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1Licensing Agreement Accept Decline I have read, understand, and agree to the terms and conditions of the licensing agreement set forth by Awesome Guides, Inc. for this virtual field trip CD, and the virtual field trip series. Failure to abide to this agreement constitutes criminal activity by federal, state and local laws. By pressing the accept button below, or by using any part of this legally or otherwise purchased/acquired show, you are entering into a legal and binding contract and accept and agree to the terms as outlined by the licensing agreement.AcceptDecline
2Navigation Index 1 End Show Begin Show Advantages of in-situ 2 US Nuclear plant mapUS Energy generationNuclear power world mapNuclear factsNuclear facts 2Uranium ore miningNuclear fuel cycleNuclear Fuel cycle powerNuclear fuel processingUnderground miningNuclear mining wastesIn-situ Leaching MiningAdvantages of in-situAdvantages of in-situ 2Advantages of in-situ 3Physical properties uraniumTypes of uraniumUranium mineUranium ore comicUranium enrichmentGaseous diffusion processGaseous diffusion process 2UF6 enrichmentNuclear radiationRadiation exposureWhat is radioactivityWhat is radioactivity 2Navigation Index 2EndShowNOTE: Navigation Buttons Workin TV Presentation View ONLY
3Navigation Index 2 End Show Begin Show Nuclear power generation What is radioactivity 3What is radioactivity 4Structure of an atomNuclear fissionNuclear fusionUranium fissionUranium fission 2The uranium atomThe uranium atom 2Nuclear fission movieNuclear fission movie 2Nuclear reactorNuclear reactor 2Nuclear power generationContainment domesCooling water flow diagramCooling towerDouble loop flow diagramWater movement diagramCerenkov radiationReactor core elementsReactor core elements 2U-235 fuel rodsReactor safetyRadioactive wasteRadioactive waste 2Navigation Index 3EndShowNOTE: Navigation Buttons Workin TV Presentation View ONLY
4Navigation Index 3 End Show Begin Show Chernobyl 3 Levels of radio. wasteLevels of radio. waste2Radioactive storageLong range storageLong range storage 2Yucca valley storageYucca valley storage2Yucca valley timelineUS Nuclear CommissionMajor nuclear accidentsThree Mile IslandChernobylChernobyl 2Chernobyl 3Chernobyl 4Chernobyl 5Chernobyl 6Chernobyl 7CreditsTV Presentation InsturctionNavigation Index 1EndShowNOTE: Navigation Buttons Workin TV Presentation View ONLY
5Nuclear Power Plant Virtual Field Trip (A guide to the operations of nuclear power)Penby: Awesome Guides, Inc.2003
6Nuclear Power Plants in the United States There are 103 plants with operating licenses!
7Nuclear Energy Provides 20% of the Energy for the U.S.
8Nuclear Power Plants Worldwide As you can see a large portion ofEurope and Japan use nuclear power!
9Fast Facts……… Uranium Ore One ton of natural uranium can produce more than 40 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. This is equivalent to burning 16,000 tons of coal or 80,000 barrels of oil.There are currently 103 operating U.S. nuclear power plants that produce over 20% of U.S. electricity.Worldwide, there are about 442 nuclear power plants that supply about 23% of the world's electricity.UraniumOre
10Fast Facts…………… Uranium Ore Nuclear power plants helped avoid 90% of all carbon emissions averted in the U.S. energy sector between 1981 and 1994.World uranium production in 1996 was 35,199 metric tons or 78.8 million pounds.The price of uranium was approximately $8.75 per pound at end of 1998.UraniumOre
11Uranium Ore Mining Techniques There are several different ways in which uranium can be mined; on the surface (called open cut mining), underground or using in situ leaching (Note: After in situ leaching, the uranium does not need to go through the milling process, as the uranium oxide has already been leached to form a uranium-rich solution).Uranium MiningOperation
14Nuclear fuel starts with uranium, a naturally occurring radioactive material. The uranium ore is mined and refined into a brightly-colored solid uranium compound referred to as “yellow cake”.
15UndergroundMiningUnderground mining involving blasting hard rock ore is called 'stopes'. Mined material is brought to the surface by trucks, or containers called 'skips‘.
16Nuclear Mining Waste Materials Tailings remain after the processes that separated minerals from ore are completed, and consist of crushed rock, water and sometimes chemicals. Tailings are pumped to specially built and sealed areas of a mine site where they dry out over time. Later the hardened and dry tailings are covered with soil and revegetated.
18Advantages of In Situ Mining Over Underground and Open-cut Mining Miners are not directly exposed to the orebody. There is reduced radon release and radiation because the ore is in solution, with very little dust.Less expensive to operate because large amounts of rock do not have to be broken up and removed. Shorter lead times to production, that is, it is, quicker to produce an end product.
19Advantages of In Situ Mining Over Underground and Open-cut Mining 2 There is no solid waste. Waste is confined to evaporation ponds.It is less costly to build because it does not need the expensive infrastructure of open-cut and underground mining, i.e. shafts, tunnels, crushers.There is much less ground disturbance. There are no open pits, shafts, tunnels, earth moving equipment or grinding and crushing facilities. Operations take up less land and therefore there is less visual impact.
20Advantages of In Situ Mining Over Underground and Open-cut Mining 3 There is less rehabilitation required because there is less ground disturbance. Upon completion of mining, wells can be sealed and capped, process facilities removed and the surface returned to its original contour and vegetation.Smaller, lower grade and narrower ore bodies can be mined.
21Physical Properties of Uranium Concentration - uranium ranks 48th among most abundant elements found in natural crustal rock.Density - uranium is very dense. At about 19 grams per cubic centimeter, 1.6 times more dense than lead. Density increases weight, for example, a gallon of milk weighs about 8 pounds, a gallon of uranium would weigh about 150 pounds.Melting Point - uranium boils at about 3,818 degrees Celsius (about 6,904 degrees Fahrenheit).Numerous holes drilled and tested for uranium ore.
22Types of UraniumNatural Uranium - contains 99.3 percent of the isotope uranium-238 and 0.7 percent of the fissionable isotope uranium-235.Low Enriched Uranium - contains the isotope uranium 235 in a concentration less than 20 percent and higher than 0.7 percent. Most commercial reactor fuel has been enriched to 3-5 percent of uranium-235.Highly Enriched Uranium - contains the isotope uranium 235 in a concentration above 20 percent. Highly enriched uranium is used in research reactors, naval propulsion reactors, and weapons.Depleted Uranium - uranium with less than 0.7 percent of the isotope uranium-235.
23In a uranium mine you can see the uranium ore, it’s the black colored rock!
25Uranium EnrichmentNaturally occurring uranium ore contains uranium-235 and uranium-238 isotopes. Only the uranium-235 isotope is fissionable. Uranium ore contains only 0.7% of the fissile isotope U-235. Enrichment processes increase the concentration of U-235 to about 3.5%. Uranium enrichment is a critical step in transforming natural uranium into nuclear energy fuel. Enrichment is the process of increasing the concentration of U-235 while decreasing the concentration of U-238.
27Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, both still primarily U-238, but one stream has a higher concentration of U-235 than the other. The UF6 stream with the greater U-235 concentration is known as enriched uranium. The stream with a reduced concentration of U-235 is referred to as depleted uranium.Worldwide, uranium is usually enriched using the gas centrifuge process. In this process, UF6 is rapidly spun in cylinders. Due to differences in the masses of the isotopes, the U-235 and U-238 are separated.
28UF6, uranium hexafluoride, is used in Uranium Enrichment UF6 is a white crystalline, solid at room temperature (its triple point is 64°C (147.3°F) and it sublimes at 56.5°C (133.8°F) at 1 atmosphere).The liquid phase only exists under pressures greater than about 1.5 atmospheres and at temperatures above 64°C.
29Radiation is energy emitted as invisible particles, waves, or rays Radiation is energy emitted as invisible particles, waves, or rays. Radioactive atoms produce radiation as they decay. We are exposed to small amounts of radiation daily. Air, water, food, and sunshine are sources of natural background radiation. Radiation also comes from other sources, such as color TV’s and medical x-rays.
30Radiation ExposureRadiation exposure can alter or damage human cell structure. That’s why nuclear power plants are carefully monitored and employees are trained to limit their exposure to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable.The containment building, the reactor vessel, the fuel assemblies, and several other barriers are designed to contain radiation and protect plant workers and the public living near a nuclear plant from any exposure to elevated levels of radiation.
31What is Radioactivity?Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of energy from unstable atoms.Atoms are found in all natural matter. There are stable atoms, which remain the same forever, and unstable atoms, which break down or 'decay' into new atoms. These unstable atoms are said to be 'radioactive', because they emit radioactivity from the nucleus as they decay.
32What is Radioactivity 2?Radioactive elements, such as uranium, thorium and potassium decay fairly readily to form lighter atoms. The energy that is released in the process is made up of small, fast-moving particles and high-energy waves. These particles and waves are, invisible. The level of radioactivity of an element varies according to how stable its atoms are. Other elements with naturally occurring radioactive forms, (isotopes) are carbon, bismuth, radon, and strontium.
33What is Radioactivity 3?Radioactivity is a random process that happens naturally as the isotopes in particular elements decay. Isotopes continue to break down over time. The length of time that is taken for half of the nuclei in an element to decay is called its 'half-life'. A half-life can be very short (milliseconds to hours) or very long (hundreds or thousands of years).
34What is Radioactivity 4?Radiation also arises from nuclear fission. Fission can be spontaneous, but is usually initiated in a nuclear reactor. Fission is a radioactive process; it releases energy as the heavy nucleus is split into two.Radioisotopes are commonly used in medicine, and are produced as a by-product of nuclear energy.
35Structure of an AtomThe Nucleus of the Atom Contains Protons and Neutrons
36Fission splits the atom Fission splits the atom. A neutron is accelerated, hits the U-235 atom causing more neutrons to form, plus two lighter elements, while releasing energy.
37Fusion…is where two atom combine releasing energy Fusion…is where two atom combine releasing energy. Here, two forms of hydrogen combine to produce helium
38Uranium FissionThe process of splitting a uranium atom to form smaller atoms is known as 'fission'. Nuclear fission releases lots of energy, which is used to heat water and produce steam, to generate electricity. The U-235 atom is made up of 92 protons and 143 neutrons ( = 235!). When U-235 atoms are bombarded with neutrons their nuclei split into two roughly equal parts, releasing two or three more neutrons. These neutrons then split the nuclei of other U-235 atoms, releasing more energy and neutrons, as the process continues. The end result is a vast amount of heat energy from a small amount of uranium.
39UraniumFission 2This 'chain reaction' is controlled inside a nuclear reactor. Steam made from water heated by fission, is used to spin a turbine and drive a generator, to produce electricity!
40The Uranium Atom……To understand how uranium can generate electricity, it is important to first understand the complex uranium atom. Uranium (otherwise known simply as U) is the heaviest naturally occurring element, the lightest being Hydrogen. Pure uranium consists of more than 99% of the isotope U-238, less than 1% of the fissile isotope U-235, and a trace of U-234, formed by radioactive decay of U-238.
41The UraniumAtom 2……U-235 is said to be 'fissile' because the nucleus can easily be split, producing vast amounts of energy, in a reaction process called nuclear fission'.
42A possible reaction that can occur when a neutron of the right energy splits a uranium-235 atom is: 1 neutron + 235U…… 140Ba + 93Kr + 3 neutrons
43These three neutrons can go on to split three more uranium atoms, producing nine more neutrons; this can continue to produce a self-sustaining chain reaction.
44The total mass of all particles produced in a fission reaction a bit less than a U-235 plus a neutron; the difference is released as energy. Each time a U-235 is split, energy is released. The more atoms split, the more energy released. If the chain reaction gets out of control, so much energy is produced that a nuclear explosion would occur. This is how an atomic bomb works.
45In nuclear power generation a moderator (such as very pure water) slows down neutrons so they are traveling at the right speed to start a fission reaction. Control rods are neutron absorbing material that speed up or slow down the chain reaction.
52The characteristic blue glow in the water surrounding the core of a nuclear reactor….called the Cerenkov radiation!
53The Reactor Core Elements THE FUEL. Nuclear fuel consists of pellets of enriched uranium dioxide, encased in 12-foot long pencil-thick metal tubes, called fuel rods. These fuel rods are bundled to form fuel assemblies. A nuclear plant can operate continuously for up to 2 years. To run this long, a reactor must have as many as 100 to 300 fuel assemblies.THE CONTROL RODS. The control rods contain material that regulates the rate of the chain reaction. If they are pulled out of the core, the reaction speeds up. If they are inserted, the reaction slows down.
54The Reactor Core Elements 2 THE COOLANT. A coolant, usually water, is pumped through the reactor to carry away the heat produced by the fissioning of fuel. This is comparable to the water in the cooling system of a car, which carries away the heat built up in the engine. In a reactor, as much as 330,000 gallons of water flow through the reactor core every minute to carry away the heat.THE MODERATOR. A moderator, water, slows down the speed at which atoms travel. This reduction in speed actually increases the opportunity to split, thereby releasing energy.
55Worker loading U-235 fuel rods into one of many fuel bundles for a nuclear reactor!
57Radioactive Waste Generation Every 18 to 24 months, nuclear power plants shut down to remove and replace the "spent" uranium fuel. Spent fuel has released most of its energy from nuclear fission and becomes radioactive waste.Pu waste storedin drums
58Radioactive Waste Generation 2 Nuclear power plants in the U. S., produce about 2,000 metric tons/year of radioactive waste. The radioactive waste is stored at the plants at which it is generated, either in steel-lined, concrete vaults filled with water, or in above-ground steel or steel-reinforced concrete containers with steel inner canisters. In addition fuel waste, much of the equipment in the nuclear power plants becomes contaminated with radiation and becomes radioactive waste after the plant is closed. These wastes will remain radioactive for 1000’s of years.The management, packaging, transport, and disposal of this waste is strictly regulated and carefully controlled.
59Levels of Radioactive Waste…….. Low-level radioactive waste occurs as protective clothing, tools, equipment rags, filters, etc., that mostly contain short-lived radioactivity. Although it does not need to be shielded, it needs to be disposed of in a different manner than when disposing of every-day garbage. Low-level waste is usually compacted or burnt and placed in shallow landfill sites.
60Levels of Radioactive Waste 2…. Intermediate-level radioactive wastes are resins, chemical sludges, metal fuel cladding, and materials from nuclear electricity plants. It is generally short-lived, but usually needs to be shielded. Intermediate-level waste can be solidified in concrete and put into a waste repository.High-level radioactive waste comes from spent fuel from the reactor. It must be shielded and cooled.
61Radioactive waste stored in a water-filled concrete vault!
62Long range plans for nuclear wastes! Radioactive wastes are a major environmental concern of nuclear power. Most nuclear waste is low-level, i.e. ordinary trash, tools, protective clothing, wiping cloths and disposable items that have been contaminated with small amounts of radioactive dust or particles. These materials are subject to special regulation that govern their storage so they will not come in contact with the outside environment.
63The irradiated fuel assemblies are highly radioactive and must be stored in specially designed pools resembling large swimming pools or in specially designed dry storage containers. The older and less radioactive fuel is kept in the dry storage facility, and sealed in special concrete reinforced containers. The United States Department of Energy's long range plan is for this spent fuel to be stored deep in the earth in a geologic repository. The proposed site is Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
65From diagram on previous page 1. Canisters of waste, sealed in special casks, are shipped to the site by truck or train. 2. Shipping casks are removed, and the inner tube with the waste is placed in a steel, multilayered storage container. 3. An automated system sends storage containers underground to the tunnels. 4. Containers are stored along the tunnels, on their side.
67US Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC's primary mission is to protect the public health and safety, and the environment from the effects of radiation from nuclear reactors, materials, and waste facilities. We also regulate these nuclear materials and facilities to promote the common defense and security. NRC carries out its mission by conducting the following activities: Go to next slide
68US Nuclear Regulatory Commission …..policy formulation, rulemaking, and adjudication oversight activities performed by NRC's five-member Commission.…..information about radiation and how NRC's role in ensuring protection of the public and radiation workers.
69Major Accidents From Nuclear Power Generation Three Mile Island (USA 1979) where the reactor was severely damaged but radiation was contained. There were no adverse health or environmental consequences.Chernobyl (Ukraine 1986) where the destruction of the reactor by explosion and fire killed 31 people and had significant health and environmental consequences.
72The Impacts of Chernobyl The consequences of the disastrous Chernobyl accident remain a focus of concern. Some 6% of the radioactive contents of the reactor core was released into the atmosphere, with radioactive iodine and caesium of greatest relevance to human health.
73The Impacts of Chernobyl The accident resulted in 31 short term deaths, 28 due to extremely high radiation exposures, 106 others with serious radiation effects. Some 200,000 workers, known as liquidators, who cleaned-up (1986/1987), received exposures of twice the yearly permitted occupational exposure, similar to exposure received by individuals in high radon areas of Europe. A few 1,000 received more than 10 times the permitted occupational exposure and several dozen workers received exposures considerably higher. The total number of liquidators rose to more than , with most of the additional individuals receiving limited exposures.
74The Impacts of Chernobyl Of the some inhabitants evacuated from the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl site, 95% received less than the average for the initial group of liquidators. The more than residents living in areas that were classified as strict control zones received significantly less than that, their exposure occurring principally during the early months following the accident.
75The Impacts of Chernobyl For the total individuals in the three major groups ( liquidators, exclusion zone evacuees and residents of strict control zones) who received by far the highest exposure from the Chernobyl releases, the predicted long term radiation induced cancer deaths and normally non-fatal thyroid cancers are reported in the proceedings of a 1996 international conference co-sponsored by the IAEA, WHO and the Europeans.
76The Impacts of Chernobyl The report projects some radiation induced cancer deaths, mainly late in life, in addition to some anticipated cancer deaths from other sources - somewhat more than a 0.3% increase in the cancer death rate. The estimate is consistent with the atomic bomb survivor studies, which project a 0.7% increase for the survivors who received a larger as well as a more harmful rapid radiation exposure.
77The Impacts of Chernobyl The single radiation related health impact that has been observed to date is a sharp increase in thyroid cancers among children exposed to short lived radioactive iodine. Some 800 cases in children under 15, three of which were fatal, were documented by 1996, with the total incidence of this treatable illness projected to rise to several thousand. There is no evidence to date of an increased incidence of other malignancies including leukemia, the most sensitive indicator of radiation induced effects.
78Credits…………………. SA Chamber of Mines and Energy U.S. Nuclear Regulatory CommissionSA Chamber of Mines and EnergyCotter Corporation, Kennecott Uranium Company, U.S. Energy Corp. and the Riverton Ranger.
79TV Presentation Instructions Each presentation opens to slide 1 of the navigation index list of slides. Press button to go only to the LAST slide viewed. Click speaker on slides with voice to replay sound.2. You can easily navigate through the index of slides or the virtual field trip slides by using the up (back)* and down (forward) keyboard arrow keys, the forward button , or by clicking the left mouse button (forward only).3. Use the buttons to go to the next slide during the virtual field trip or to a particular slide from the index page; use the button to return to the first index slide.4. You can always press the button from an index slide to begin the field trip starting at the first virtual slide.5. You can end a slide show by returning to any index slide using by pressing the button.EndShow* You will need to press the up (back) arrow key twice or more onslides with speaker (voice) icons on them.Return to Index Page 1
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84Drawing on Slides Back to Usage Slide To mark up slides during a presentation………..During your slide show, right-click and point to Pointer Options. Note You must be in Slide Show view to see the Pointer Options command. To switch to the Slide Show view, on the View menu, click Slide Show.Click Pen.Hold your mouse button down as you write or draw on your slides.You can also choose a different color for marking by pointing to Pen Color and clicking a color. If you don't want to disrupt the continuity of your presentation by right-clicking and navigating through menus, or you are using a Macintosh platform, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+P to switch to using the pen and CTRL+U or ESC to revert back to the automatic pointer.Your markings are erased automatically when you move to the next slide. To move to the next slide when you are using the pen, use the DOWN ARROW key.Back to Usage Slide