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US Imperialism 1898 - 1920.

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Presentation on theme: "US Imperialism 1898 - 1920."— Presentation transcript:

1 US Imperialism

2 List 3 things you see in this cartoon.

3 Objective Define imperialism, isolationism, and expansionism.
Evaluate the arguments for and against US imperialism at the end of the 19th century. Analyze the causes and effects (short-term & long-term) of US imperialism inside and outside the US.

4 Questions to think about…
How does imperialism affect the countries that come under an imperial power? (pros and cons) Is imperialism always a good or bad thing? How have US actions in the past affect our relationships with other countries today?

5 US Imperialism During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe.

6 Create a Concept Map Use Inspiration on your computer.
For each of the terms, create at least two bubbles (one for the word, one with a definition/explanation in your own words). Include at least 3 pictures (clipart, draw, or internet) Be creative as you organize your concept map. For Example

7 Imperialism Terms Why did the US want to expand?
Imperialism – p.352 Expanding US Interests – p George Washington’s Farewell Address Monroe Doctrine Seward’s Folly Arguments for Expansion – p. 355 Protecting Economic Growth Markets Protecting American Security Alfred T. Mahan (Influence of Sea Power Upon History) Great White Fleet – p.375 Preserving American Spirit – p. 356 Manifest destiny Henry Cabot Lodge Social Darwinism Arguments Against Expansion - Anti-Imperialists – p Moral & Political Arguments Racial Arguments Economic Arguments

8 Why did the US want to expand?

9 1. Commercial/Business Interests (Markets & Raw Materials)
American Foreign Trade:

10 2. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History:

11 3. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race

12 The White Man’s Burden “TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN

13 4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905

14 Closing the American Frontier

15 How did the US expand in the late 19th & early 20th centuries?
Spanish American War Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines become US territories Annexation of Hawaii Naval stations in Hawaii used to protect world trade. Open Door Policy US has equal access to China’s millions of consumers

16 How did the US expand in the late 19th & early 20th centuries?
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (Roosevelt) US gains control of 10 mile strip of land to build Panama Canal Mexican Revolution (Wilson) Negative feelings grow in Latin America toward US interference in their affairs Open Door Policy US has equal access to China’s millions of consumers

17 Presidential Diplomacy
McKinley Open Door Policy Roosevelt Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt Corollary Taft Dollar Diplomacy Wilson Moral or Missionary Diplomacy Mexican Revolution (Pancho Villa)

18 OPEN DOOR POLICY Who? Secretary of State John Hay for McKinley Target?
China & Spanish American War Goals: Access to ports New Markets No country gets special privileges US maintains a “sphere of influence”

19 China

20 Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant
Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1887

21 The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
“55 Days at Peking.”

22 The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay.
Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.

23 The Open Door Policy

24 America as a Pacific Power

25 Complete your notes sheet as you view the powerpoint.
Spanish American War Complete your notes sheet as you view the powerpoint.

26 Cuba

27 The Imperialist Taylor

28 Spanish Misrule in Cuba

29 Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy

30 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism William Randolph Hearst
Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst

31 De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.
Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.

32 Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

33 The “Rough Riders”

34 Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana

35 The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
How prepared was the US for war?

36 The Philippines

37 The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”

38 Dewey Captures Manila!

39 Is He To Be a Despot?

40 Emilio Aguinaldo July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
Leader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence

41 William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines
Great administrator.

42 Our “Sphere of Influence”

43 The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. The U. S. becomes an imperial power!

44 The American Anti-Imperialist League
Founded in 1899. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

45 Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903)
Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Senator Orville Platt

46 DILEMMA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??

47 Puerto Rico

48 Puerto Rico: 1898 1900 - Foraker Act. 1901-1903  the Insular Cases.
PR became an “unincorporated territory.” Citizens of PR, not of the US. Import duties on PR goods  the Insular Cases. Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions. Congress had the power to decide these rights. Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!

49 Puerto Rico: 1898 1917 – Jones Act.
Gave full territorial status to PR. Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US. PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws. PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections. A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.

50 Write down three things you see in the cartoon below.

51 Cartoon 2 Who is in the ship? What is he holding? Where is he? What do you think it means?

52 “BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY Who? Theodore Roosevelt (Pres. 1901-1909)
Target? Latin America, Caribbean nations Rationale: Any disorder in regions would force US to send in troops to protect its interests, investments $$$ Keep Europe out of region if nation defaults on loans

53 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905
Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .

54 Panama: The King’s Crown
1850  Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. 1901  Hay-Paunceforte Treaty. Philippe Bunau-Varilla, agent provocateur. Dr. Walter Reed. Colonel W. Goethals. 1903  Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty.

55 TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)

56 Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!

57 “BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY Rationale cont.:
Any disorder in regions would force US to send in troops to protect its interests, investments $$$ Keep Europe out of region if nation defaults on loans US takes over Panama Canal construction (complete in 1911) yellow fever US offered to pay Columbia, but it was slow to respond US urges Panama to revolt, sends US ships to back rebels Panama declares independence & US buys canal rights from new country

58 Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”
Improve financial opportunities for American businesses. Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas. Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.

59 DOLLAR DIPLOMACY Who? President William H. Taft
Target: Latin America, Caribbean & Asia Rationale: US relies on loans & investments to settle regions Favors $$ but would use military to “stabilize” nations

Who: President Woodrow Wilson Target: Latin America, Caribbean & Mexico How it worked: US told nations what was wrong with their govts & how to fix them. US favors democracies US send military to fix problems as a last resort. (That usually happened) Mexico & Pancho Villa were thorns in Wilson’s side Mexicans revolt against US-friendly leader. US investors back dictator, but Wilson won’t recognize. Wilson briefly supported Pancho Villa, but turned on him. Villa started raiding US border towns. US sends Army, but can’t catch him.

61 Mexico

62 The Mexican Revolution: 1910s
Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered. Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta. The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country. Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.

63 The Mexican Revolution: 1910s
Emiliano Zapata Pancho Villa Venustiano Carranza Porfirio Diaz Francisco I Madero

64 Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”
The U. S. should be the conscience of the world. Spread democracy. Promote peace. Condemn colonialism.

65 Searching for Banditos
General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in 1914.

66 U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914

67 U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898-1920s

68 Uncle Sam: One of the “Boys?”

69 Alaska

70 “Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million

71 “Seward’s Icebox”: 1867

72 Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific"

73 U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii
Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s

74 U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in by virtue of economic treaties.

75 Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

76 U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff 1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

77 To The Victor Belongs the Spoils
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898

78 Imperialism Terms (Ch. 10 & 12)
Causes of Imperialism Effects of Imperialism Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines Hawaii Panama George Washington’s Farewell Address Manifest Destiny Social Darwinism White Man’s Burden Alfred T. Mahan Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary Big Stick Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy Missionary/Moral Diplomacy Open Door Policy

79 Ways to Organize Concept Map
Definition Policies Washington, Monroe, McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson Causes (what does the US need?) Bases, resources, markets Effects (what did the US gain? Lose?) Spanish-American War, Hawaii, Panama Canal, Alaska Arguments for Imperialism White Man’s Burden, Missionaries, Manifest Destiny Arguments against Imperialism Anti-Imperialist League


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