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Navigation Index 1 NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Begin Show US Nuclear plant map US Energy generation Nuclear power world map Nuclear facts Nuclear facts 2 Uranium ore mining Nuclear fuel cycle Nuclear Fuel cycle power Nuclear fuel processing Underground mining Nuclear mining wastes In-situ Leaching Mining Advantages of in-situ Advantages of in-situ 2 Advantages of in-situ 3 Physical properties uranium Types of uranium Uranium mine Uranium ore comic Uranium enrichment Gaseous diffusion process Gaseous diffusion process 2 UF6 enrichment Nuclear radiation Radiation exposure What is radioactivity What is radioactivity 2 Navigation Index 2
NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Begin Show What is radioactivity 3 What is radioactivity 4 Structure of an atom Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion Uranium fission Uranium fission 2 The uranium atom The uranium atom 2 Nuclear fission movie Nuclear fission movie 2 Nuclear reactor Nuclear reactor 2 Nuclear power generation Containment domes Cooling water flow diagram Cooling tower Double loop flow diagram Water movement diagram Cerenkov radiation Reactor core elements Reactor core elements 2 U-235 fuel rods Reactor safety Radioactive waste Radioactive waste 2 Navigation Index 3
NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Begin Show Levels of radio. waste Levels of radio. waste2 Radioactive storage Long range storage Long range storage 2 Yucca valley storage Yucca valley storage2 Yucca valley timeline US Nuclear Commission Major nuclear accidents Three Mile Island Chernobyl Chernobyl 2 Chernobyl 3 Chernobyl 4 Chernobyl 5 Chernobyl 6 Chernobyl 7 Credits TV Presentation Insturction Navigation Index 1
Nuclear Power Plant Virtual Field Trip (A guide to the operations of nuclear power) by: Awesome Guides, Inc. 2003 Pen
There are 103 plants with operating licenses ! Nuclear Power Plants in the United States
Nuclear Energy Provides 20% of the Energy for the U.S.
Nuclear Power Plants Worldwide As you can see a large portion of Europe and Japan use nuclear power !
One ton of natural uranium can produce more than 40 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. This is equivalent to burning 16,000 tons of coal or 80,000 barrels of oil. There are currently 103 operating U.S. nuclear power plants that produce over 20% of U.S. electricity. Worldwide, there are about 442 nuclear power plants that supply about 23% of the world's electricity. Fast Facts……… Uranium Ore
Nuclear power plants helped avoid 90% of all carbon emissions averted in the U.S. energy sector between 1981 and 1994. World uranium production in 1996 was 35,199 metric tons or 78.8 million pounds. The price of uranium was approximately $8.75 per pound at end of 1998. Fast Facts…………… Uranium Ore
There are several different ways in which uranium can be mined; on the surface (called open cut mining), underground or using in situ leaching (Note: After in situ leaching, the uranium does not need to go through the milling process, as the uranium oxide has already been leached to form a uranium-rich solution). Uranium Ore Mining Techniques Uranium Mining Operation
Nuclear fuel starts with uranium, a naturally occurring radioactive material. The uranium ore is mined and refined into a brightly- colored solid uranium compound referred to as “yellow cake”.
Underground mining involving blasting hard rock ore is called 'stopes'. Mined material is brought to the surface by trucks, or containers called 'skips‘. Underground Mining
Nuclear Mining Waste Materials Tailings remain after the processes that separated minerals from ore are completed, and consist of crushed rock, water and sometimes chemicals. Tailings are pumped to specially built and sealed areas of a mine site where they dry out over time. Later the hardened and dry tailings are covered with soil and revegetated.
Advantages of In Situ Mining Over Underground and Open-cut Mining Miners are not directly exposed to the orebody. There is reduced radon release and radiation because the ore is in solution, with very little dust. Less expensive to operate because large amounts of rock do not have to be broken up and removed. Shorter lead times to production, that is, it is, quicker to produce an end product.
Advantages of In Situ Mining Over Underground and Open-cut Mining 2 There is no solid waste. Waste is confined to evaporation ponds. It is less costly to build because it does not need the expensive infrastructure of open-cut and underground mining, i.e. shafts, tunnels, crushers. There is much less ground disturbance. There are no open pits, shafts, tunnels, earth moving equipment or grinding and crushing facilities. Operations take up less land and therefore there is less visual impact.
Advantages of In Situ Mining Over Underground and Open-cut Mining 3 There is less rehabilitation required because there is less ground disturbance. Upon completion of mining, wells can be sealed and capped, process facilities removed and the surface returned to its original contour and vegetation. Smaller, lower grade and narrower ore bodies can be mined.
Concentration - uranium ranks 48th among most abundant elements found in natural crustal rock. Density - uranium is very dense. At about 19 grams per cubic centimeter, 1.6 times more dense than lead. Density increases weight, for example, a gallon of milk weighs about 8 pounds, a gallon of uranium would weigh about 150 pounds. Melting Point - uranium boils at about 3,818 degrees Celsius (about 6,904 degrees Fahrenheit). Numerous holes drilled and tested for uranium ore. Physical Properties of Uranium
Natural Uranium - contains 99.3 percent of the isotope uranium-238 and 0.7 percent of the fissionable isotope uranium-235. Low Enriched Uranium - contains the isotope uranium 235 in a concentration less than 20 percent and higher than 0.7 percent. Most commercial reactor fuel has been enriched to 3-5 percent of uranium-235. Highly Enriched Uranium - contains the isotope uranium 235 in a concentration above 20 percent. Highly enriched uranium is used in research reactors, naval propulsion reactors, and weapons. Depleted Uranium - uranium with less than 0.7 percent of the isotope uranium-235. Types of Uranium
In a uranium mine you can see the uranium ore, it’s the black colored rock!
Uranium Enrichment Naturally occurring uranium ore contains uranium-235 and uranium-238 isotopes. Only the uranium-235 isotope is fissionable. Uranium ore contains only 0.7% of the fissile isotope U-235. Enrichment processes increase the concentration of U- 235 to about 3.5%. Uranium enrichment is a critical step in transforming natural uranium into nuclear energy fuel. Enrichment is the process of increasing the concentration of U-235 while decreasing the concentration of U-238.
Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Worldwide, uranium is usually enriched using the gas centrifuge process. In this process, UF6 is rapidly spun in cylinders. Due to differences in the masses of the isotopes, the U-235 and U-238 are separated. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, both still primarily U-238, but one stream has a higher concentration of U- 235 than the other. The stream with the greater U-235 is known as enriched uranium. The stream with a reduced concentration of U-235 is referred to as depleted uranium. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, both still primarily U-238, but one stream has a higher concentration of U- 235 than the other. The UF6 stream with the greater U-235 concentration is known as enriched uranium. The stream with a reduced concentration of U-235 is referred to as depleted uranium.
UF6 is a white crystalline, solid at room temperature (its triple point is 64°C (147.3°F) and it sublimes at 56.5°C (133.8°F) at 1 atmosphere). The liquid phase only exists under pressures greater than about 1.5 atmospheres and at temperatures above 64°C. UF6, uranium hexafluoride, is used in Uranium Enrichment
Radiation is energy emitted as invisible particles, waves, or rays. Radioactive atoms produce radiation as they decay. We are exposed to small amounts of radiation daily. Air, water, food, and sunshine are sources of natural background radiation. Radiation also comes from other sources, such as color TV’s and medical x-rays.
Radiation exposure can alter or damage human cell structure. That’s why nuclear power plants are carefully monitored and employees are trained to limit their exposure to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable. The containment building, the reactor vessel, the fuel assemblies, and several other barriers are designed to contain radiation and protect plant workers and the public living near a nuclear plant from any exposure to elevated levels of radiation. Radiation Exposure
Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of energy from unstable atoms. Atoms are found in all natural matter. There are stable atoms, which remain the same forever, and unstable atoms, which break down or 'decay' into new atoms. These unstable atoms are said to be 'radioactive', because they emit radioactivity from the nucleus as they decay. What is Radioactivity?
Radioactive elements, such as uranium, thorium and potassium decay fairly readily to form lighter atoms. The energy that is released in the process is made up of small, fast-moving particles and high-energy waves. These particles and waves are, invisible. The level of radioactivity of an element varies according to how stable its atoms are. Other elements with naturally occurring radioactive forms, (isotopes) are carbon, bismuth, radon, and strontium. What is Radioactivity 2?
Radioactivity is a random process that happens naturally as the isotopes in particular elements decay. Isotopes continue to break down over time. The length of time that is taken for half of the nuclei in an element to decay is called its 'half-life'. A half-life can be very short (milliseconds to hours) or very long (hundreds or thousands of years). What is Radioactivity 3?
Radiation also arises from nuclear fission. Fission can be spontaneous, but is usually initiated in a nuclear reactor. Fission is a radioactive process; it releases energy as the heavy nucleus is split into two. Radioisotopes are commonly used in medicine, and are produced as a by- product of nuclear energy. What is Radioactivity 4?
Structure of an Atom The Nucleus of the Atom Contains Protons and Neutrons
Fission splits the atom. A neutron is accelerated, hits the U-235 atom causing more neutrons to form, plus two lighter elements, while releasing energy.
Fusion…is where two atom combine releasing energy. Here, two forms of hydrogen combine to produce helium
The process of splitting a uranium atom to form smaller atoms is known as 'fission'. Nuclear fission releases lots of energy, which is used to heat water and produce steam, to generate electricity. The U-235 atom is made up of 92 protons and 143 neutrons (92+143 = 235!). When U-235 atoms are bombarded with neutrons their nuclei split into two roughly equal parts, releasing two or three more neutrons. These neutrons then split the nuclei of other U- 235 atoms, releasing more energy and neutrons, as the process continues. The end result is a vast amount of heat energy from a small amount of uranium. Uranium Fission
This 'chain reaction' is controlled inside a nuclear reactor. Steam made from water heated by fission, is used to spin a turbine and drive a generator, to produce electricity! Uranium Fission 2
To understand how uranium can generate electricity, it is important to first understand the complex uranium atom. Uranium (otherwise known simply as U) is the heaviest naturally occurring element, the lightest being Hydrogen. Pure uranium consists of more than 99% of the isotope U- 238, less than 1% of the fissile isotope U- 235, and a trace of U-234, formed by radioactive decay of U-238. The Uranium Atom……
U-235 is said to be 'fissile' because the nucleus can easily be split, producing vast amounts of energy, in a reaction process called nuclear fission'. The Uranium Atom 2……
A possible reaction that can occur when a neutron of the right energy splits a uranium- 235 atom is: 1 neutron + 235U…… 140Ba + 93Kr + 3 neutrons
These three neutrons can go on to split three more uranium atoms, producing nine more neutrons; this can continue to produce a self-sustaining chain reaction.
The total mass of all particles produced in a fission reaction a bit less than a U-235 plus a neutron; the difference is released as energy. Each time a U-235 is split, energy is released. The more atoms split, the more energy released. If the chain reaction gets out of control, so much energy is produced that a nuclear explosion would occur. This is how an atomic bomb works.
In nuclear power generation a moderator (such as very pure water) slows down neutrons so they are traveling at the right speed to start a fission reaction. Control rods are neutron absorbing material that speed up or slow down the chain reaction.
The characteristic blue glow in the water surrounding the core of a nuclear reactor….called the Cerenkov radiation!
THE FUEL. Nuclear fuel consists of pellets of enriched uranium dioxide, encased in 12- foot long pencil-thick metal tubes, called fuel rods. These fuel rods are bundled to form fuel assemblies. A nuclear plant can operate continuously for up to 2 years. To run this long, a reactor must have as many as 100 to 300 fuel assemblies. THE CONTROL RODS. The control rods contain material that regulates the rate of the chain reaction. If they are pulled out of the core, the reaction speeds up. If they are inserted, the reaction slows down. The Reactor Core Elements
THE COOLANT. A coolant, usually water, is pumped through the reactor to carry away the heat produced by the fissioning of fuel. This is comparable to the water in the cooling system of a car, which carries away the heat built up in the engine. In a reactor, as much as 330,000 gallons of water flow through the reactor core every minute to carry away the heat. THE MODERATOR. A moderator, water, slows down the speed at which atoms travel. This reduction in speed actually increases the opportunity to split, thereby releasing energy. The Reactor Core Elements 2
Worker loading U-235 fuel rods into one of many fuel bundles for a nuclear reactor!
Radioactive Waste Generation Every 18 to 24 months, nuclear power plants shut down to remove and replace the "spent" uranium fuel. Spent fuel has released most of its energy from nuclear fission and becomes radioactive waste. Pu waste stored in drums
Radioactive Waste Generation 2 Nuclear power plants in the U. S., produce about 2,000 metric tons/year of radioactive waste. The radioactive waste is stored at the plants at which it is generated, either in steel-lined, concrete vaults filled with water, or in above-ground steel or steel- reinforced concrete containers with steel inner canisters. In addition fuel waste, much of the equipment in the nuclear power plants becomes contaminated with radiation and becomes radioactive waste after the plant is closed. These wastes will remain radioactive for 1000’s of years. The management, packaging, transport, and disposal of this waste is strictly regulated and carefully controlled.
Low-level radioactive waste occurs as protective clothing, tools, equipment rags, filters, etc., that mostly contain short-lived radioactivity. Although it does not need to be shielded, it needs to be disposed of in a different manner than when disposing of every-day garbage. Low-level waste is usually compacted or burnt and placed in shallow landfill sites. Levels of Radioactive Waste……..
Intermediate-level radioactive wastes are resins, chemical sludges, metal fuel cladding, and materials from nuclear electricity plants. It is generally short-lived, but usually needs to be shielded. Intermediate-level waste can be solidified in concrete and put into a waste repository. High-level radioactive waste comes from spent fuel from the reactor. It must be shielded and cooled. Levels of Radioactive Waste 2….
Radioactive waste stored in a water- filled concrete vault!
Radioactive wastes are a major environmental concern of nuclear power. Most nuclear waste is low-level, i.e. ordinary trash, tools, protective clothing, wiping cloths and disposable items that have been contaminated with small amounts of radioactive dust or particles. These materials are subject to special regulation that govern their storage so they will not come in contact with the outside environment. Long range plans for nuclear wastes!
The irradiated fuel assemblies are highly radioactive and must be stored in specially designed pools resembling large swimming pools or in specially designed dry storage containers. The older and less radioactive fuel is kept in the dry storage facility, and sealed in special concrete reinforced containers. The United States Department of Energy's long range plan is for this spent fuel to be stored deep in the earth in a geologic repository. The proposed site is Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
1. Canisters of waste, sealed in special casks, are shipped to the site by truck or train. 2. Shipping casks are removed, and the inner tube with the waste is placed in a steel, multilayered storage container. 3. An automated system sends storage containers underground to the tunnels. 4. Containers are stored along the tunnels, on their side. From diagram on previous page
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC's primary mission is to protect the public health and safety, and the environment from the effects of radiation from nuclear reactors, materials, and waste facilities. We also regulate these nuclear materials and facilities to promote the common defense and security. NRC carries out its mission by conducting the following activities: Go to next slide
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission …..policy formulation, rulemaking, and adjudication oversight activities performed by NRC's five-member Commission. …..information about radiation and how NRC's role in ensuring protection of the public and radiation workers.
Three Mile Island (USA 1979) where the reactor was severely damaged but radiation was contained. There were no adverse health or environmental consequences. Three Mile Island (USA 1979) where the reactor was severely damaged but radiation was contained. There were no adverse health or environmental consequences. Chernobyl (Ukraine 1986) where the destruction of the reactor by explosion and fire killed 31 people and had significant health and environmental consequences. Chernobyl (Ukraine 1986) where the destruction of the reactor by explosion and fire killed 31 people and had significant health and environmental consequences. Major Accidents From Nuclear Power Generation
The consequences of the disastrous Chernobyl accident remain a focus of concern. Some 6% of the radioactive contents of the reactor core was released into the atmosphere, with radioactive iodine and caesium of greatest relevance to human health. The Impacts of Chernobyl
The accident resulted in 31 short term deaths, 28 due to extremely high radiation exposures, 106 others with serious radiation effects. Some 200,000 workers, known as liquidators, who cleaned-up (1986/1987), received exposures of twice the yearly permitted occupational exposure, similar to exposure received by individuals in high radon areas of Europe. A few 1,000 received more than 10 times the permitted occupational exposure and several dozen workers received exposures considerably higher. The total number of liquidators rose to more than 600 000, with most of the additional individuals receiving limited exposures. The accident resulted in 31 short term deaths, 28 due to extremely high radiation exposures, 106 others with serious radiation effects. Some 200,000 workers, known as liquidators, who cleaned-up (1986/1987), received exposures of twice the yearly permitted occupational exposure, similar to exposure received by individuals in high radon areas of Europe. A few 1,000 received more than 10 times the permitted occupational exposure and several dozen workers received exposures considerably higher. The total number of liquidators rose to more than 600 000, with most of the additional individuals receiving limited exposures. The Impacts of Chernobyl
Of the some 116 000 inhabitants evacuated from the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl site, 95% received less than the average for the initial group of liquidators. The more than 400 000 residents living in areas that were classified as strict control zones received significantly less than that, their exposure occurring principally during the early months following the accident. The Impacts of Chernobyl
For the 116 000 total individuals in the three major groups (600 000 liquidators, 116 000 exclusion zone evacuees and 400 000 residents of strict control zones) who received by far the highest exposure from the Chernobyl releases, the predicted long term radiation induced cancer deaths and normally non-fatal thyroid cancers are reported in the proceedings of a 1996 international conference co-sponsored by the IAEA, WHO and the Europeans.
The Impacts of Chernobyl The report projects some 3 500 radiation induced cancer deaths, mainly late in life, in addition to some 200 000 anticipated cancer deaths from other sources - somewhat more than a 0.3% increase in the cancer death rate. The estimate is consistent with the atomic bomb survivor studies, which project a 0.7% increase for the survivors who received a larger as well as a more harmful rapid radiation exposure.
The Impacts of Chernobyl The single radiation related health impact that has been observed to date is a sharp increase in thyroid cancers among children exposed to short lived radioactive iodine. Some 800 cases in children under 15, three of which were fatal, were documented by 1996, with the total incidence of this treatable illness projected to rise to several thousand. There is no evidence to date of an increased incidence of other malignancies including leukemia, the most sensitive indicator of radiation induced effects.
Credits…………………. SA Chamber of Mines and Energy Cotter Corporation, Kennecott Uranium Company, U.S. Energy Corp. and the Riverton Ranger. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
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