2Found outside the nucleus Chemistry of AtomsAtom: smallest unit of matterThree components of an atom are…Electrons -1Protons +1Neutrons 0Found outside the nucleusFound in the nucleusFound in the nucleus
4Count the electrons! # of electrons in the outer shell are clues! Greater than 4 in the outer shell will take from other atomsLess than 4 in the outer shell will give to other atomsProvides hints on how and what types of bonds form
5Elements Essential to Life About 25 elements are essential to living organismsCHNOPS: Make up 97% of living matter
6Natural Elements in the Human Body ATOMIC #% in HUMANSOxygen (O)865.0Carbon (C)618.5Hydrogen (H)19.5Nitrogen (N)73.3Calcium (Ca)201.5Phosphorus (P)151.0Potassium (K)190.4Sulfur (S)160.3Sodium (Na)110.2Magnesium (Mg)12Chlorine (Cl)170.1
7Chemical BondsChemical Bonds are the attractive force that hold atoms together in a moleculeBonds form when electrons are shared OR transferred between atomsCovalent bonds – sharing electrons (“co-” means to share as in cooperate)Ionic Bonds – give and take electronsHydrogen Bonds – weak attractions between moleculesStronger atoms try to “steal” the H’s electron, but it keeps a tiny hold on it.
8Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Electrons are shared equally
9Polar Covalent BondsShare electrons as in other covalent bonds, but the nucleus of one atom attracts the electrons more strongly so it is not equal.
10Ionic BondingOne atom gets extra electron(s) (becomes a negative ion) and one gives extra electron(s) (becomes a positive ion) the two ions attract each other.
11CARBON Carbon is easy to synthesize (break down and be used). Why is carbon so important in biological molecules?Carbon is easy to synthesize (break down and be used).Molecules with carbon are called ORGANICMolecules without carbon are called INORGANIC
22TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharide – simple sugars made of one sugar molecule. (ex. Glucose)
23TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES Disaccharides – (ex. Sucrose)2 monosaccharides linked together
24TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES Polysaccharides – ex. Starch, Cellulose)More than two sugars linked together.
25Did you notice how the sugars all sound the same? They all end in “-ose” (-ose = sugar)Ex. Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, Lactose
26TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES Simple Carbs ~ mono and disaccahridesComplex carbs ~ starches, polysaccharides
27LIPIDS Made up of two parts: A head (it is hydrophillic) A tail made of a hydrocarbon chain (it is hydrophobic).This lets the lipids form bilayers creating waterproof barriers like in a cell’s membrane.
28LIPIDSFatty acids, waxes, fats, steroids and oils are formed by lipids (all are insoluble in water)
29ProteinsMolecules made up of one or more chains of amino acids. They are used for many functions…
30Structure – they make collagen in skin and keratin in hair/nails/horn Proteins are used for…Structure – they make collagen in skin and keratin in hair/nails/horn
31Proteins are used for…Movement ~ actin and myosin in muscle stimulate the muscle to move
32Defense ~ antibodies in bloodstream Proteins are used for…Defense ~ antibodies in bloodstream
33Storage ~ corn seeds are predominately made of protein Proteins are used for…Storage ~ corn seeds are predominately made of protein
34Signals ~ growth hormones in your blood stream Proteins are used for…Signals ~ growth hormones in your blood stream
35Proteins are used for…Nucleic Acids (used in DNA or RNA) – long chains of pieces called nucleotides. A nucleotide has 3 parts…1. five carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)2. phosphate group3. Nitrogen base (A,T,C or G)
36Proteins are used for…Catalysis ~ enzymes which speed up processes in the body
37So what is an Enzyme?An enzyme is used to speed things up or help break things down in your body.
38Words You Should Know Enzyme (E): protein catalyst Catalysts: speed up reactions without being changed by the reactionSubstrate (S): reactant(s) in the enzyme-catalyzed reactionActive site: area of enzyme where substrate(s) bind(s)
39Enzymes Enzymes are proteins with a SPECIFIC SHAPE The active site is a part of the protein which recognizes and binds to the substrateCofactors (e.g. Zn 2+, Cu 2+, B vitamins) some enzymes won’t hook-up to a substrates without these
40Specificity‘Lock and Key Model’ – says there is a perfect fit between active site and substrateModified to ‘Induced Fit Model’ - active site can expand or contract to “fit” the substrate shapeThe induced fit model allows for small differences (possibility of letting several different kinds of substrates hook up)
41How do enzymes speed up reactions? Enzymes lower the activation energy (EA=amount of energy that reactant molecules require to start a reaction)
42EnzymesAre involved in every biochemical reaction and thereby control metabolismAre named according to the reaction that they facilitate Examples: Sucrase breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructoseDNA Polymerase helps build DNA polymers
43Did you notice that enzyme all sound the same? All enzymes end in “-ase”DNA PolymeraseSucrase
44Factors affecting enzyme activity 1. TEMPERATURE2. Concentration of Enzyme3. Concentration of Substrate4. pH5. Inhibitors
45Types of InhibitionCompetitive inhibition - molecules bind to the active site and prevent the substrate from bindingNon-competitive inhibition - molecules that bind to a site other than the active site but change the shape of the active site so that it cannot bind the substrate
46Enzymes in Biotechnology How does pectinase work?
47Pectin is the cement that holds plant cells together Pectin is the cement that holds plant cells together. Pectinase helps farmers break down the plant cells faster. For example it might help a farmer release the juice from apples faster to make lots of Apple Juice.
48Other enzymes in biotechnology… Biological washing powderMeat tenderizerProduction of glucose syrup