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The Civilization of the Greeks: Colonization Polis Chapter 4 A bust of Pericles.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civilization of the Greeks: Colonization Polis Chapter 4 A bust of Pericles."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civilization of the Greeks: Colonization Polis Chapter 4 A bust of Pericles

2 Figure 4-1 p94 Greek City- States BCE

3 Polis - The Greek City States (c. 750–c. 500 B.C.E.) Greek Polis or city-state began to emerge and increase in power 1. Tyranny rule by a non hereditary ruler. Oligarchy rule by a few as in Sparta 3. Democracy Rule by the people as in Athens Heart of Polis: the Acropolis Agora - Trading centers emerged 300 independent city-stated developed by 600 BCE

4 Polis – community of people Patriarchal Political rights - Men No political rights women & children Slaves & resident aliens Greek Way of War Hopilites Phalanx

5 Colonization Factors that led to Colonization Greek Diaspora (750 – 550 BCE) Disparity of wealth Over population Development of trade Colonies Southern Italy and France Eastern Spain Northern Africa

6 Tyrants & Oligarchies

7 II. The Greek City States (c. 750–c. 500 B.C.E.) E. Athens 1. The Reforms of Solon 2. The Reforms of Cleisthenes F. Foreign Influence on Early Greek Culture

8 Classic period, 4-5 BCE Athens emerged as center of activity Established limited democracy by the end of the 6 th C Limited to free, land owning, Athenian males Womens roles increasingly restricted Represent an extreme Spartas political system comprised of a Oligarchy and dual monarchy Women had not formal roles in governance Maintained powerful, traditional roles in the community

9 Sparta to 500 BCE Militaristic, totalitarian State Democratic for small ruling minority Oligarchy (rule by aristocracy) for the majority Every Spartan a professional soldier Conquered neighbors and made them Helots (state slaves) Infanticide – sick or deformed babies Sons taken from families at age 7 Girls raised to produce warrior sons

10 Daily Life in Classical Athens Sons of native born- a citizen Slaves and allies no citizenship 1 of every 6 was a citizen Social strains 150,000 people, 43,000 of which were adult males who exercised political power Economy based on agriculture and trade Family the central institution Women kept under strict control Male homosexuality a prominent feature 19

11 Athenian Society Majority: Women, slaves, resident aliens not citizens 25% of Athens population slaves Homosexuality common – rites of initiation between adult men and prepubescent boys Women Legally property of fathers, husbands Arranged marriages Infanticide of girls Moral and sexual double standard

12 Interpretations Feminist historians concluded the culture was misogynistic Exaltation of masculinity at the root of constant militarism and warfare of Greek society

13 Gender Relationships Greeks believed only true friendship was possible among equals Sought relationships with men – sexual Even if they held their marriage in high esteem Drinking vases, used in male drinking parties, glorified phallus

14 Misogynistic Voices Poet Hesoid Poem Works and Days Pessimistic reflection of a farmers life, bemoans mens need of women to procreate and survive Poem Theogony Creation story of the gods Hostilities between the genders for generations Result in a shift of power from female to male Culminates in the Reign of Zeus Both works tell the story of the creation of Pandora, the firs woman, created by Zeus to be an evil for men

15 Re-emergence of Writing Writing and use of coins re-emerged Capitalization became a major part of life by 5 t BCE Transformed oral society of early Greece Writing used as aid for memory and developing as a reference tool Major shift in thinking from a oral to a written society How do people remember or know anything Who are those people who have a monopoly on a system not available to most

16 III. The High Point of Greek Civilization: Classical Greece A. The Challenge of Persia B. The Growth of an Athenian Empire in the Age of Pericles C. The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline of the Greek States

17 Plato Recognized prejudices against women spoke on behalf of equality and equal opportunity though he believed men were generally more talented Revolutionary thinking for his time – not the norm

18 Aristotle believed that the courage of a man was shown in commanding and of a women in obeying silence is a womans glory

19 Peloponnesian Wars Following allied victory against the Persian Empire Athens emerged as a imperialist expansionist state igniting war with other polities 30 year war Intense political and military turmoil

20 The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline of the Greek States ( B.C.E.) Sparta League Vs. Athenian Empire Plague in 429, B.C.E., takes Pericles: hurts Athens Sparta builds Navy and destroys Athens fleet Surrender of Athens, 404 B.C Effects of the wars: Anarchy & economic depression under Sparta 14

21 Classical Literature Hughs: How does the literature and artwork from this period characterize womens status and roles in society?

22 Hellenistic Period Following Athens defeat and Spartas domination First half of 4 th C BCE Periodic wars against Persians Periodic wars between city-states

23 Empire of Alexander the great Philip II declared king, consolidated power in Macedonia.(359 – 336 BCE) 338 won a decisive Battle gaining control of Greece Power vacuum came a new force from the kingdom of Macedon on the northern borders of Greece. Macedonian conquests were followed by 3 centuries in which Greek culture spread widely in Egypt and far into western Asia

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27 III. The High Point of Greek Civilization: Classical Greece D. The Culture of Classical Greece 1. The Writing of History 2. Greek Drama 3. The Arts: The Classical Ideal 4. The Greek Love of Wisdom E. Greek Religion F. Life in Classical Athens 1. Economy and Lifestyle 2. Family and Relationships

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36 IV. The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander A. Alexander the Great 1. Alexanders Conquests 2. The Legacy: Was Alexander Great?

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39 Figure 4-2 p114

40 V. The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms A. Hellenistic Monarchies 1. The Seleucid Kingdom and India B. Political Institutions C. Hellenistic Cities D. The Importance of Trade

41 V. The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms E. Social Life: New Opportunities for Women F. Culture in the Hellenistic World 1. New Directions in Literature and Art 2. A Golden Age of Science 3. Philosophy: New Schools of Thought 4. Religion in the Hellenistic World

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43 Figure 4-3 p117

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