Presentation on theme: "Click the mouse button to display the information. World War The world changed with World War I. The United States was unwillingly pulled into the conflict,"— Presentation transcript:
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War The world changed with World War I. The United States was unwillingly pulled into the conflict, and the war affected all aspects of American life. -In Europe, nationalism, an intense loyalty to one’s country or group, led Great Britain and Germany to race to build the largest navy. -European alliances, or defense agreements among nations, were formed to protect European nations.
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War (cont.) -The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro- Hungarian Empire, by a Serbian terrorist in 1914 led to a declaration of war on Serbia by Austria-Hungary. -Because the alliance system was in place in Europe, a world war began. -Russia decided to join Serbia in the war. -This resulted in Germany declaring war on Russia and France, since Germany was Austria- Hungary’s ally and France was Russia’s ally. -When Germany invaded Belgium, Great Britain declared war on Germany, since Great Britain had vowed to protect Belgium.
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War (cont.) -The “Great War” erupted in Europe with the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) on one side and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire) on the other side. Later Japan and Italy joined the Allies. -The Germans attacked France at the Battle of the Marne, but were stopped by the British and French armies. -For three years, the war was fought across trenches until it reached a stalemate.
Click the mouse button to display the information. At the beginning of World War I, President Wilson stated that the United States would remain neutral. World War (cont.) -Propaganda, or information used to influence opinion, was employed by both the Allies and the Central Powers to gain the support of United States citizens. -As the United States started to side with the Allies, trade with the Allies soared. -Germany used submarines known as U-boats to sink cargo ships headed to Britain in order to stop the United States from helping the Allies.
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War (cont.) -In May 1915, a German U-boat sank the passenger ship Lusitania, killing 1,000 people including 128 Americans. -Wilson condemned the attack, prompting Germany to promise to warn neutral ships before attacking. -In March 1917 German U-boats attacked three American ships, breaking its promise to the United States. -In April President Wilson requested that Congress declare war on Germany.
Click the mouse button to display the information. The United States joined the Allies. Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which established a military draft. World War (cont.) -Three million American men were drafted by the end of the war, with another two million volunteering and over 300,000 African Americans joining the military. -Russia withdrew from the war after a group of Communists led by Vladimir Lenin overthrew its government. -Russia signed a treaty in 1918 ending its war with Germany.
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War (cont.) -After signing the treaty with Russia, Germany began a massive strike in France with the goal of destroying the French and British armies before the United States could fully assemble its force. -By the time United States soldiers were assigned to the area north of Paris, the German army was only 50 miles away. -Four thousand American soldiers of the First Division fought a battle at Cantigny, winning the first victory ever by Americans fighting in Europe.
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War (cont.) -In June 1918 United States soldiers were to capture Belleau Wood. -Americans fought through the forest for two weeks, finally taking Belleau Wood. However, there were thousands of casualties. -In July the Americans and French fought the Germans at Chateau-Thierry. -They broke Germany’s offensive strength and gained the upper hand. -More than one-half million United States troops caused the retreat of Germans from Saint Mihiel in September.
Click the mouse button to display the information. World War (cont.) -The German lines crumbled at the battle of Meuse-Argonne in October. -This led Germany to ask President Wilson for an agreement to end the fighting, or an armistice. -On November 11, 1918, the Great War ended.
Click the mouse button to display the information. The Treaty of Versailles in January 1919 was a treaty to end the war. It established the League of Nations, which was an international organization to preserve the peace. Germany was required to make reparations, or payments, for the destruction it caused. The new nations of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland were created. World War (cont.)
Click the mouse button to display the information. The United States Senate rejected the treaty, saying that the League of Nations would limit America’s independence. The United States never joined the League of Nations. World War (cont.)
Click the mouse button to display the answer. What were some of the reasons for the beginning of World War I? The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, nationalism, and the system of alliances in Europe were some reasons for the beginning of World War I. World War (cont.)
Click the mouse button to display the information. The 1920s After the war, Americans entered a time of turmoil as domestic problems from before the war resurfaced. -With the slowing down of the economy came a decline in the number of jobs available. -Conflict once again arose between labor and management. -Workers wanted to keep or raise the wages paid during the war. When management rejected their demands, the workers went on strike. -Many strikes that took place after World War I were violent. Almost 3,600 strikes took place in 1919 involving millions of workers.
Click the mouse button to display the information. The 1920s (cont.) The Red Scare was a movement based on the belief that there was a tie between union activism and radicalism. It began with a general fear of communism. An increased sentiment against immigrants also arose, called nativism. After the war, many immigrants started coming to the United States. These newcomers were seen as a threat to many United States citizens who felt their jobs and security were at risk.
Click the mouse button to display the information. During the 1920s, a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol, called Prohibition, began. Organized crime increased from the illegal making and selling of alcohol as a result of Prohibition. The Twenty-first Amendment repealed Prohibition in 1933. The 1920s (cont.)
Click the mouse button to display the information. With a booming economy after the war, many products were available to Americans. Telephones, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, and canned goods were some of the popular products of the 1920s. The automobile was a product of the 1920s that caused the greatest impact. The making of automobiles provided jobs for millions of workers and promoted highway construction and travel. The 1920s (cont.)
Click the mouse button to display the answer. How did the automobile cause a revolution in American society? Since Americans had more recreation time, they bought automobiles. The buying habits of Americans changed to making installment payments in order to buy automobiles. Highway construction and travel made the United States more accessible to people. The 1920s (cont.)