Presentation on theme: "Rituals to Renaissance"— Presentation transcript:
1Rituals to Renaissance Theatre HistoryRituals to Renaissance
2Rituals - 38,000-5000 BC Oldest form of expression – storytelling Used masks, costumes, and visual artBegins with primitive man as dance and rhythmic movementThese rituals explained tradition, tribal history, religion, why thing happen in natureRituals evolved into pantomime - stories shown not toldGave youth of a culture a guide and plan for their own lives
3Rituals Rituals are related to 3 basic concerns: Power – influencing and controlling eventsPleasure – social events, entertainmentDuty – worship, god(s) relatedOften times the acting/leadership role was filled by elders and priests.Acting space (theaters) developed as more elaborate rituals were created.
4Egypt B.C.“Pyramid” plays - religious plays about the deceased king’s soul being resurrectedCoronation Festival plays - celebration of the new pharaohPassion plays - murder of a king; battle, voyages, and a scary resurrection scene“Ra” plays - Ra (sun god) fought Apophis (snake god) of the underworld. Ra always won.
5Potential Test Questions Rituals are a type of _______________.Prehistoric tribes were able to communicate ________ through ritualsHow have the elements of rituals influences modern theatre?
6Performance Assessment for Ritual Get into groups of 3-5 and pick up 1 rubricCreate a ‘ritual’ performance which includes the followingA who, what, where, and conflictExplain the tribes tradition/history or natural occurrenceUse pantomime and gibberish and facial expressionsUse rhythmic movement and appropriate musicThis assignment will be performed the last 30 minutes of class as is worth 15 points
7Greeks B.C.Performances grew out of religious festivals in honor of Greek God DionysisFestivals (5-6 days) were held once a year in the THEATRON (“watching space”) which is where we get our word THEATREAll citizens were expected to attendLargest seated 1400 (1/2 population of Athens)Theaters were semi-circles built of stone into the hillside
8Greek Theatre (continued) Greek Theatre focused on TRAGEDY (issues of life, death, the gods)Actors all male/wore masksChorus (12-50) acted out thestory/life of the Gods togetherFirst producer/director/actor wasTHESPIS - “invented” acting whenhe steps out of the chorus toanswer them ---this created stage dialogue
10Greek Theatre (continued) - Playwrights Aeschylus - (525?-456 B.C.) “Father of Tragedy”; considered to be the first playwrightIdea of the play is the most important thing - not the characterAdds a 2nd actorSophocles ( B.C.)Writes about right vs wrong, the idea that man can not solve all the problems in the worldFocuses on character -- drives the plotEuripides (480?-406 B.C.)First “Modern” playwrightWrites plays of characters in relation to society and mocks themCharacters are realisticNo chorus
11Roman Theatre - 6th century B.C. Borrowed from the Greeks and “improved” on themLess philosophical than the GreeksActors/performers were called “histriones”Encompassed more than drama : acrobatics, gladiators, jugglers, athletics, chariots races, naumachia (sea battles), boxing, venationes (animal fights)
12Roman Theatre (continued) Pantomime/Mime - solo dance, with music (lutes, pipes, cymbals) and a chorus.Used masks, story-telling, mythology or historical stories, usually serious but sometimes comicSpokenUsually shortSometimes elaborate casts and spectacleSerious or comic (satiric)No masksHad womenViolence and sex depicted literallyScoffed at ChristianityNeedless to say, the Church did not look kindly at Mime.
13Roman Theatre (continued) Theaters are free-standing buildings with stadium seatingLarge stages (20-40 deep and feet long)Could seat 10-15,000 peopleStage covered with a roof (oftenAudience covered with a awning to protect them from the sunTrap doors commonAround 78 B.C. a cooling system put in place --- air blown over streams of waterSand on the stage floor
14Potential Test Questions Who was the 1st actor?Greek festivals were held in the ________.Roman festivals were held in the _______.Greeks used _____ to express emotion.Who is the chorus?What are the elements of Tragedy
15Performance for Greeks/Roman Get into groups of 5-6 and pick up 1 rubricCreate a performance that has the following:A who, what, where, and conflictA character of high status who “falls” because of a fatal flawA chorus and at least 2 charactersDynamic choreographed motivated movementThis assignment is worth 15 points and will be performed the last 30 minutes of class today
16Medieval Theatre ( )Theatre is dead in Europe but active in AsiaTraveling Troupes performed on wagons which opened to create a fixed stage - used props and costumes but in Europe no women performers3 Types of plays performedMiracle Plays - enacted the lives of saintsMystery Plays - Bible stories sometimes also called “passion plays”Morality Plays - taught moral lessons - right vs wrong and the struggle between good and evil for the soul of Man
17Potential Test Questions True/False – Woman were allowed to perform in Medieval theatre.Everyman is a ___________ play._____________ stories teach right from wrong.Stories about the bible are ___________ plays.How does Medieval Theatre reflect what is going on historically during this time period?
18Performance Assessment Get into groups of 4-6.Create a performance with the followingA who, what, where, and conflictA type of medieval play (Morality, Mystery, or Miracle) with the proper elementsAppropriate character choicesChoreographed and motivated movement.This will be performed the last 30 minutes of class today. It is worth 20 points.
19Italian Renaissance (1470-1550) Built indoor theatersChurch no longer “calling the shots”Commedia Dell’Arte - 1st form of improvisation; still traveling troupes that performed for $ from the crowd that gathered; plot summary learned by actors beforehandConsidered to be the 1st “professional” theatreFirst in Europe to put Women on stage
20English Renaissance (1470-1550) Focused on the plays of Shakespeare, Marlowe, and JonsonTheatre saw an incredible burst of energy and talent -- 1 in 8 people regularly went to the theatrePurpose to entertain the rich. They got the good seats in the balcony and the poor stood belowRoles were played by men (including women rolesFirst time costumes fit the character
21Shakespeare April 24,1564-April 24,1616 Noted to be the greatest playwright in history, although authenticity is questioned by many.He was an poet, actor, playwright, and producerWrote 38 plays: histories, comedies, tragedies, and fantasiesBalanced plot and character
22The Globe Theater Built in 1599 - considered “indoor” Thrust Stage 3 Stories highAudience Sits around the stageLittle furnitureBurned down in during a performance of Henry 8th
26French Renaissance (1550-1700) Best playwright - Jean-Baptiste Moliere ( ) wrote comedies that focued on social “rules”; also called “Comedy of Manners”French Theatre had several rulesUnities - time, place, and action had to be 24 hours or lessPurity of Form - no mixing of Comedy and Tragedy“Verisimilitude” - the appearance of truth with the following categories - Reality (could happen in real life), Morality (teach a lesson), Generality (normal attirbutes), and Decorum (stereotypes)
27Potential Test Questions The Lazzi in Commedia Dell’Arte is aPiece of foodType of characterComedic bitNone of theseWhat elements of modern entertainment do we see being borrowed from the Renaissance Era?
2819th Century Theatre (1800-1900) Naturalism (1850-1922) The relationship between character and enviroment2 important “creators” - Anton Chekhov (Russian playwright) and Konstantin Stanislavsky ( ). Both men demanded natural reponses from their actors. Psychological reactions of the characters could be more important than the situation itself.Stanislavsky created “The System” or “Method” acting - actor uses an “emotional memory” to create character/motivation.
2919th Century Theatre (1800-1900) Realism (1850-1950) A style showing life as “it really is” reflects real lifeThe FOURTH WALL is established as a result - the idea that the actors can see through an invisible wall into the lives of the characters.Henrik Ibsen ( )Playwright who saw theatre as a means to challenge “mistakes” he saw in the society he lived in. Most famous play A Doll’s House helped pave the way for women to be seen as equals.