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The Coming of the War 1931-1942  Pearl Harbor/”a date which will live in infamy”- US naval base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on Dec. 7, 1941;

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Presentation on theme: "The Coming of the War 1931-1942  Pearl Harbor/”a date which will live in infamy”- US naval base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on Dec. 7, 1941;"— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Coming of the War

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4  Pearl Harbor/”a date which will live in infamy”- US naval base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on Dec. 7, 1941; it brought the US into war and ended the Great Depression at home; FDR stated that Dec. 7 th would always be remembered  WACS  Women’s Army Corps were created to provide defense workers, instructors, lab techs. More than 150,000 women volunteered, 600 received medals and 57,000 nurses served during WWII.

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7 Pearl Harbor

8 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

9 Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot

10 USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor

11 Pearl Harbor Memorial 2,887 Americans Dead!

12 Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!

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14 President Roosevelt Signs the US Declaration of War

15 BATAAN DEATH MARCH  Bataan Death March and General MacArthur- 78,000 US and Filipino forces in the Philippines led  by MacArthur surrendered to the Japanese; the prisoners were forced on a 60 mile death march  with no food or water; 10,000 soldiers died on the march; MacArthur was rescued from the island and promised “I shall return” DOOLITTLE RAIDS  DooLittle Raids  James DooLittle led a raid of 16 B- 25s bombers to attack Tokoyo. They killed 50 Japanese and damaged over 100 buildings.

16  To maintain the United States as an “arsenal for democracy” in World War II,  Congress passed the —  A Dawes Act.  B Lend-Lease Act.  C Open Door Policy.  D Good Neighbor Policy.

17  Which of the following events had the GREATEST influence on the United States’  entry into World War II?  A Adolf Hitler invaded Poland.  B Germany sank the Lusitania.  C Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  D General MacArthur was captured in the Philippine Islands. 

18  Which of the following is true of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940,  commonly referred to as the military draft?  A It required both men and women to register for military service.  B It required able-bodied men between the ages of 15 and 65 to register.  C It mandated military service for all high-school dropouts.  D It was enacted during a period when the United States was at peace.

19  Battle of Midway- important naval battle b/t the US and Japan; the US won and it is considered the “turning point” in the war in the Pacific  Battle of the Coral Sea-the USA sent USS Lexington and USS Yorktown to stop Japan from taking over Australia. It was a pacific theatre, island hopping halt. Many call it a strategic draw but it forced Japan to call off their attack.

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23 SATURATION BOMBING  When British planes dropped massive amounts of bombs on Germany during World War II.  The goal of saturation bombing was to inflict major damage. STRATEGIC BOMBING  American military and bombing missions focused heavily on Japanese industrial and political areas.  Tuskegee Airmen were a squadron of African- American fighter pilots. They led 1500 missions and did not loose a bomber. Major effort for civil rights.

24   During World War II, industrialists in the United States contributed to the war effort  by —  A increasing the salaries of child laborers.  B converting factories into military hospitals.  C building houses for the families of soldiers.  D making weapons instead of consumer goods.

25 WOMEN & LABOR  Many women went to work.  Rosie the Riveter- symbol of the working woman in WWII; encouraged women to get a job to support the war effort; said “We Can Do It” AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND LABOR  Out of 100,00o labor workers, only 240 wee African-Americans.  A. Philip Randolph asserted African Americans did not want 2 nd class citizenship. He started the Double V Campaign.  Executive Order 8802 created the Fair Employment Practices Commission to address hiring.

26 JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS  Internment of Japanese- Americans- FDR signed an act to “intern” or round-up thousands of Japanese- Americans  that lived on the west coast and send them to “relocation centers” in the interior of the US; we worried that they might be spies for the Japanese INTERNMENT  Temporary imprisonment  Niesi—slang for Japanese Americans  442 nd combat team- an all volunteer regiment made up of Jap-Am soldiers; won more Congressional Medals and other medals than any other regiment; trained at Camp Shelby, MS

27  $42 billion to $289 in 6 years  Sold war bonds  Production increased  Income taxes raised

28  war bonds- Americans would loan the govt money for the war effort with the promise to be repaid plus  interest; made Americans feel like they were contributing in the war effort  rationing- when the govt. rationed goods to ensure that essential items were available for the soldiers; also  began to prevent inflation (ex. Tires for the rubber; nylon pantyhose for parachutes, etc.)

29  Technology in WWII- radar detected airplanes, sonar detected ships and submarines, atomic bomb was used to end the war

30  Island Hopping Campaigns  D-Day  liberation of France from German control

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33 Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944 ) Higgins Landing Crafts German Prisoners

34  Albert Einstein advised FDR to make the development of bomb “secret”. He was a major scientist in the development.  Manhatten Project was the code name given to the development of the bomb.  Robert Oppenheimer developed the construction of the bomb.

35  August 6, 1945  American troops drop bombs on Hiroshima  August 9, 1945 the USSR invaded Japan and USA bombed Nagasaki.  Japan surrendered.  Holocaust  12m Jews and others killed  Anti-semitism  Nuremberg Laws  Genocide  Concentration Camps  War Refugee Board

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37 Japan surrenders!

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45  Reasons Truman used the a-bomb- 1) to end the war, 2) to save American (and Japanese) lives, 3) to avoid an  invasion of mainland Japan, 4) to intimidate the Soviet Union, 5) for revenge at Pearl Harbor, 6) the  Japanese would not surrender and it was the only alternative left  VJ Day- “Victory in Japan”; Japan surrenders on Sept. 2, 45

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47 Mussolini & His Mistress, Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, 1945

48  Italian  leader

49 Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 The F ü hrer’s Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Mr. & Mrs. Hitler

50  New  Federal  politician

51  The campaigns at Iwo Jima and Okinawa wiped out any lingering doubts that the Japanese would resist invaders to the last breath.  On July 26, 1945, three weeks after the re-conquest of the Philippines, Allied leaders assembled at Potsdam sent an ultimatum to the enemy: “The alternative to surrender is prompt and utter destruction.”  On August 6 the first atomic bomb to be used in warfare was dropped on Hiroshima.  Russia declared war on August 8 and overran the Japanese forces in Manchuria. On August 9, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.

52  Island hopping strategy- the Allies would only try to recapture those islands that would help them launch an invasion of mainland Japan  Navajo Code Talkers- Navajo Indians were used as code talkers and helped the Allies communicate without fear of having our messages translated; the code-talkers were kept classified until the 1980’s in  case we needed to use them again

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54  Postwar Germany?  Eastern Europe, especially Poland?  United Nations?  Japan?

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56  Zones of Occupation  Reparations  War Crimes Tribunal

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61 “unconditional surrender” OR “”utter destruction”

62  In order to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific during World War II, the United States used  which of the following military tactics?  A Blitzkrieg  B Genocide  C Trench warfare  D Island-hopping

63  The federal government raised money for World War II efforts in all of the  following ways EXCEPT —  A selling war bonds.  B defaulting on reparations payments.  C raising personal income taxes.  D borrowing funds.

64  Which of the following contributed MOST to President Truman's decision to use  the atomic bomb against Japan?  A The belief that an invasion of Japan would cause massive United States casualties  B The desire to retaliate against Japanese kamikaze bombers  C The need to conserve troops for the war effort in Europe  D The desire to demonstrate United States technological superiority

65  The MAIN justification for the internment of Japanese Americans after the  bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941 was to —  A protect them from anti-Japanese riots and demonstrations.  B preserve the security of the United States.  C adhere to the Open Door Policy.  D prevent leaks about the development of the atomic bomb.

66  Yalta Conference- Feb. 45; meeting b/t Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill; discussed how to divide Germany among the Allies when the war was over; also included the promise by Stalin to help the US fight Japan and to hold free elections in countries they now occupied; Stalin broke this promise which  led to the Cold War

67  The General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT)  was a treaty designed in 1948 to reduce tariffs and expand world trade. GATT was created to develop financial stability around the world.  Universal Declaration of Human Rights was established. It condemned slavery and torture, upheld freedom of speech and stated that everyone was entitled to a reasonable standard of living.

68  Nuremberg Trials for war crimes  Civil Rights  Truman desegregates the military.

69  The United Nations is made up of six main bodies, one of which is the Security  Council. At the time of its founding, five nations— China, France, Great Britain,  the Soviet Union, and the United States—were permanent members of the Security  Council. What did these five permanent members of the Security Council have in  common?  A They were all communist nations.  B They were all Axis powers during World War II.  C They were all gold-standard countries.  D They were all Allied powers during World War II.


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