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A male mouse is called a buck. A female mouse is called a doe. A baby mouse is called a pinky, or a kitten. Mice are fond of hard bread. Mice are.

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Presentation on theme: "A male mouse is called a buck. A female mouse is called a doe. A baby mouse is called a pinky, or a kitten. Mice are fond of hard bread. Mice are."— Presentation transcript:




4 A male mouse is called a buck. A female mouse is called a doe. A baby mouse is called a pinky, or a kitten. Mice are fond of hard bread. Mice are constant eaters - and will eat almost anything. Mice are prolific breeders, producing six to ten litters continuously throughout the year Mice will nurse babies that are not their own. Baby mice curl up when they are being carried. You can keep mice on a table without a cage because mice are afraid to jump off high vertical drops.

5 To this day some people believe that fried mice or mouse pie is a cure for bed wetting. The greatest loss from mice is not due to how much they eat, but what must be thrown out because of damage or contamination. Each year, rodents cause more than one billion dollars in damage in the US alone. Mice have tails that are as long as their bodies. You should never pick a mouse up by its tail.The tip of the tail may come off. Mouse tails have scales that help with climbing. Some mice don't have any hair at all. Mice have been domesticated for hundreds of years. The National Mouse Club of Britain was formed in Mice are able to see some colors; however, they do lack the pigment that allows them to see red. They see shades of black and white and may be able to distinguish blues. Though generally classified as herbivores and eat a regular diet of grains and fruit, mice will eat almost anything they encounter

6 Rat and mouse bones have been found in caves where cavemen lived. Mice can make their own vitamin C. People worshipped mice in temples. (You can see this in India) The Hindu god Ganesha rides a mouse

7 A mouse can jump down 12 feet without injury. Mice are nocturnal creatures. The name mouse comes from "mus", a Sanskrit word that means thief. Mouse urine has a fluorescent glow. Mice see best in dim light. Mice travel the same path time and time again, leaving a smudge mark - a buildup of dirt and oil from their fur - along walls, pipes and holes. Mice can chew through anything that is softer than their teeth. Mice can transmit salmonellosis (bacterial food poisoning) when food is contaminated with infected mouse feces


9 Mice Mouse pleural (mice) is a rodent The best known species is the house mouse (mus musculus) Live up 2 years In wild life 5 months due to heavy predation by dogs, cats, birds,snakes, Breathing dust from feces dangerous The original motivation for cat to be domesticated is mice


11 Genetics Outbred stocks Inbred stocks Athymic nude mice and (SCID) mice F1 hybrid Transgenic mice




15 Ecology Germ free or axenic Specific germ free Gnotobiotics conventional

16 Uses Make good pet Proficient breeder Musty odor More mice used in research Genetics.virology.ter atogenecity.

17 Behavior They are social animals Curioius but not aggressive Female mice rarely fight Dominant hierarchy They are nocturnal and diurnal

18 Anatomic and physiologic features Dental formula 2(1/1 incisors, 0/0 canine, 0/0 premolar. 3/3 molar) The incisors are open rooted Divided stomach The lung has one large left lobe and four small large lobe. Brown fat is present Mice have 5 pairs of mammary gland

19 Biologic and reproductive data Adult body weight Male 20-40gr Female 25-40gr Body temperature c Life span y Respiratory rate Heart beat Estrus cycle 4-5 d Breeding onset 50d Gestation period 21d Postpartum estrus fertile Litter size 6-12 Weaning age Breeding duration 7-9 mo Chromosome 40

20 Breeding and reproduction Polygamous and monogamous Bred 7 to 8 weeks Phremones is important Whitens Bruce affect Mating can be confirmed by plug Gestation period days In lactating mice is prolonged by days Altricial Called pinkies By day 10 their body has hair ears open and the eyes open by 12 They eat solid food at 14

21 Husbandary Housing in a shoe box cages made of plastic or polycarbonate.minimal space required 97cm2 Pine or cedar chips should not be used Temprature 18-26c Humidity 30%-70% change air in hour hours light The frequency of cage cleaning

22 Feeding and watering Mice usually consume 3-5g of solid food 16%protein, 4% fat Adult mice drink 6-7 ml of water Mice are coprophage

23 Identification Ear punching, ear tagging, microchip, dyes

24 Handling and restraint To transfer mouse from cage to cage hold the animal from base of the tail

25 restraint Restraint of the mouse using one grip handfor intraperitoneal injection

26 Blood collection Retroorbital sinus Lateral veins on the tail Cardiac puncture

27 Hematology Total blood ml Single sample ml Exanguination 1-1.5ml

28 Drug administration Medication is frequently administered orally Small gauge needle 23 and 25 is used Subcutaneously 2-3ml Im 0.2ml Intraperitoneal 2-3 ml

29 Anesthesia Dilution of all injectable anesthesia is recommended The combination of ketamine and xylazine Isoflurane, halothane, methoxyflorane

30 Bacterial disease Pneumonia and respiratory disease Mycoplasma pulmonis,Klebsiela pneumoniae, corynebacterium kutscheri, Clinical signs, labored respiration, weght loss, conjunctivitis Ampicilline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicole,sulfamerazine

31 Helicobacter infection Mice rat guinea pig rabbit ferret dog Causes chronic active hepatitis A/jcr are susceptible to tumor H.hepaticus cause inflammatory bowl disease H.bilis, h.muridarum, h.rappini Gross lesion foci of necrosis in liver, Treatment amoxicillin, tetracycline

32 Tyzzers disease Mice, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbits, dog, cat. Caused by Clostridium piliforme Immunosuppressive animals or newly weaned Clinical signs include diarrhea, dehydration and anorexia

33 Colonic hyperplasia disease Citrobacter freundii biotype 4280 Entrocolith, diarrhea, Thichening of the colon Mucosal hyperplasia Treatment neomycin Tetracyclin sulfamethazine

34 Coryneform hyperkeratosis Corynebacterium psuedodipheriticum Hyperkeratosis in nude mice and high mortality in suckling Dry white flaky skin, priritis Affected animals should be euthenized

35 Staphylococcus aureus Abscess Conjunctivitis Superficial pyoderma Furunculosis is a problem in nude mice

36 Streptococcus spp Drmatitis, cervical lymphadenitis, bacteremia

37 Pseudomonas aeroginosa Water born infection Mice that immunologically weak Listlessness, anorexia and death

38 Viral diseases Sendai virus Mouse hepatitis virus Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice Murine retroviral infection lymphocytic choriomeningitis Ectromelia

39 Sendai virus Is a parainfluenza I virus Fatal in weanling cerbation of pnumono Supress the normal antibacterial of lung Exacerbation of pnumonia Hunchrd poture, ruffled feather, dyspnea, and teeth chattering

40 Mouse hepatitis virus It has two forms of enteric and respiratory pattern Clinical sign in suckling, diarrhea,encephalitis, tremor,empty stomach

41 Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice Less than two weeks

42 Murine retroviral infection All mice harbor both endogenous murine leukemia virus and endogenous murine mammary tumor virus

43 Parasitic diseases Mites Myobia musculi Rodfordes affini Mycoptes musculinus Psoregatus simplex

44 Pinworm Syphacia obvelata, Aspicularis tetraptera cause anal pruritis and diarrhea,rectal prolapse

45 Tapworm Hymenolepsis nana Hymenolepsis diminuta

46 Flagellates Spirunucleus muris Giardia muris

47 Miscellaneous conditions Bite wound Dehydration Hair loss malocculation

48 Hamster Family Cricetidiae.ther are over 50 species, subspecies and varieties. They are found in any significant number It weighs 120 grams

49 Syrian or golden (Mesocricetus auratus)


51 Russian hamster !. Campbell dwarf, brownish white in color belly, dorsal stripe

52 Siberian or roborovski Grey in color white in winter

53 Chinese (Cricetulus griceus) Mouse like hamster smaller, 30gr

54 Uses They are popular as pets Research animal, because they have small size, ease of taming, low care requirments and few diseases Syrian hamster is used in infectious diseases, cancer, immunology, hypothermia, dental caries, reproductive, physiology,cardiomyopathy Chinese is used in diabetes, and cytogenetic studies Both are used in rodiobiology

55 Behavior Solitary animals Group housing is stressful Aggressive especially to unfamiliar of either sex The females are more aggressive They make tunnel They are sound sleeper They walk long distance Hibernate 2 to 3 days

56 Anatomic and physiologic features Short legs, bright beady black eyes Large amount of skin Cheek pouches Dental formula 2( 1/1 incisors, 0/0 canine, 0/0 premolars, 3/3 molars) The stomach has 2 parts long duedenum and jejunum Brown adipose tissue Two gland in the flanks Differention of sexes Female has 5 to 6 pairs of mammary glands

57 Biological data Male gr Female gr Life span month Body temprature c Heart rat Respiratory rate Food consumption 8-12gr/100/d Water consumption 8-10ml Breeding onset Male 10-14wk Female 6-10wk Estrus cycle length 4d Gestation period 15d Litter size 5-9 Weaning age 21d Breeding duration 10-14months Chromosomes 44

58 Breeding and reproduction Bred for the first time 6 and 8 weeks when they are 80 t0 100 g. Polyestrus except for winter Ovulation is spontaneous after 8 hours There is discharge The female usually attack the new male Signs of pregnancy Gestation is very short Litter size 5 to nine The ears open 4 to 5 days, eyes 14 to 16 days, eat food 7 to 10 days Cannibalism of young is common

59 Husbandary Housing, 123 cm2 and the cage hight 15cm Caging material should be carefully sellected Temperature c Humidity 30-70% 10 to 15 air change per hour Fastidious

60 Feeding and wATERING 16 % PROTEIN 4-5% FAT 6 to 10 g /100 and 9 to 10 ml of water Slot width 11mm They are coprophage

61 Adult blood volumes Total blood 6.8 to 12 Single sample Exanguination 3-5

62 Blood collection Retroorbital bleeding Limbed vein or clipped toenail Cardiac puncture

63 Drug administration Small scales are useful 5 ml of sugar or syrup can be added Subcutaneous 3-4ml Intraperitoneal 3-4 ml Im 0.1 ml Interavenou is made to cephalic vein, jugular vein,

64 husbandary Prefers solid bottom- bottom cages Floor area of 123 cm with hight of 15cm Caging material should be carefully selected Temperature c Humidity 30 to 70% 14 hours light 10 to 15 changes per hour Feed should contain 16% protein 4 to 5% fat They are coprophagic

65 Breeding and reproduction First time 6 and 8 weeks of age( ) gr Female is contineously polystrus Cycling every 4 days White discharge 2 nd day The female can be successfully mated On the 3 rd days Ears open 4-5days Eyes 14 to 15 Eat food 7-10 Fertile 2-18d after weaning cannibalism

66 Baybys 4 weeks

67 Baybys 6 weeks

68 Baybys 12 days eyes are not open

69 Babys 17 eyes are open

70 10 days eyes not open

71 Young

72 young

73 Antibiotic Associated Entrocolitis Lincomycin, clindamycin,ampicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, cephalosprins, gentamycin, Clost.difficile Cecal mucosa edematous and hemorrhagic Diarrhea, dehydration, anorexia, ruffled fur

74 Proliferative ileitis, or wet tail Most common spontaneous disease of hamster caused by Desulfovibrio sp. Confined to young of 3 to 8 weeks Mortality is often high and is caused by stress Unkempt hair coat, anorexia,moistened perineal area. Necropsy, gas and yellow diarrhea, ileum thickened and edematous

75 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

76 Rabies Rabies is a virus that can cause a wide variety of symptoms in hamsters. Once bitten by a rabid animal, hamsters will develop a nasty and irritable temperament within days and usually die with in a week of the first signs. As the virus progresses, the hamster will eventually experience paralysis of their lungs and throat causing the animal to suffocate and die. Rabies is a virus that can be prevented through vaccination every three years. As rabies is common in both domestic and wild animals, most states in the US require pets to have rabies shots.

77 Tapeworms Hamsters can become infected with tapeworms if they inadvertently eat contaminated food that contains tapeworm eggs. The tapeworm lives in the hamsters intestines and competes with the hamster for nutrients and water. Generally hamsters will experience weight loss when carrying a tape worm.

78 Pinworm Pinworms are a much less common parasite that resides in the large intestine of the hamster. Hamsters typically do not experience adverse side effects from carrying the parasite, although in some cases the parasite can cause extreme itching around the anus

79 Demodex Demodex criceti Demodex aurati

80 Hamster care Abscess Allergy Bladder, kidney infection Broken limb Constipation Dehydration Eye problem Fur loss Heat stroke Hibernation Impacted cheeks Overgrown nails Old age Rectal prolaps infection shock

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