Presentation on theme: "By: Jared Marr & Kaushal Vadhar. Essentially “The only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which,"— Presentation transcript:
By: Jared Marr & Kaushal Vadhar
Essentially “The only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security” “It is our intention to work together, and with other free peoples, both in war and peace, to this end.”
First Washington Conference Codename : “Arcadia Conference” Arcadia, Greece Dec. 22, 1941 – Jan. 14, 1942 26 signatories Roosevelt first decides that the priority is to be Germany Declaration by “United Nations” signed on Jan Promised to create the U.N. Created the ETO- European Theatre of Operations
Dumbarton Oaks Date : Aug. 7 – Oct Rough Draft of U.N. Charter Issues: Creation of Security Council Relationship to the L. N. United States U.K. Soviet Union China
Malta and Yalta Malta (Jan. 30 – Feb ) Veto Power in U.N. proposed for “Great Powers” Eden and Hiss agreed to invite France and China, in addition to the Soviet Union, to future talks. Held due to Roosevelt’s Health Yalta (Feb. 4 – Feb ) Russia ○ Agrees to veto ○ Proposes seats for 16 Soviet Republics. ○ 14 denied. ○ "Yalta revealed cracks in the Grand Alliance. Only the common objective of defeating Hitler had kept it together.“ – Jeremy Isaacs
San Diego Conference Apr. 26 – June 25 San Diego, Ca. “ You must regardless of party, race, creed or color, to support our efforts to build a strong and lasting United Nations organization.“ – Harry S. Truman Secretary of State : Cordell Hull Established the Charter of the United Nations It was put fully into effect after it was ratified by all of the “Great Powers” on October 24
Preamble WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and To promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS To practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and To unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and To ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
The Purposes of the United Nations are: (Article 1) 1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; 2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; 3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and 4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
Members Has 192 members out of approximately 195 nations of the world. (Taiwan, Kosovo, Holy See, Vatican City). Permanent members: China, Russia, United Kingdom, United States, and France.
Obligations of Members (Article 2) 3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered. 4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations. 5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action. 7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter;
Article 43 All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
Action by the United Nations The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations
The Army (or not so much) The peace keeping troops carry light to medium grade weapons. They are merely equipped to handle small scale confrontations. They do not have capability to overthrow a nation.
How come? Justification: UN Charter- National sovereignty is one of the biggest ideologies of the United Nations. Article 2. Sec 1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members. Article 2 Sec 4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
General Assembly One country, one vote Every member gets a seat Lasts 2 weeks and held annually Majority Vote on Most Issues “Recommendations” only except with the budget 2/3 Vote Admission, Suspension, and Expulsion of Members Budget Amendment of U.N. Charter
Security Council Peace and Security "to maintain or restore international peace and security" Korean War Mandates Five Permanent Members: U.S., U.K., Russ., Fr., China 9 votes w/o veto required Ten Other members are elected regionally by the General Assembly Don’t possess a veto
TOO BAD THAT: There has never been an embargo placed on a member of the Security Council, despite the fact of justification. The Security Council would vote on it, but because the members are primarily, if not all, are industrialized nations. Therefore, why would they place a sanction on themselves?
Secretariat Research Organization Makes suggestions to other U.N. bodies Employees not rep. are in this U.N. organ Headed by the Secretary General who is currently Ban Kai Moon Power to put anything before any U.N. body for discussion
International Court of Justice (ICJ) Located in the Hague Netherlands (only organ not in the U.S.) 15 judges elected by United Nations Members Settles questions regarding compliance with charter and other international laws Also acts as legal council to all aspects of the U.N. including subsidiary organizations such as the WHO etc.
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Promotes economic and/or social cooperation President elected from small and middle powers Meets in July annually 54 Members Jobs: Gathering Info Advising Members Making Recommendations to other bodies
Specialized Organizations 1. International Atomic Energy Association = Prevention of Nuclear War 2. World Health Organization = Disease Prevention 3. World Bank = Reduction of Poverty 4. United Nations Industrial Development Organization = Trade building, poverty fighting, increasing energy, helping the environment 5. United Nations Economic Social and Cultural Organization = Unity through common desire in intellectual achievment
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5
Successes De-Colonization (1960) Informally Defeating Hitler (1945) Eradication of Polio and Smallpox via the WHO Congo ( ) Racial coup quelled after 4 years Lebanon (1958) “Anti-government rebellion” quelled Korea ( ) Stalemate reached after 3 years of fighting
Failures Venezuela Prevention of Hugo Chavez taking power through rigged elections Creation of Israel Made an eternal Arab-Israeli War Suez Canal Tried to create peace, but France and U.K. vetoed Iran Nuclear Weapon Development Funding of Terrorism Human Rights Violations ○ Hanging of Juvenile Offenders ○ Cleansing of gays ○ Sexist Punishment Iraq Kurdish Cleansing Sudan After hundreds of thousands of deaths there is still no recognition
Failures Continued Russia Occupation of Sphere U.S. Cuba Bay of Pigs Assassination attempts Nicaragua Prisons Guantanamo Bay Somalia One group given money then turned on interests Climate Control Kyoto Protocol Creation North Korea Development of Nuclear Weapons Zimbabwe Expulsion of White Farmers