Presentation on theme: "A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction Presenter: Amy Benjamin Manalapan-Englishtown Regional Schools The slides in todays presentation are available at."— Presentation transcript:
A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction Presenter: Amy Benjamin Manalapan-Englishtown Regional Schools The slides in todays presentation are available at (click on recent presentations)www.amybenjamin.com TOPICS: Vocabulary instruction that improves reading comprehension and writing ability
Goals for Today: (Vocab) Alternatives to vocab book: boring; out of context Vocabulary to improve reading comprehension Relevance to students everyday lives Retention and use (as opposed to mem & regurge) Standardized test performance, esp. with words in isolation Learning how to learn words
Current Practice: How are we teaching vocabulary? What words do we select to teach explicitly? How do we teach the words? (How do we introduce them? explain them? get students to engage with them? manipulate them? reinforce them? How do we assess our students vocabulary knowledge and growth? What would be the ideal?
Best Practices in Vocabulary Instruction: Depth of processing: Multiple exposures Multiple meanings Multiple contexts Multiple forms of a word Opportunity to communicate Purposeful repetition Treating phrases as words Verbal and Nonverbal processing
Of Limited Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Of Durable Value… Words in clusters Multiple exposures in various contexts Chances to speak, hear, write the words Manipulation of forms of words Classify and categorize word lists Word games
What do we know when we know a word? Definition Spelling Grammatical application (how to use it in a sentence) Synonyms Morphology (other forms that the word can take) Connotation (positive, negative, neutral) Register (formal or informal) Collocations (words that tend to go with it) Lesser-used definitions Components: prefix, root, suffix Other words that are related to it (having same root)
Tier I Words: Everyday Language: Ask Dead Name Find out; figure out Answer Rain Use Sharp Get Take apart and put together balance Tier II Words Language of academics, business, government Vocab List words Interrogate Deceased Designate; designation; identify, identification Ascertain; determine Precipitate, precipitation Utilize; employ Acute Acquire Analyze; synthesize equilibrium Tier III Words Domain-specific terminology; Glossary words On-the-job words Photosynthesis Cytoplasm Metamorphosis Asymmetrical Bathysphere Rhetoric Deoxyribonucleic acid Artifact Habeas corpus Diaspora Polysyndeton Adjective Code-switching ph __y__ ___sis x chr___ ___ic Prefix/root/suffix
High-Incidence Academic Word List (AWL) 570 words Comprise 10% of the words in academic discourse Are outside of the 2,000-3,000 words that are necessary for basic social communication in English CALP: Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency 2,000-3,000 words for basic social communication BIC: Basic Interpersonal Communication 570 words on the AWL
AWL is arranged in 10 sublists, in order of frequency 65% of the words on the AWL have Latin/Greek word components The words on the AWL can be used to form about 3,000 words (by adding prefixes and suffixes)
Complete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image. Target Word: Visual: Draw or find a picture: My guess: Glossary Definition: Vocabulary Chart: Definition in my own words:
Morphology Chart Noun: The… Verb: They…He… or Must… or To… Adjective Which one? What kind? How many? The___truck Adverb Where? When? Why? To what extent? In what manner?
Word Components Chart I -tract-struct-port-verse-pel pre- re- report un- a, ab- averse sub- subtract de- pro- propel ob- con- construct Write the words that youve heard of that would logically fill in the chart: (Note: Not all the blanks should be filled in.)
Word Components Chart II -tion-ment-able -ible -er, or-ence -ance tract- attractioncontractor port- vert- pel- struct- script- cred- spec- duct- Write the words that youve heard of that would logically fill in the chart. (Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)
Word Components Chart II -ject-mit,mis-grad -gress -plic, -ply, - plex -duc -duct pre- re- un- a, ab- sub- de- pro- ob- con- Write the words that youve heard of that would logically fill in the chart. (Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)
Strength Training: Vocabulary Here are a few things you can do that will take just a few minute of class time to build your students vocabulary: 1.Analyze word prefixes and roots of key words to show how they are related to words that students may already know. 2. Embed the target word in a cluster of words related to the topic. 3. Introduce key words that the students will meet in their upcoming readings. 4.Repeat new words in various contexts. 5. Show the word. Emphasize its spelling and how it looks like related words. 6. Give students opportunities to use new words in conversation. 7. If you can, make connections between new words and words in other languages. 8. Give students opportunities to use new words in informal writing. 9. Indulge in word games and crossword puzzles to reinforce new word. 10. Give students opportunities to use non-verbal ways to express meanings (drawing, gestures, skits, charades).
Word Components: Flip-a-Chip Students are shown two chips having prefixes and two other chips having roots. Any combination of these chips (prefix + root) will produce a word. Then, given a cloze paragraph, students supply the appropriate word. Model: Example: PRO RE VOKE DUCE Four words: reduce, revoke produce, provoke Mrs. Benjamin was vexed. My students, she declared_______ me when they are late to class. They_________one excuse after another. I want to ________ the number of lateness to class, so Ill _______ the privilege of using the lavatory pass to any student who arrives late. Mountain, Lee. Flip-a-chip to Build Vocabulary. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 46:1. September 2002.
Word Components: Flip-a-Chip Play: Each pair of students is given a baggie, two chips (formed from the bottom of a dixie cup) markers, and an index card. Given a list of prefixes and roots, students come up with two prefixes and two roots that will combine to form four words with every prefix + root combination. Students then write a paragraph on the index card, leaving blanks for the four words. Students then put the chips and index cards (with their name on the back) on the baggie and pass along to another pair. Prefixroot Prefix Contract extract Contend extend undo redo unwind rewind Interplay replay Interject reject Project progress Reject regress
Typical vocabulary list of words extracted from literature: bellowing cauterized depredation extortion forlorn impudent palatable precipice proclivities ransom reconnoiter seedy somnolent spendthrift sylvan The Ransom of Red Chief I.Frequency outside of the story II.Importance in understanding this story III.Leverage to learn related words IV.Individual students curiosity and proximity
Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Basic: -ject (to throw) -port (to carry) -scrip, scribe (to write) -vert, vers (to turn) -pos, pon (to place) -tract (to draw) -pel, pul (to drive) -struct (to build) -grad, gress (to step) -plic, plex (to fold) -flic, flex (to bend) -fic, fac (to make) -miss, mit (to send) -sid, sed (to sit) -spec (to see) -voc (to call) -dict (to say) -rupt (to break) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- co- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or
How can students benefit from a vocabulary list? Classify Build AnalyzeMorphSynthesize Students think of ways in which the words on their lists can be classified (sorted, arranged, organized) Students build words into phrases; phrases into simple sentences; simple sentences into complex sentences Students break words down into prefixes, roots, suffixes (Word Study) Students manipulate the words into different parts of speech by adding endings Students use their words to generate ideas for a writing piece: Purposes: To inform, To entertain, To persuade, To socialize
The Sentence-Making Kit Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise: Guess What! They believed that… Yes/no question Stick-on question Bicycle: Who or what? What about it?
The Sentence-Making Kit On the inside of the card: AAAWWUBBIS: although, as, after while, when until because, before if, since If a sentence begins with any of these words, it must have two parts. Place a comma between the two parts if one of these words begins the sentence.,and,but,so These words, plus the comma, may join two sentences. Writers sometimes begin sentences with these words if they are doing so for emphasis. These words will help you give detail in your sentences: Try beginning some of your sentences with these words: IN FOR ON WITH AT Use as many ACTION VERBS as possible. Flip the switch into formal English: a lot = a great many or a great deal gonna= going to wanna= want to hafta= have to get,got = become, became, receive received, obtain, obtained gotta: must Use words and groups of words that answer the ADVERB QUESTIONS: When? Where? Why? How? To what extent? How often?
The Sentence-Making Kit On the back of the card: Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems: their = his there = here theyre = they are your = his youre = you are woman = man women = men its = his its = it is; it has I before E except after C Or when sounded as A As in neighbor or sleigh