Presentation on theme: "A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction Presenter: Amy BenjaminManalapan-Englishtown Regional SchoolsThe slides in today’s presentation are availableat (click on “recent presentations”)TOPICS:Vocabulary instruction that improves reading comprehension and writing ability
2 Goals for Today: (Vocab) Alternatives to vocab book: “boring”; “out of context”Vocabulary to improve reading comprehensionRelevance to students’ everyday livesRetention and use (as opposed to mem & regurge)Standardized test performance, esp. with words in isolationLearning how to learn words
3 Current Practice: How are we teaching vocabulary? What words do we select to teach explicitly?How do we teach the words? (How do we introduce them? explain them?get students to engage with them? manipulate them? reinforce them?How do we assess our students’ vocabulary knowledge and growth?What would be the ideal?
4 Best Practices in Vocabulary Instruction: Depth of processing:Multiple exposuresMultiple meaningsMultiple contextsMultiple forms of a wordOpportunity to communicatePurposeful repetitionTreating phrases as wordsVerbal and Nonverbal processing
6 Of Limited Value… Of Durable Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions aloneDictionaries and Glossaries aloneOf Durable Value…Words in clustersMultiple exposures in various contextsChances to speak, hear, write the wordsManipulation of forms of wordsClassify and categorize word listsWord games
7 What do we know when we know a word? DefinitionSpellingGrammatical application (how to use it in a sentence)SynonymsComponents: prefix,root, suffixMorphology (other forms that the word can take)Other words that arerelated to it (havingsame root)Connotation (positive, negative, neutral)Register (formal or informal)Collocations (words that tend to go with it)Lesser-used definitions
8 Designate; designation; identify, identification Ascertain; determine Tier II WordsTier III WordsTier I Words:Domain-specificterminology;“Glossary” wordsOn-the-job wordsLanguage of academics,business, government“Vocab List” wordsEveryday Language:AskDeadNameFind out; figure outAnswerRainUseSharpGetTake apart and puttogetherbalanceInterrogateDeceasedDesignate; designation;identify, identificationAscertain; determinePrecipitate, precipitationUtilize; employAcuteAcquireAnalyze; synthesizeequilibriumPhotosynthesisCytoplasmMetamorphosisAsymmetricalBathysphereRhetoricDeoxyribonucleic acidArtifactHabeas corpusDiasporaPolysyndetonAdjectivexchr______icph__y_____sisCode-switchingPrefix/root/suffix
9 High-Incidence Academic Word List (AWL) 570 wordsComprise 10% of the words in academic discourseAre outside of the 2,000-3,000 words that are necessary for basic socialcommunication in EnglishCALP: Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency570 words on the AWL2,000-3,000 wordsfor basic social communicationBIC: Basic Interpersonal Communication
10 AWL is arranged in 10 sublists, in order of frequency 65% of the words on the AWL have Latin/Greek word componentsThe words on the AWL can be used to form about 3,000 words (by addingprefixes and suffixes)
11 Core Words intermittent transmit admit commit remit INTERMITTENT submitmissiveadmissiblesubmissivecommissionmissionpermissionINTERMITTENTREFLECTSUBTRACTCOMPLIANCECORRESPONDENTPROPELLERTRANSPORTATIONDESTRUCTIVEPERSPECTIVE
12 Vocabulary Chart: Target Word: Glossary Definition: Visual: Draw or find a picture:My guess:Definition in my own words:Complete sentence of at least ____words:Must contain an action verb and a visual image.
13 Morphology Chart Noun: The… Verb: Adjective Which one? What kind? They…He…or Must… orTo…AdjectiveWhich one?What kind?How many?The___truckAdverbWhere? When?Why? To what extent? In what manner?
20 pre- re- un- a, ab- sub- de- pro- ob- con- Word Components Chart I <Slide 13: Print as full page>Word Components Chart IWrite the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart:(Note: Not all the blanks should be filled in.)-tract-struct-port-verse-pelpre-re-reportun-a, ab-aversesub-subtractde-pro-propelob-con-construct
21 tract- port- pel- script- cred- spec- duct- struct- Word Components Chart II<Slide 14: Print as full page>Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart.(Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)-tion-ment-able-ible-er, or-ence-ancetract-attractioncontractorport-vert-pel-struct-script-cred-spec-duct-
22 pre- re- a, ab- de- pro- ob- con- sub- Word Components Chart II <Slide 14: Print as full page>Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart.(Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)-ject-mit,mis-grad-gress-plic,-ply, -plex-duc-ductpre-re-un-a, ab-sub-de-pro-ob-con-
23 Strength Training: Vocabulary Here are a few things you can do that will take just a few minute of class time tobuild your students’ vocabulary:Analyze word prefixes and roots of key words to show how they are relatedto words that students may already know.2. Embed the target word in a cluster of words related to the topic.3. Introduce key words that the students will meet in their upcoming readings.Repeat new words in various contexts.5. Show the word. Emphasize its spelling and how it looks like related words.6. Give students opportunities to use new words in conversation.7. If you can, make connections between new words and words in other languages.8. Give students opportunities to use new words in informal writing.9. Indulge in word games and crossword puzzles to reinforce new word.10. Give students opportunities to use non-verbal ways to express meanings(drawing, gestures, skits, charades).23
24 Word Components: Flip-a-Chip Model:Students are shown two chips having prefixes and two other chips having roots.Any combination of these chips (prefix + root) will produce a word.Then, given a cloze paragraph, students supply the appropriate word.Example:PROREVOKEDUCEFour words:reduce, revokeproduce, provokeMrs. Benjamin was vexed. “My students,” she declared_______ me when theyare late to class. They_________one excuse after another. I want to ________the number of lateness to class, so I’ll _______ the privilege of using thelavatory pass to any student who arrives late.”Mountain, Lee. “Flip-a-chip to Build Vocabulary.Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 46:1. September 2002.
25 Word Components: Flip-a-Chip rootInterplay replayInterject rejectContract extractContend extendPrefixPrefixrootundo redounwind rewindProject progressReject regressPlay:Each pair of students is given a baggie, two chips (formed from the bottom ofa dixie cup) markers, and an index card.Given a list of prefixes and roots, students come up with two prefixes and tworoots that will combine to form four words with every prefix + root combination.Students then write a paragraph on the index card, leaving blanks for the fourwords.Students then put the chips and index cards (with their name on the back) onthe baggie and pass along to another pair.
27 “The Ransom ofRed Chief”Typical vocabulary list of words extracted from literature:bellowingcauterizeddepredationextortionforlornimpudentpalatableprecipiceproclivitiesransomreconnoiterseedysomnolentspendthriftsylvanFrequency outside of the storyImportance in understanding this storyLeverage to learn related wordsIndividual student’s curiosity and proximity
28 Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Basic:-ject (to throw)-port (to carry)-scrip, scribe (to write)-vert, vers (to turn)-pos, pon (to place)-tract (to draw)-pel, pul (to drive)-struct (to build)-grad, gress (to step)-plic, plex (to fold)-flic, flex (to bend)-fic, fac (to make)-miss, mit (to send)-sid, sed (to sit)-spec (to see)-voc (to call)-dict (to say)-rupt (to break)Often combine with:sub re pro-ex ob per-de a-; ab- co-con e-trans ex-Often end with:-ive-ation; sion-ate-able; ible-or
30 How can students benefit from a vocabulary list? ClassifyAnalyzeMorphSynthesizeBuildStudents breakwords downinto prefixes,roots, suffixes(Word Study)Studentsbuild wordsinto phrases;phrases intosimplesentences;simple sentencesinto complexsentencesStudents usetheir words togenerate ideasfor a writingpiece:Purposes:To inform,To entertain,To persuade,To socializeStudentsthink of waysin which thewords ontheir lists canbe classified(sorted,arranged,organized)Studentsmanipulate thewords intodifferent partsof speech byaddingendings
31 The Sentence-Making Kit Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise:Bicycle:Who or what?What about it?GuessWhat!Theybelievedthat…Yes/noquestionStick-onquestion126.96.36.199.5.
32 The Sentence-Making Kit On the inside of the card:AAAWWUBBIS:although, as, afterwhile, whenuntilbecause, beforeif, sinceIf a sentence beginswith any of these words,it must have two parts.Place a comma betweenthe two parts if one ofthese words beginsthe sentence.These words, plus the comma, may jointwo sentences. Writers sometimes beginsentences with these words if they aredoing so for emphasis.,and,but,soUse as manyACTION VERBS as possible.Flip the switch into formal English:a lot = a great many or a great dealgonna= going towanna= want tohafta= have toget,got = become, became, receivereceived, obtain, obtainedgotta: mustThese words will help yougive detail in your sentences:Try beginning some of yoursentences with these words:Use words and groups of words thatanswer the ADVERB QUESTIONS:When? Where? Why? How?To what extent? How often?IN FORON WITHAT
33 The Sentence-Making Kit On the back of the card:Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems:their = histhere = herethey’re = they areyour = hisyou’re = you areits = hisit’s = it is; it haswoman = manwomen = menI before E except after COr when sounded as AAs in neighbor or sleigh