Presentation on theme: "The Civilization of the Greeks: Colonization Polis"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Civilization of the Greeks: Colonization Polis Chapter 4The Civilization of the Greeks: Colonization PolisGreek History is broken up into three periods, Minoan Civilization, Mycenae the first state and the dark ages 1100 – 760 BCE.A variety of cultures inhabited the lands of ancient Greece dating back to the Neolithic evidenced by a variety of dwelling styles, burial customs, artistic representations in pottery or wall paintings and other artifacts.Throughout antiquity ancient “greece” was a collection of highly individual, soveriegn communities whose realtive importance fluctuated overtime. These independent communities might periodically form defensive leagues, but were not unied under any single rule until Phillip of Macedon’s conquests in the 4th BCE. Language united these communities while economic, social, political structures and religious customs varied considerably.A bust of Pericles
2 Greek City- States 750-500BCE MAP 4.1 Ancient Greece (c. 750–338 B.C.E.). Between 750 and 500 B.C.E., Greek civilization witnessed the emergence of the city-state as the central institution in Greek life and the Greeks’ colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Classical Greece lasted from about 500 to 338 B.C.E. and encompassed the high points of Greek civilization in arts, science, philosophy, and politics, as well as the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War.Figure 4-1 p94
3 Polis - The Greek City‑States (c. 750–c. 500 B.C.E.) Greek Polis or city-state began to emerge and increase in power1. “Tyranny” rule by a non hereditary ruler. Oligarchy “rule by a few” as in Sparta3. “Democracy” Rule by the people” as in AthensHeart of Polis: the AcropolisAgora - Trading centers emerged300 independent city-stated developed by 600 BCEA time of major transition in ancient Greece took place when the Individual Greek Polis or city state began to emerge and increase in power. Political revolutions overturned monarchies or traditional clan structures and established new political distributions of power.A polis is a small autonomous political unit in which all major political social, and religious activities were carried out at one central location. It consisted of a city, town or village surrounded by the countryside. The Acropolis or Hill served as meeting place, place of refuge and later as the religious center where temples and monuments were erected. The Agora was below, an open space that served as a market and assembly place.Especially important were 1. “Tyranny” rule by a non hereditary ruler 2. Oligarchy “rule by a few” as in Sparta and 3. “Democracy” Rule by the people” as in AthensThe tyrants were often major promoters of the arts: Peisistratos the 6th C tyrant in Athens expanded the competitions for the recital of epic poetry; he established Athenian control over the Pan-Hellenic (“all Greek”) rites for the goddesses Demeter and Persephone called the Eleusinian Mysteries; and he initiated the first dramatic competitions in honor of the god Dionysos.
4 Polis – community of people PatriarchalPolitical rights - MenNo political rightswomen & childrenSlaves & resident aliensGreek Way of WarHopilitesPhalanxThe development of the polis paralleled the emergence of new military system. Aristocratic calvarymen was replaced with hoplites, a heavily armed infantrymen who were bronze or leather helmets, breastplates and greaves. Each carried a round shield, a short sword and a thrusting spear about 9 feet long. They advanced into battle as a unit, forming a Phalanx or rectangular formation 8 ranks deep.The hoplites were now aristocrats and farmers who could then fight for the state and challenge aristocratic control.War became an integral part of greek life.
5 Colonization Factors that led to Colonization Colonies Greek Diaspora (750 – 550 BCE)Disparity of wealthOver populationDevelopment of tradeColoniesSouthern Italy and FranceEastern SpainNorthern AfricaThe expansion of Greek colonization led to a greater sense of Greek identity and the expansion of trade and industry created a new group of rich men who desired political privileges commensurate with their wealth. This new merchant class came into direct conflict with the old aristocracy. Leading to the rise of tyrants in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE.
7 II. The Greek City‑States (c. 750–c. 500 B.C.E.) E. Athens1. The Reforms of Solon2. The Reforms of CleisthenesF. Foreign Influence on Early Greek Culture
8 Classic period, 4-5 BCE Athens emerged as center of activity Sparta’s Established limited democracy by the end of the 6th CLimited to free, land owning, Athenian malesWomen’s roles increasingly restrictedRepresent an extremeSparta’spolitical system comprised of a Oligarchy and dual monarchyWomen had not formal roles in governanceMaintained powerful, traditional roles in the community
9 Sparta to 500 BCE Militaristic, totalitarian State Democratic for small ruling minorityOligarchy (rule by aristocracy) for the majorityEvery Spartan a professional soldierConquered neighbors and made them Helots (state slaves)Infanticide – sick or deformed babiesSons taken from families at age 7Girls raised to produce warrior sons
10 Daily Life in Classical Athens Sons of native born- a citizenSlaves and allies no citizenship1 of every 6 was a citizenSocial strains150,000 people, 43,000 of which were adult males who exercised political powerEconomy based on agriculture and tradeFamily the central institutionWomen kept under strict controlMale homosexuality a prominent feature19
11 Athenian Society Majority: Women, slaves, resident aliens not citizens 25% of Athens population slavesHomosexuality common – rites of initiation between adult men and prepubescent boysWomenLegally property of fathers, husbandsArranged marriagesInfanticide of girlsMoral and sexual double standard
12 InterpretationsFeminist historians concluded the culture was misogynisticExaltation of masculinity at the root of constant militarism and warfare of Greek society
13 Gender RelationshipsGreeks believed only true friendship was possible among equalsSought relationships with men – sexualEven if they held their marriage in high esteemDrinking vases, used in male drinking parties, glorified phallus
14 Misogynistic Voices Poet Hesoid Poem Works and Days Poem Theogony Pessimistic reflection of a farmer’s life, bemoans men’s need of women to procreate and survivePoem TheogonyCreation story of the godsHostilities between the genders for generationsResult in a shift of power from female to maleCulminates in the Reign of ZeusBoth works tell the story of the creation of Pandora, the firs woman, created by Zeus to be an evil for men
15 Re-emergence of Writing Writing and use of coins re-emergedCapitalization became a major part of life by 5t BCETransformed oral society of early GreeceWriting used as aid for memory and developing as a reference toolMajor shift in thinking from a oral to a written societyHow do people remember or know anythingWho are those people who have a monopoly on a system not available to mostEpic Poems of Homer composed fully in the oral tradition in the late 8th C BCE depict women as constrained by the social circumstances of their societySome are cast as the booty or prize of war (Helen, Andromache, or Briseis in the IliadMost are portrayed postively,with strength of character and as having some ability to make decisions affecting their livesCharacters Penelope in the Odyssey and Helen in both poems are endowed with complex portrayalsWomen portrayed in a generally positive lightSung by Rhapsodes (professional singers of epic poetry) in festival poetry competitions, the Homeric poems played a crucial role in the process of Pan Hellenization,a movement affirming a national greek identity and seeking to unify the ficerse Greek Communities under a common cultural heritage
16 III. The High Point of Greek Civilization: Classical Greece A. The Challenge of PersiaB. The Growth of an Athenian Empire in the Age of PericlesC. The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline of the Greek States
17 Plato Recognized prejudices against women spoke on behalf of equality and equal opportunitythough he believed men were generally more talentedRevolutionary thinking for his time – not the norm
18 Aristotlebelieved that the courage of a man was shown in commanding and of a women in obeyingsilence is a woman’s glory
19 Peloponnesian Wars Following allied victory against the Persian Empire Athens emerged as a imperialist expansionist state igniting war with other polities30 year warIntense political and military turmoil
20 The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline of the Greek States (431-404 B.C.E.) Sparta League Vs. Athenian EmpirePlague in 429, B.C.E., takes Pericles: hurts AthensSparta builds Navy and destroys Athen’s fleetSurrender of Athens, 404 B.CEffects of the wars: Anarchy & economic depression under Sparta14
21 Classical Literature Hughs: How does the literature and artwork from this period characterize women’s status and roles in society?
22 Hellenistic Period Following Athens defeat and Sparta’s domination First half of 4th C BCEPeriodic wars against PersiansPeriodic wars between city-states
23 Empire of Alexander the great Philip II declared king, consolidated power in Macedonia.(359 – 336 BCE)338 won a decisive Battle gaining control of GreecePower vacuum came a new force from the kingdom of Macedon on the northern borders of Greece. Macedonian conquests were followed by 3 centuries in which Greek culture spread widely in Egypt and far into western AsiaPower vacuum came a new force from the kingdom of Macedon on the northern borders of Greece. Macedonian conquests were followed by 3 centuries in which Greek culture spread widely in Egypt and far into western Asia
24 The Hoplite Forces. The Greek hoplites were infantrymen equipped with large round shields and long thrusting spears. In battle, they advanced in tight phalanx formation and were dangerous opponents as long as this formation remained unbroken. This vase painting from the seventh century B.C.E. shows two groups of hoplite warriors engaged in battle. The piper on the left is leading another line of soldiers preparing to enter the fray.p98
25 Kouros. On the left is a statue of a young male nude from around 600 B Kouros. On the left is a statue of a young male nude from around 600 B.C.E, making it an early example of Greek kouros sculpture. Such statues, which were placed in temples along with companion figures of clothed young women, known as korai, were meant to be representations of the faithful dedicated to the gods. At the right is an early-seventh-century B.C.E. statue of an Egyptian nobleman. Clearly, Egyptian sculpture had a strong influence on Greek art. Unlike the Egyptians, however, Greek sculptorspreferred depicting male figures in the nude.p101
26 Kouros. On the left is a statue of a young male nude from around 600 B Kouros. On the left is a statue of a young male nude from around 600 B.C.E, making it an early example of Greek kouros sculpture. Such statues, which were placed in temples along with companion figures of clothed young women, known as korai, were meant to be representations of the faithful dedicated to the gods. At the right is an early-seventh-century B.C.E. statue of an Egyptian nobleman. Clearly, Egyptian sculpture had a strong influence on Greek art. Unlike the Egyptians, however, Greek sculptorspreferred depicting male figures in the nude.p101
27 III. The High Point of Greek Civilization: Classical Greece D. The Culture of Classical Greece1. The Writing of History2. Greek Drama3. The Arts: The Classical Ideal4. The Greek Love of WisdomE. Greek ReligionF. Life in Classical Athens1. Economy and Lifestyle2. Family and Relationships
28 The Greek Trireme. The trireme became the standard warship of ancient Greece. Highly maneuverable, fast, and outfitted with metal prows, Greek triremes were especially effective at ramming enemy ships. The bas-relief at the bottom shows a fifth-centuryB.C.E. Athenian trireme. The photo shows the Olympias, a trireme reconstructed by the Greek navy.p102
29 The Greek Trireme. The trireme became the standard warship of ancient Greece. Highly maneuverable, fast, and outfitted with metal prows, Greek triremes were especially effective at ramming enemy ships. The bas-relief at the bottom shows a fifth-centuryB.C.E. Athenian trireme. The photo shows the Olympias, a trireme reconstructed by the Greek navy.p102
31 The Parthenon. The arts in Classical Greece were designed to express the eternal ideals of reason, moderation, symmetry, balance, and harmony. In architecture, the most important form was the temple, and the classic example of this kind of architecture is the Parthenon, built between 447 and 432 B.C.E. Located on the Acropolis in Athens, the Parthenon was dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of the city, but it also served as a shining example of the power and wealth of the Athenian empire.p107
32 Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian Orders Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian Orders. The Greeks used columns of different shapes and sizes in their temples. The Doric order, which consisted of thick, fluted columns with simple capitals (the decorated tops of the columns), developed first in the Dorian Peloponnesus. The Greeks considered the Doric order grave, dignified, and masculine. The Ionic style was first developed in western Asia Minor and consisted of slender columns with spiral-shaped capitals. The Greeks characterized the Ionic order asslender, elegant, and feminine. Corinthian columns, with their more detailed capitals modeled after acanthus leaves, came later, near the end of the fifth century B.C.E.p107
33 Doryphoros. This statue, known as the Doryphoros, or spear carrier, is by the fifth-century B.C.E. sculptor Polyclitus, who believed it illustrated the ideal proportions of the human figure. Classical Greek sculpture moved away from the stiffness ofearlier figures but retained the young male nude as the favorite subject. The statues became more lifelike, with relaxed poses and flexible, smooth-muscled bodies. The aim of sculpture, however, was not simply realism but rather the expression of idealbeauty.p108
34 Philosophers in the Axial Age Philosophers in the Axial Age. This mosaic from Pompeii recreates a gathering of Greek philosophers at the school of Plato.p109
35 Women in the Loom Room. In Athens, women were citizens and could participate in religious cults and festivals, but they had no rights and were barred from political activity. Women were thought to belong in the house, caring for the children and the needs of the household. A principal activity of Greek women was the making of clothes. This vase shows two women working on a warp-weighted loom.p112
36 IV. The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander A. Alexander the Great1. Alexander’s Conquests2. The Legacy: Was Alexander Great?
37 Alexander the Great. This marble head of Alexander the Great was made in the second or first century B.C.E. The long hair and tilt of his head reflect the description of Alexander in the literary sources of the time. Alexander claimed to be descended from Heracles, a Greek hero worshiped as a god, and when he proclaimed himself pharaoh of Egypt, he gained recognition as a living deity. It is reported that one statue, now lost, showed Alexander gazing at Zeus. At the base of the statue were the words‘‘I place the earth under my sway; you, O Zeus, keep Olympus.’’p113
39 MAP 4. 2 The Conquests of Alexander the Great MAP 4.2 The Conquests of Alexander the Great. In just twelve years, Alexander the Great conquered vast territories. Dominating lands from west of the Nile to east of the Indus, he brought the Persian Empire, Egypt, and much of the Middle East under hiscontrol.Figure 4-2 p114
40 V. The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms A. Hellenistic Monarchies1. The Seleucid Kingdom and IndiaB. Political InstitutionsC. Hellenistic CitiesD. The Importance of Trade
41 V. The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms E. Social Life: New Opportunities for WomenF. Culture in the Hellenistic World1. New Directions in Literature and Art2. A Golden Age of Science3. Philosophy: New Schools of Thought4. Religion in the Hellenistic World
42 Alexander (Colin Farrell) reviews his troops before the Battle of Gaugamela.
43 MAP 4. 3 The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms MAP 4.3 The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms. Alexander died unexpectedly at the age of thirty-two and did not designate a successor. After his death, his generals struggled for power, eventually establishing four monarchies that spread Hellenisticculture and fostered trade and economic development.Figure 4-3 p117
44 Old Market Woman. Unlike the sculptors of the Classical Greek era, Hellenistic sculptors were no longer interested in capturing ideal beauty but moved toward a more emotional and realistic art. This statue of an old market woman is typical of this trend. She is seen carrying chickens and a basket of fruit. Haggard and mired in poverty, she struggles just to go on living.p118
45 COMPARATIVE ILLUSTRATION Hellenistic Sculpture and a Greek-Style Buddha. Greek architects and sculptors were highly valued throughout the Hellenistic world. Shown on the left is a terra-cotta statuette of a draped young woman, made as a tomb offering nearThebes, probably around 300 B.C.E. The incursion of Alexander into western India resulted in some Greek cultural influences there, especially during the Hellenistic era. During the first century B.C.E., Indian sculptors in Gandhara, which today is partof Pakistan, began to make statues of the Buddha in a style that combined Indian and Hellenistic artistic traditions, as in the stone sculpture of the Buddha on the right. Note the wavy hair topped by a bun tied with a ribbon, also a feature of earlierstatues of Greek deities. This Buddha is also seen wearing a Greek-style toga.p120
46 COMPARATIVE ILLUSTRATION Hellenistic Sculpture and a Greek-Style Buddha. Greek architects and sculptors were highly valued throughout the Hellenistic world. Shown on the left is a terra-cotta statuette of a draped young woman, made as a tomb offering nearThebes, probably around 300 B.C.E. The incursion of Alexander into western India resulted in some Greek cultural influences there, especially during the Hellenistic era. During the first century B.C.E., Indian sculptors in Gandhara, which today is partof Pakistan, began to make statues of the Buddha in a style that combined Indian and Hellenistic artistic traditions, as in the stone sculpture of the Buddha on the right. Note the wavy hair topped by a bun tied with a ribbon, also a feature of earlierstatues of Greek deities. This Buddha is also seen wearing a Greek-style toga.p120
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