouri after the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki- August 14th– V-J Day

58 THE COSTS OF THE WAR U.S. lost over 300,000
World suffered at least 60 million Over 25 million Russians alone died Over 10 million in death camps New fears arise after the war– fight to contain Communism– THE COLD WAR ERA!!

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