Objective Define imperialism, isolationism, and expansionism. Evaluate the arguments for and against US imperialism at the end of the 19 th century. Analyze the causes and effects (short-term & long-term) of US imperialism inside and outside the US.
Questions to think about… How does imperialism affect the countries that come under an imperial power? (pros and cons) Is imperialism always a good or bad thing? How have US actions in the past affect our relationships with other countries today?
US Imperialism During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe.
Create a Concept Map Use Inspiration on your computer. For each of the terms, create at least two bubbles (one for the word, one with a definition/explanation in your own words). Include at least 3 pictures (clipart, draw, or internet) Be creative as you organize your concept map. For Example
Imperialism Terms Why did the US want to expand? Imperialism – p.352 Expanding US Interests – p. 353-354 George Washington’s Farewell Address Monroe Doctrine Seward’s Folly Arguments for Expansion – p. 355 Protecting Economic Growth Markets Protecting American Security Alfred T. Mahan (Influence of Sea Power Upon History) Great White Fleet – p.375 Preserving American Spirit – p. 356 Manifest destiny Henry Cabot Lodge Social Darwinism Arguments Against Expansion - Anti-Imperialists – p.372-373 Moral & Political Arguments Racial Arguments Economic Arguments
American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914 1. Commercial/Business Interests (Markets & Raw Materials)
2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race
The White Man’s Burden “TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN SEND FORTH THE BEST YE BREED GO, BIND YOUR SON TO EXILE TO SERVE YOUR CAPTIVES’ NEED; TO WAIT, IN HEAVY HARNESS, ON FLUTTERED FOLK AND WILD YOUR NEW-CAUGHT SULLEN PEOPLES, HALF DEVIL AND HALF CHILD….” Rudyard Kipling, 1899 “TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN SEND FORTH THE BEST YE BREED GO, BIND YOUR SON TO EXILE TO SERVE YOUR CAPTIVES’ NEED; TO WAIT, IN HEAVY HARNESS, ON FLUTTERED FOLK AND WILD YOUR NEW-CAUGHT SULLEN PEOPLES, HALF DEVIL AND HALF CHILD….” Rudyard Kipling, 1899
4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905
How did the US expand in the late 19 th & early 20 th centuries? Open Door Policy US has equal access to China’s millions of consumers Annexation of Hawaii Naval stations in Hawaii used to protect world trade. Spanish American War Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines become US territories
How did the US expand in the late 19 th & early 20 th centuries? Open Door Policy US has equal access to China’s millions of consumers Mexican Revolution (Wilson) Negative feelings grow in Latin America toward US interference in their affairs Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (Roosevelt) US gains control of 10 mile strip of land to build Panama Canal
Presidential Diplomacy McKinley – Open Door Policy Roosevelt – Big Stick Diplomacy – Roosevelt Corollary Taft – Dollar Diplomacy Wilson – Moral or Missionary Diplomacy – Mexican Revolution (Pancho Villa)
OPEN DOOR POLICY Who? Secretary of State John Hay for McKinley Target? China & Spanish American War Goals: – Access to ports – New Markets – No country gets special privileges – US maintains a “sphere of influence”
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. The U. S. becomes an imperial power!
The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1899. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.
Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) 1.Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt
Puerto Rico: 1898 Foraker Act. 1900 - Foraker Act. PR became an “unincorporated territory.” Citizens of PR, not of the US. Import duties on PR goods 1901-1903 the Insular Cases. Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions. Congress had the power to decide these rights. Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!
Puerto Rico: 1898 1917 – Jones Act. Gave full territorial status to PR. Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US. PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws. PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections. A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.
Write down three things you see in the cartoon below.
Cartoon 2 1.Who is in the ship? 2.What is he holding? 3.Where is he? 4.What do you think it means?
“BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY Who? Theodore Roosevelt (Pres. 1901-1909) Target? Latin America, Caribbean nations Rationale: – Any disorder in regions would force US to send in troops to protect its interests, investments $$$ – Keep Europe out of region if nation defaults on loans
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power power.
Panama: The King’s Crown 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. 1901 Hay-Paunceforte Treaty. Philippe Bunau-Varilla, agent provocateur. Dr. Walter Reed. Colonel W. Goethals. 1903 Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.
Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
“BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY Rationale cont.: – Any disorder in regions would force US to send in troops to protect its interests, investments $$$ – Keep Europe out of region if nation defaults on loans – US takes over Panama Canal construction (complete in 1911) yellow fever US offered to pay Columbia, but it was slow to respond US urges Panama to revolt, sends US ships to back rebels Panama declares independence & US buys canal rights from new country
Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” Improve financial opportunities for American businesses. Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas. Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.
DOLLAR DIPLOMACY Who?President William H. Taft Target:Latin America, Caribbean & Asia Rationale: – US relies on loans & investments to settle regions – Favors $$ but would use military to “stabilize” nations
MORAL OR MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY Who:President Woodrow Wilson Target: Latin America, Caribbean & Mexico How it worked: – US told nations what was wrong with their govts & how to fix them. US favors democracies – US send military to fix problems as a last resort. (That usually happened) – Mexico & Pancho Villa were thorns in Wilson’s side – Mexicans revolt against US-friendly leader. US investors back dictator, but Wilson won’t recognize. Wilson briefly supported Pancho Villa, but turned on him. Villa started raiding US border towns. US sends Army, but can’t catch him.
The Mexican Revolution: 1910s Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered. Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta. The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country. Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
The Mexican Revolution: 1910s Emiliano Zapata Francisco I Madero Venustiano Carranza Porfirio Diaz Pancho Villa
Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” The U. S. should be the conscience of the world. Spread democracy. Promote peace. Condemn colonialism.
Searching for Banditos General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in 1914.
U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914
U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898-1920s
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. 1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
Imperialism Terms (Ch. 10 & 12) Imperialism Causes of Imperialism Effects of Imperialism – Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines – Hawaii – Panama George Washington’s Farewell Address Manifest Destiny Social Darwinism White Man’s Burden Alfred T. Mahan Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary Big Stick Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy Missionary/Moral Diplomacy Open Door Policy
Ways to Organize Concept Map Definition Policies – Washington, Monroe, McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson Causes (what does the US need?) – Bases, resources, markets Effects (what did the US gain? Lose?) – Spanish-American War, Hawaii, Panama Canal, Alaska Arguments for Imperialism – White Man’s Burden, Missionaries, Manifest Destiny Arguments against Imperialism – Anti-Imperialist League