Pearl Harbor/”a date which will live in infamy”- US naval base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on Dec. 7, 1941; it brought the US into war and ended the Great Depression at home; FDR stated that Dec. 7 th would always be remembered WACS Women’s Army Corps were created to provide defense workers, instructors, lab techs. More than 150,000 women volunteered, 600 received medals and 57,000 nurses served during WWII.
President Roosevelt Signs the US Declaration of War
BATAAN DEATH MARCH Bataan Death March and General MacArthur- 78,000 US and Filipino forces in the Philippines led by MacArthur surrendered to the Japanese; the prisoners were forced on a 60 mile death march with no food or water; 10,000 soldiers died on the march; MacArthur was rescued from the island and promised “I shall return” DOOLITTLE RAIDS DooLittle Raids James DooLittle led a raid of 16 B- 25s bombers to attack Tokoyo. They killed 50 Japanese and damaged over 100 buildings.
To maintain the United States as an “arsenal for democracy” in World War II, Congress passed the — A Dawes Act. B Lend-Lease Act. C Open Door Policy. D Good Neighbor Policy.
Which of the following events had the GREATEST influence on the United States’ entry into World War II? A Adolf Hitler invaded Poland. B Germany sank the Lusitania. C Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. D General MacArthur was captured in the Philippine Islands.
Which of the following is true of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, commonly referred to as the military draft? A It required both men and women to register for military service. B It required able-bodied men between the ages of 15 and 65 to register. C It mandated military service for all high-school dropouts. D It was enacted during a period when the United States was at peace.
Battle of Midway- important naval battle b/t the US and Japan; the US won and it is considered the “turning point” in the war in the Pacific Battle of the Coral Sea-the USA sent USS Lexington and USS Yorktown to stop Japan from taking over Australia. It was a pacific theatre, island hopping halt. Many call it a strategic draw but it forced Japan to call off their attack.
SATURATION BOMBING When British planes dropped massive amounts of bombs on Germany during World War II. The goal of saturation bombing was to inflict major damage. STRATEGIC BOMBING American military and bombing missions focused heavily on Japanese industrial and political areas. Tuskegee Airmen were a squadron of African- American fighter pilots. They led 1500 missions and did not loose a bomber. Major effort for civil rights.
During World War II, industrialists in the United States contributed to the war effort by — A increasing the salaries of child laborers. B converting factories into military hospitals. C building houses for the families of soldiers. D making weapons instead of consumer goods.
WOMEN & LABOR Many women went to work. Rosie the Riveter- symbol of the working woman in WWII; encouraged women to get a job to support the war effort; said “We Can Do It” AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND LABOR Out of 100,00o labor workers, only 240 wee African-Americans. A. Philip Randolph asserted African Americans did not want 2 nd class citizenship. He started the Double V Campaign. Executive Order 8802 created the Fair Employment Practices Commission to address hiring.
JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS Internment of Japanese- Americans- FDR signed an act to “intern” or round-up thousands of Japanese- Americans that lived on the west coast and send them to “relocation centers” in the interior of the US; we worried that they might be spies for the Japanese INTERNMENT Temporary imprisonment Niesi—slang for Japanese Americans 442 nd combat team- an all volunteer regiment made up of Jap-Am soldiers; won more Congressional Medals and other medals than any other regiment; trained at Camp Shelby, MS
$42 billion to $289 in 6 years Sold war bonds Production increased Income taxes raised
war bonds- Americans would loan the govt money for the war effort with the promise to be repaid plus interest; made Americans feel like they were contributing in the war effort rationing- when the govt. rationed goods to ensure that essential items were available for the soldiers; also began to prevent inflation (ex. Tires for the rubber; nylon pantyhose for parachutes, etc.)
Technology in WWII- radar detected airplanes, sonar detected ships and submarines, atomic bomb was used to end the war
Island Hopping Campaigns D-Day liberation of France from German control
Albert Einstein advised FDR to make the development of bomb “secret”. He was a major scientist in the development. Manhatten Project was the code name given to the development of the bomb. Robert Oppenheimer developed the construction of the bomb.
August 6, 1945 American troops drop bombs on Hiroshima August 9, 1945 the USSR invaded Japan and USA bombed Nagasaki. Japan surrendered. Holocaust 12m Jews and others killed Anti-semitism Nuremberg Laws Genocide Concentration Camps War Refugee Board
Reasons Truman used the a-bomb- 1) to end the war, 2) to save American (and Japanese) lives, 3) to avoid an invasion of mainland Japan, 4) to intimidate the Soviet Union, 5) for revenge at Pearl Harbor, 6) the Japanese would not surrender and it was the only alternative left VJ Day- “Victory in Japan”; Japan surrenders on Sept. 2, 45
The campaigns at Iwo Jima and Okinawa wiped out any lingering doubts that the Japanese would resist invaders to the last breath. On July 26, 1945, three weeks after the re-conquest of the Philippines, Allied leaders assembled at Potsdam sent an ultimatum to the enemy: “The alternative to surrender is prompt and utter destruction.” On August 6 the first atomic bomb to be used in warfare was dropped on Hiroshima. Russia declared war on August 8 and overran the Japanese forces in Manchuria. On August 9, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
Island hopping strategy- the Allies would only try to recapture those islands that would help them launch an invasion of mainland Japan Navajo Code Talkers- Navajo Indians were used as code talkers and helped the Allies communicate without fear of having our messages translated; the code-talkers were kept classified until the 1980’s in case we needed to use them again
“unconditional surrender” OR “”utter destruction”
In order to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific during World War II, the United States used which of the following military tactics? A Blitzkrieg B Genocide C Trench warfare D Island-hopping
The federal government raised money for World War II efforts in all of the following ways EXCEPT — A selling war bonds. B defaulting on reparations payments. C raising personal income taxes. D borrowing funds.
Which of the following contributed MOST to President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan? A The belief that an invasion of Japan would cause massive United States casualties B The desire to retaliate against Japanese kamikaze bombers C The need to conserve troops for the war effort in Europe D The desire to demonstrate United States technological superiority
The MAIN justification for the internment of Japanese Americans after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941 was to — A protect them from anti-Japanese riots and demonstrations. B preserve the security of the United States. C adhere to the Open Door Policy. D prevent leaks about the development of the atomic bomb.
Yalta Conference- Feb. 45; meeting b/t Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill; discussed how to divide Germany among the Allies when the war was over; also included the promise by Stalin to help the US fight Japan and to hold free elections in countries they now occupied; Stalin broke this promise which led to the Cold War
The General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a treaty designed in 1948 to reduce tariffs and expand world trade. GATT was created to develop financial stability around the world. Universal Declaration of Human Rights was established. It condemned slavery and torture, upheld freedom of speech and stated that everyone was entitled to a reasonable standard of living.
Nuremberg Trials for war crimes Civil Rights Truman desegregates the military.
The United Nations is made up of six main bodies, one of which is the Security Council. At the time of its founding, five nations— China, France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States—were permanent members of the Security Council. What did these five permanent members of the Security Council have in common? A They were all communist nations. B They were all Axis powers during World War II. C They were all gold-standard countries. D They were all Allied powers during World War II.
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