4 A male mouse is called a buck. A female mouse is called a doe.A baby mouse is called a pinky, or a kitten.Mice are fond of hard bread.Mice are constant eaters - and will eat almost anything.Mice are prolific breeders, producing six to ten litters continuously throughout the yearMice will nurse babies that are not their own.Baby mice curl up when they are being carried.You can keep mice on a table without a cage because mice are afraid to jump off high vertical drops.
5 To this day some people believe that fried mice or mouse pie is a cure for bed wetting. The greatest loss from mice is not due to how much they eat, but what must be thrown out because of damage or contamination.Each year, rodents cause more than one billion dollars in damage in the US alone.Mice have tails that are as long as their bodies.You should never pick a mouse up by its tail.The tip of the tail may come off.Mouse tails have scales that help with climbing.Some mice don't have any hair at all.Mice have been domesticated for hundreds of years.The National Mouse Club of Britain was formed in 1895.Mice are able to see some colors; however, they do lack the pigment that allows them to see red. They see shades of black and white and may be able to distinguish blues.Though generally classified as herbivores and eat a regular diet of grains and fruit, mice will eat almost anything they encounter
6 Rat and mouse bones have been found in caves where cavemen lived. Mice can make their own vitamin C.People worshipped mice in temples. (You can see this in India)The Hindu god Ganesha rides a mouse
7 A mouse can jump down 12 feet without injury. Mice are nocturnal creatures.The name mouse comes from "mus", a Sanskrit word that means thief.Mouse urine has a fluorescent glow.Mice see best in dim light.Mice travel the same path time and time again, leaving a smudge mark - a buildup of dirt and oil from their fur - along walls, pipes and holes.Mice can chew through anything that is softer than their teeth.Mice can transmit salmonellosis (bacterial food poisoning) when food is contaminated with infected mouse feces
9 Mice Mouse pleural (mice) is a rodent The best known species is the house mouse (mus musculus)Live up 2 yearsIn wild life 5 months due to heavy predation by dogs, cats, birds,snakes,Breathing dust from feces dangerousThe original motivation for cat to be domesticated is mice
15 Ecology Germ free or axenic Specific germ free Gnotobiotics conventional
16 Uses Make good pet Proficient breeder Musty odor More mice used in researchGenetics.virology.teratogenecity.
17 Behavior They are social animals Curioius but not aggressive Female mice rarely fightDominant hierarchyThey are nocturnal and diurnal
18 Anatomic and physiologic features Dental formula 2(1/1 incisors, 0/0 canine, 0/0 premolar. 3/3 molar)The incisors are open rootedDivided stomachThe lung has one large left lobe and four small large lobe.Brown fat is presentMice have 5 pairs of mammary gland
19 Biologic and reproductive data Adult body weightMale grFemale grBody temperature cLife span yRespiratory rateHeart beatEstrus cycle dBreeding onset dGestation period dPostpartum estrus fertileLitter sizeWeaning ageBreeding duration moChromosome
20 Breeding and reproduction Polygamous and monogamousBred 7 to 8 weeksPhremones is importantWhitensBruce affectMating can be confirmed by plugGestation period daysIn lactating mice is prolonged by 3-10 daysAltricialCalled pinkiesBy day 10 their body has hair ears open and the eyes open by 12They eat solid food at 14
21 HusbandaryHousing in a shoe box cages made of plastic or polycarbonate.minimal space required 97cm2Pine or cedar chips should not be usedTemprature 18-26cHumidity 30%-70%10-15 change air in hour12-14 hours lightThe frequency of cage cleaning
22 Feeding and watering Mice usually consume 3-5g of solid food 16%protein, 4% fatAdult mice drink 6-7 ml of waterMice are coprophage
31 Helicobacter infection Mice rat guinea pig rabbit ferret dogCauses chronic active hepatitisA/jcr are susceptible to tumorH.hepaticus cause inflammatory bowl diseaseH.bilis, h.muridarum, h.rappiniGross lesion foci of necrosis in liver,Treatment amoxicillin, tetracycline
32 Tyzzers disease Mice, rat , hamster, guinea pig, rabbits, dog, cat. Caused by Clostridium piliformeImmunosuppressive animals or newly weanedClinical signs include diarrhea, dehydration and anorexia
33 Colonic hyperplasia disease Citrobacter freundii biotype 4280Entrocolith, diarrhea,Thichening of the colonMucosal hyperplasiaTreatment neomycinTetracyclin sulfamethazine
34 Coryneform hyperkeratosis Corynebacterium psuedodipheriticumHyperkeratosis in nude mice and high mortality in sucklingDry white flaky skin, priritisAffected animals should be euthenized
35 Staphylococcus aureus AbscessConjunctivitisSuperficial pyodermaFurunculosis is a problem in nude mice
39 Sendai virus Is a parainfluenza I virus Fatal in weanling cerbation of pnumonoSupress the normal antibacterial of lungExacerbation of pnumoniaHunchrd poture, ruffled feather, dyspnea, and teeth chattering
40 Mouse hepatitis virusIt has two forms of enteric and respiratory patternClinical sign in suckling, diarrhea,encephalitis, tremor,empty stomach
41 Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice Less than two weeks
42 Murine retroviral infection All mice harbor both endogenous murine leukemia virus and endogenous murine mammary tumor virus
51 Russian hamster!. Campbell dwarf, brownish white in color belly, dorsal stripe
52 Siberian or roborovski Grey in color white in winter
53 Chinese (Cricetulus griceus) Mouse like hamster smaller, 30gr
54 Uses They are popular as pets Research animal, because they have small size, ease of taming, low care requirments and few diseasesSyrian hamster is used in infectious diseases, cancer, immunology, hypothermia, dental caries, reproductive , physiology,cardiomyopathyChinese is used in diabetes, and cytogenetic studiesBoth are used in rodiobiology
55 Behavior Solitary animals Group housing is stressful Aggressive especially to unfamiliar of either sexThe females are more aggressiveThey make tunnelThey are sound sleeperThey walk long distanceHibernate 2 to 3 days
56 Anatomic and physiologic features Short legs, bright beady black eyesLarge amount of skinCheek pouchesDental formula 2( 1/1 incisors, 0/0 canine, 0/0 premolars, 3/3 molars)The stomach has 2 partslong duedenum and jejunumBrown adipose tissueTwo gland in the flanksDifferention of sexesFemale has 5 to 6 pairs of mammary glands
57 Biological data Male 85-120gr Female 95-150gr Life span 18-24 month Body temprature cHeart ratRespiratory rateFood consumption gr/100/dWater consumption mlBreeding onsetMale wkFemale wkEstrus cycle length dGestation period dLitter sizeWeaning age dBreeding duration monthsChromosomes
58 Breeding and reproduction Bred for the first time 6 and 8 weeks when they are 80 t0 100 g.Polyestrus except for winterOvulation is spontaneous after 8 hoursThere is dischargeThe female usually attack the new maleSigns of pregnancyGestation is very shortLitter size 5 to nineThe ears open 4 to 5 days, eyes 14 to 16 days , eat food 7 to 10 daysCannibalism of young is common
59 Husbandary Housing, 123 cm2 and the cage hight 15cm Caging material should be carefully sellectedTemperature cHumidity 30-70%10 to 15 air change per hourFastidious
60 Feeding and wATERING 16 % PROTEIN 4-5% FAT 6 to 10 g /100 and 9 to 10 ml of waterSlot width 11mmThey are coprophage
61 Adult blood volumes Total blood 6.8 to 12 Single sample 0.5-1.2 Exanguination
63 Drug administration Small scales are useful 5 ml of sugar or syrup can be addedSubcutaneous 3-4mlIntraperitoneal 3-4 mlIm 0.1 mlInteravenou is made to cephalic vein, jugular vein,
64 husbandary Prefers solid bottom- bottom cages Floor area of 123 cm with hight of 15cmCaging material should be carefully selectedTemperature cHumidity 30 to 70%14 hours light10 to 15 changes per hourFeed should contain 16% protein 4 to 5% fatThey are coprophagic
65 Breeding and reproduction First time 6 and 8 weeks of age( ) grFemale is contineously polystrusCycling every 4 daysWhite discharge 2nd dayThe female can be successfully matedOn the 3rd daysEars open 4-5daysEyes 14 to 15Eat food 7-10Fertile 2-18d after weaningcannibalism
74 Proliferative ileitis, or wet tail Most common spontaneous disease of hamster caused by Desulfovibrio sp.Confined to young of 3 to 8 weeksMortality is often high and is caused by stressUnkempt hair coat, anorexia,moistened perineal area.Necropsy, gas and yellow diarrhea, ileum thickened and edematous
76 RabiesRabies is a virus that can cause a wide variety of symptoms in hamsters. Once bitten by a rabid animal, hamsters will develop a nasty and irritable temperament within days and usually die with in a week of the first signs. As the virus progresses, the hamster will eventually experience paralysis of their lungs and throat causing the animal to suffocate and die.Rabies is a virus that can be prevented through vaccination every three years. As rabies is common in both domestic and wild animals, most states in the US require pets to have rabies shots.
77 TapewormsHamsters can become infected with tapeworms if they inadvertently eat contaminated food that contains tapeworm eggs. The tapeworm lives in the hamster’s intestines and competes with the hamster for nutrients and water. Generally hamsters will experience weight loss when carrying a tape worm.
78 PinwormPinworms are a much less common parasite that resides in the large intestine of the hamster. Hamsters typically do not experience adverse side effects from carrying the parasite, although in some cases the parasite can cause extreme itching around the anus
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