3Objective Define imperialism, isolationism, and expansionism. Evaluate the arguments for and against US imperialism at the end of the 19th century.Analyze the causes and effects (short-term & long-term) of US imperialism inside and outside the US.
4Questions to think about… How does imperialism affect the countries that come under an imperial power? (pros and cons)Is imperialism always a good or bad thing?How have US actions in the past affect our relationships with other countries today?
5US ImperialismDuring the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe.
6Create a Concept Map Use Inspiration on your computer. For each of the terms, create at least two bubbles (one for the word, one with a definition/explanation in your own words).Include at least 3 pictures (clipart, draw, or internet)Be creative as you organize your concept map.For Example
7Imperialism Terms Why did the US want to expand? Imperialism – p.352Expanding US Interests – pGeorge Washington’s Farewell AddressMonroe DoctrineSeward’s FollyArguments for Expansion – p. 355Protecting Economic GrowthMarketsProtecting American SecurityAlfred T. Mahan (Influence of Sea Power Upon History)Great White Fleet – p.375Preserving American Spirit – p. 356Manifest destinyHenry Cabot LodgeSocial DarwinismArguments Against Expansion - Anti-Imperialists – pMoral & Political ArgumentsRacial ArgumentsEconomic Arguments
91. Commercial/Business Interests (Markets & Raw Materials) American Foreign Trade:
102. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History:
113. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s BurdenThe Hierarchy of Race
12The White Man’s Burden “TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN SEND FORTH THE BEST YE BREEDGO, BIND YOUR SON TO EXILETO SERVE YOUR CAPTIVES’ NEED;TO WAIT, IN HEAVY HARNESS,ON FLUTTERED FOLK AND WILDYOUR NEW-CAUGHT SULLEN PEOPLES,HALF DEVIL AND HALF CHILD….”Rudyard Kipling, 1899
134. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905
15How did the US expand in the late 19th & early 20th centuries? Spanish American WarGuam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines become US territoriesAnnexation of HawaiiNaval stations in Hawaii used to protect world trade.Open Door PolicyUS has equal access to China’s millions of consumers
16How did the US expand in the late 19th & early 20th centuries? Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (Roosevelt)US gains control of 10 mile strip of land to build Panama CanalMexican Revolution (Wilson)Negative feelings grow in Latin America toward US interference in their affairsOpen Door PolicyUS has equal access to China’s millions of consumers
17Presidential Diplomacy McKinleyOpen Door PolicyRooseveltBig Stick DiplomacyRoosevelt CorollaryTaftDollar DiplomacyWilsonMoral or Missionary DiplomacyMexican Revolution (Pancho Villa)
18OPEN DOOR POLICY Who? Secretary of State John Hay for McKinley Target? China & Spanish American WarGoals:Access to portsNew MarketsNo country gets special privilegesUS maintains a “sphere of influence”
30“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism William Randolph Hearst Joseph PulitzerHearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!William Randolph Hearst
31De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
32Theodore RooseveltAssistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.Imperialist and American nationalist.Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
43The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines.The U. S. becomes an imperial power!
44The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1899.Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.
45Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.Senator Orville Platt
48Puerto Rico: 1898 1900 - Foraker Act. 1901-1903 the Insular Cases. PR became an “unincorporated territory.”Citizens of PR, not of the US.Import duties on PR goods the Insular Cases.Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.Congress had the power to decide these rights.Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!
49Puerto Rico: 1898 1917 – Jones Act. Gave full territorial status to PR.Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws.PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.
50Write down three things you see in the cartoon below.
51Cartoon 2Who is in the ship?What is he holding?Where is he?What do you think it means?
52“BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY Who? Theodore Roosevelt (Pres. 1901-1909) Target?Latin America, Caribbean nationsRationale:Any disorder in regions would force US to send in troops to protect its interests, investments $$$Keep Europe out of region if nation defaults on loans
53The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .
54Panama: The King’s Crown 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.1901 Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.Philippe Bunau-Varilla, agent provocateur.Dr. Walter Reed.Colonel W. Goethals.1903 Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty.
55TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904) Panama CanalTR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
57“BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY Rationale cont.: Any disorder in regions would force US to send in troops to protect its interests, investments $$$Keep Europe out of region if nation defaults on loansUS takes over Panama Canal construction (complete in 1911) yellow feverUS offered to pay Columbia, but it was slow to respondUS urges Panama to revolt, sends US ships to back rebelsPanama declares independence & US buys canal rights from new country
58Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” Improve financial opportunities for American businesses.Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas.Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.
59DOLLAR DIPLOMACY Who? President William H. Taft Target: Latin America, Caribbean & AsiaRationale:US relies on loans & investments to settle regionsFavors $$ but would use military to “stabilize” nations
60MORAL OR MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY Who: President Woodrow WilsonTarget:Latin America, Caribbean & MexicoHow it worked:US told nations what was wrong with their govts & how to fix them. US favors democraciesUS send military to fix problems as a last resort. (That usually happened)Mexico & Pancho Villa were thorns in Wilson’s sideMexicans revolt against US-friendly leader. US investors back dictator, but Wilson won’t recognize. Wilson briefly supported Pancho Villa, but turned on him. Villa started raiding US border towns. US sends Army, but can’t catch him.
62The Mexican Revolution: 1910s Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
73U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
74U. S. View of HawaiiansHawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in by virtue of economic treaties.
75Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
76U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty1890 – McKinley Tariff1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
77To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
78Imperialism Terms (Ch. 10 & 12) Causes of ImperialismEffects of ImperialismPuerto Rico, Guam, PhilippinesHawaiiPanamaGeorge Washington’s Farewell AddressManifest DestinySocial DarwinismWhite Man’s BurdenAlfred T. MahanMonroe DoctrineRoosevelt CorollaryBig Stick DiplomacyDollar DiplomacyMissionary/Moral DiplomacyOpen Door Policy
79Ways to Organize Concept Map DefinitionPoliciesWashington, Monroe, McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, WilsonCauses (what does the US need?)Bases, resources, marketsEffects (what did the US gain? Lose?)Spanish-American War, Hawaii, Panama Canal, AlaskaArguments for ImperialismWhite Man’s Burden, Missionaries, Manifest DestinyArguments against ImperialismAnti-Imperialist League