Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Course Map I. Molecules and Cells …………………………………………. 25%"— Presentation transcript:
1AP Biology Course Map I. Molecules and Cells …………………………………………. 25% Chemistry of Life ………………………………7%WaterOrganic molecules in organismsFree energy changesEnzymesCells …………………………………………….10%Prokaryotic and Eudaryotic cellsMembranesSubcellular organizationsCell cycle and its regulationCellular Energetics…………………………….8%Coupled reactionsFermentation and cellular respirationPhotosynthesisII. Heredity and Evolution …………………………………….. 25%Heredity ………………………………………..8%Meiosis and gametogenesisEukaryotic chromosomesInheritance patternsMolecular Genetics ………………………… 9%RNA and DNA structure and functionGene regulationMutationViral structure and replicationNucleic acid technology and applicationsEvolutionary Biology ………………………… 8%Early evolution of lifeEvidence for evolutionMechanisms of evolutionIII. Organisms and Populations……………………………… 50%Diversity of Organisms ……………………… 8%Evolutionary patternsSurvey of the diversity of lifePhylogenetic classificationEvolutionary relationshipsStructure and Function of Plants and Animals..32%Reproduction, growth, and developmentStructural, physiological, and behavioraladaptation. Response to the environmentEcology …………………………………………10%Population dynamicsCommunities and ecosystemsGlobal issues
7Section A: Introduction to Behavior and Behavioral Ecology CHAPTER 51BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGYSection A: Introduction to Behavior and Behavioral EcologyWhat is behavior?Behavior has both proximate and ultimate causesBehavior results from both genes and environmental factorsInnate behavior is developmentally fixedClassical ethology presaged an evolutionary approach to behavioral biologyBehavioral ecology emphasizes evolutionary hypotheses
81. What is Behavior?Behavior is what an animal does and how it does it.(1) What are some examples of behavior in animals that you have observed this summer?
92. Behavioral has both proximate and ultimate causes Proximate questions are mechanistic, concerned with the environmental stimuli that trigger a behavior, as well as the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying a behavioral act- the “how”.Ultimate questions address the evolutionary significance for a behavior and why natural selection favors this behavior.
10For an example, many animals breed in the spring or early summer. (2) What is the probable proximate cause of this behavior? / What is the probable ultimate cause of this behavior?
11These two levels of causation are related. For example, many animals breed during the spring and summer because of the warmth of the seasons.The abundant food supply may increase the chances of offspring surviving.
12Proximate and Ultimate Questions Proximate, or “how,” questions about behaviorFocus on the environmental stimuli that trigger a behaviorFocus on the genetic, physiological, and anatomical mechanisms underlying a behavioral actUltimate, or “why,” questions about behaviorAddress the evolutionary significance of a behavior
133. Behavior results from both genes and environmental factors In biology, the nature-versus-nurture issue is not about whether genes or environment influence behavior, but that both are involved.Are some behaviors genetically “programmed”?
144. Innate behavior is developmentally fixed These behaviors are due to genetic programming.The range of environmental differences among individuals does not appear to alter the behavior.Case studies have shown this.Want to know more?- Human genome findings for genes related to specific behaviors
15One way to find out if a behavior has a genetic basis would be to show that behavioral differences exist prior to any learning opportunity.For exampleMost newly hatched birds do not shove nearby eggs out of the nest.But consider the African cuckoo. When a nest of another bird species is left unattended, the female cuckoo quickly swoops down and lays an egg in the nest.Even before the newly hatched cuckoo chick opens its eyes, it shoves the other eggs out of the nest.Surprisingly, the unsuspecting host bird will go on feeding the baby cuckoo, even when the cuckoo has grown much larger than the host!Why would this behavior be instinctual (gene-based)?
175. Classical ethology presaged an evolutionary approach to behavioral biology Ethology is the study of how animals behave in their natural habitat.Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, and Niko Tinbergen are three individuals who were foremost in the initial stages of this field.
18Fixed action pattern (FAP) A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated.The FAP is triggered by an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus (stimuli are usually obvious).The FAP usually occurs in a series of actions the same way every time.Many animals tend to use a relatively small subset of the sensory information available to them and behave stereotypically.
19Example In male stickleback fish, the stimulus for attack behavior Is the red underside of an intruderFigure 51.3a(a) A male three-spined stickleback fish shows its red underside.
20When presented with unrealistic models As long as some red is present, the attack behavior occurs\(b) The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. Theother models, with red undersides, produce strong responses.
21Proximate and ultimate causes for the FAP attack behavior in male stickleback fish ULTIMATE CAUSE: By chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chance that eggs laid in his nesting territory will be fertilized by another male.BEHAVIOR: A male stickleback fish attacks other male sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.PROXIMATE CAUSE: The red belly of the intruding male acts as a sign stimulusthat releases aggression in a male stickleback.
22the trout's hunger - i.e. its motivation to feed Lorenz' Hydraulic Model of motivationFlyfishing for trout may be an example of presenting a sign stimulus to an animal in order to elicit a Fixed Action Pattern.The artificial flies used by anglers resemble the living insect in some important aspects -e.g. size, shape and color.But as every flyfisherman knows a particular pattern of fly that works on one occasion may not catch a trout the next time it is presented. The effectiveness of the stimulus is affected by:the trout's hunger - i.e. its motivation to feedsome artificial flies are more effective than others, particularly at certain times of the year presumably because the trout has expectations based on which insects are hatching.This example shows the importance of internal motivational factors in controlling behavior.
236. Behavioral ecology emphasizes evolutionary hypotheses Behavioral ecology is the research field that views behavior as an evolutionary adaptation to the natural ecological conditions of animals.We expect animals to behave in ways that maximize their fitness (this idea is valid only if genes influence behavior).
24Songbird repertoires provide us with examples. Why has natural selection favored a multi-song behavior?Fig. 51.5
25It may be advantageous for males attracting females. Fig. 51.6
26CHAPTER 51.3 BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY Section B: LearningLearning is experienced-based modification of behaviorImprinting is learning limited to a sensitive periodBird song provides a model system for understanding the development of behaviorMany animals can learn to associate one stimulus with anotherPractice and exercise may explain the ultimate bases of play
271. Learning is experience-based modification of behavior Learning is the modification of behavior resulting from specific experiences.The alarm calls of vervet monkeys provide an example of how animals improve their performance of behavior.Vervet monkeys have at least three distinct alarm calls for three different predators: leopards, eagles and snakes. The alarm signals lead to distinct behavioral responses.When Seyfarth and colleagues (1980) played tape recordings of alarm calls to a group of free-ranging (non-captive) vervets, the leopard-type alarm call made the monkeys run into trees. The eagle-type alarm call made them look up at the sky. The snake-type alarm call made them look down to the ground. Video: animal planet
28Learning versus maturation. Maturation is the situation in which a behavior may improve because of ongoing developmental changes in neuromuscular systems, for example, flight in birds.As a bird continues to develop its muscles and nervous system, it is able to fly.It is not true learning.
302. Imprinting is learning limited to a sensitive period Imprinting is the recognition, response, and attachment of young to a particular adult or object.Konrad Lorenz experimented with geese that spent the first hours of their life with him and after time responded to him as their “parent.”Lorenz isolated geese after hatching and found that they could no longer imprint on anything.
31What is innate in these birds is the ability to respond to a parent figure; while the outside world provides the imprinting stimulus.The sensitive period is a limited phase in an individual animal’s development when learning particular behaviors can take placeFig. 51.9
344. Many animals can learn to associate one stimulus with another Associative learning is the ability of many animals to learn to associate one stimulus with another.Classical conditioning is a type of associative learning.
35Pavlov’s dog is a good example. Ivan Pavlov exposed dogs to a bell ringing and at the same time sprayed their mouths with powdered meat, causing them to salivate.Soon, the dogs would salivate after hearing the bell but not getting any powdered meat.Pavlov’s dog game
39Section C: Animal Cognition CHAPTER 51BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGYSection C: Animal CognitionThe study of cognition connects nervous system functioning with behaviorAnimals use various cognitive mechanisms during movement through spaceThe study of consciousness poses a unique challenge for scientists
40IntroductionAnimal cognition is an animal’s ability to be aware of and make judgments about its environment.
42These are the simplest mechanisms of movement. 2. Animals use various cognitive mechanisms during movement through spaceKinesis and taxis.These are the simplest mechanisms of movement.Kinesis is a change in activity rate in response to a stimulus.Taxis is an automatic, oriented movement to or away from a stimulus.For example, phototaxis, chemotaxis, and geotaxis.
43Many stream fish exhibit positive rheotaxis Where they automatically swim in an upstream directionDirectionof rivercurrent(b) Positive rheotaxis keeps trout facing into the current, the direction from which most food comes.Figure 51.7b
44Kinesis or taxis?Figure 51.7aDry open areaMoist site under leaf
47Use of landmarks within a familiar area. Some organisms move in response to a recognized object or environmental cue, the object is the landmark.Cognitive maps.Some animals form cognitive maps (internal codes of spatial relationships of objects in the environment).
48Further study Nest RESULTS CONCLUSIONA female digger wasp excavates and cares for four or five separate underground nests, flying to each nest daily with food for the single larva in the nest. To test his hypothesis that the wasp uses visual landmarks to locate the nests, Niko Tinbergen marked one nest with a ring of pinecones.EXPERIMENTNestWhen the wasp returned, she flew to the center of the pinecone circle instead of to the nearby nest. Repeating the experiment with many wasps, Tinbergen obtained the same results.RESULTSThe experiment supported the hypothesis that digger wasps use landmarks to keep track of their nests.No NestFurther study
49Which animal migrates the furthest? Migration Behavior.Migration is the regular movement of animals over relatively long distances.Which animal migrates the furthest?Piloting: an animal moves from one familiar landmark to another until it reaches its destination.Fig
523. The study of consciousness poses a unique challenge for scientists Besides humans, are animals aware of themselves?Some would argue that certain behaviors are a result of conscious processing.In an experiment, an Asian elephant named Happy repeatedly touched her trunk to a white X painted on her forehead while looking in a mirror. This suggests that the animal recognized herself in the reflection, scientists say, making the elephant one of the few animals known to be capable of self-recognition.
53Section D: Social Behavior and Sociobiology CHAPTER 51BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGYSection D: Social Behavior and SociobiologySociobiology places social behavior in an evolutionary contextCompetitive social behaviors often represent contests for resourcesNatural selection favors mating behavior that maximizes the quantity or quality of mating partners
541. Sociobiology places social behavior in an evolutionary context Social behavior is any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species.
55By the way, what is the most social of all species on planet Earth?
633. Natural selection favors mating behavior that maximizes the quantity or quality of mating partnersCourtship behavior consists of patterns that lead to mating and consists of a series of displays and movements by the male or female.(Planet Earth Clip)David Attenborough: bowerbird
64Parental investment refers to the time and resources expended for raising of offspring. It is generally lower in males because they are capable of producing more gametes (which are also smaller), therefore making each one less valuable.Females usually invest more time into parenting because they make fewer, larger gametes, a process which is energetically more expensive, thus making each gamete more valuable.In terms of mate choice, females are usually more discriminating in terms of the males with whom they choose to mate.Females look for more fit males (i.e., better genes), the ultimate cause of the choice.
66No other species comes close to matching the social learning and cultural transmission that occurs among humans.
67Sociobiology connects evolutionary theory to human culture E.O. Wilson's most notable field of research, however, was in sociobiology. In his 1975 book entitled Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Wilson observed behavior in insects which suggested that one individual insect is inclined to help its colony, even at possible cost to itself; that is to say the welfare of the entire colony was far more important than that of the individual. This research represented great strides in the field of biology as no one had ever been able to substantiate that acts of altruism, kindness and labor specialization were fundamental among various species.Examples:A great deal of controversy arose when, near the end of Sociobiology, Wilson hypothesized that his research with insects could be linked to animal and human behavior. He proposed that certain specific behaviors are, in fact, genetically determined. This prompted a huge revolt, people did not want to believe that their actions were controlled by anything but destiny or free will; genetics could not enter the picture.
68Extra credit- 1 page summary of this NOVA production on E.O. Wilson