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The proto planetary disc, from which the earth is made, was composed of HHydrogen HeHelium NNitrogen OOxygen and other elements & simple molecules. THE.

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Presentation on theme: "The proto planetary disc, from which the earth is made, was composed of HHydrogen HeHelium NNitrogen OOxygen and other elements & simple molecules. THE."— Presentation transcript:

1 The proto planetary disc, from which the earth is made, was composed of HHydrogen HeHelium NNitrogen OOxygen and other elements & simple molecules. THE ATMOSPHERE IS IN CONSTANT TRANSITION THE ATMOSPHERE 1

2 As the gases collected around orbiting bodies, they formed new gas compounds, H2Diatomic Hydrogen O2Diatomic Oxygen CH4Methane NH3Ammonia COCarbon monoxide CO2Carbon dioxide H2OWater Greenhouse Gases THE ATMOSPHERE2 From these gases came more complex organic compounds, including, carbon rings, helixes and amino acids.

3 OUTER PLANETS Further from Sun Out Gasing H2 Escapes due to heat & gravity of sun, leaving an H2 depleted atmospere… Out GasingH2 remains from low temp & local gravity. It reacts with out gases, forming an H2 rich atmosphere INNER PLANETS Closer to the Sun Planet Formation Sun The planetary disc dissipates under the influence of gravity and heat, condensing into the sun, or around gas giants, exiting the inner planets. THE ATMOSPHERE 3

4 Mantle Ocean Volcanic Rupture Subduction Zone THE OUT GASING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Out gasing from the interior of the geosphere blends in with the primordial, planetary disc gases, to form the first atmosphere. As rock-metals are heated and pressurized from the compressing planet, they change in composition, releasing gases. The gases are expelled through volcanic ruptures and geologic rifts. The force of gravity on Earth is such that it can hold the most gases in a gaseous state, w/in the normal range of earth temperatures. Gases released into The atmosphere OUT GASING

5 Each of the gases of the Atmosphere plays a role in converting the sun’s Energy into usable energy A. Oxygen is highly combustible and chemically reactive. B.Nitrogen is much less so. The ratio of about 4:1 prevents Oxygen from being too reactive C.As Hydrogen reduced, free Oxygen and Ozone (O3) could form, screening out ultra violet light. D.Carbon Dioxide (CO2) absorbs infrared light holding heat E.Water Vapor gasifies and condenses holding and moderating weather by fluxing between liquid & gaseous states in the presence of heat F.Clouds (water & particulates) provide solar reflectivity (Albedo) Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Other 1.0% “Other Gases”includes Argon, CO(n), SO(n), NO(n), CH(n), Water Vapor Particulates & Others Gaseous elements & compounds Solar Energy Average Temp = 65 f THE GAS MOSIAC

6 The atmosphere is comprised of 6.0 quadrillion (6.0E+15) tons, or about 30 million tons / mi^2 of gases that surround the geosphere. A.The principle gases that make up The atmosphere include Nitrogenc78% Oxygenc21% Argonc <1% B.In addition there are other important gases of lesser quantities including Carbon Dioxide (CO2)c % Water Vapor (H2O)< 1% C.The atmosphere acts as a fluid medium within which energy and chemicals can be transferred that sustain life >> for example, Oxygen is taken from the atmosphere and combined with sugars for respiration, the key energy release process for living things— the by-product of Carbon Dioxide is used in Photosynthesis “Other Gases”includes Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor Nitrogen Compounds Sulfur Compounds Particulates & Others Gases Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Other 1.0% ATMOSPHERES COMPOSTION

7 The Atmosphere acts as a shield around the earth allowing only a narrow range of energy to reach the surface. A.Ultra Violet light and other high energy waves are reduced by reflection and dissipation B.This stabilizes energy input from the sun so that the chemical processes of life can operate C.It also screens the earth from space debris which would also disrupt the biosphere D.In addition, the atmosphere acts to moderate the fluctuating light waves of the sun into a stable temperature. E.The consequences of the dissipation, absorption and reflection of the sun’s rays is that gases in the Atmosphere undergo chemical changes, resulting in Atmospheric Chemical Cycles (including Ozone, Greenhouse, and Acid… Reflected Heat Dissipated Absorbed ALBEDO Sunlight Atmosphere & Cloud Cover ALBEDO PROCESS

8 Reflected by clouds Heat Energy Radiated back Captured by Greenhouse Effect Absorbed Sunlight Energy Atmosphere & Cloud Cover IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE UV waves Captured by Ozone Oxygen prefers partnering as a diatomic (2) oxygen molecule. As O2 is struck with UVc light from the Sun, the O2 breaks apart into free Oxygen. The fee Oxygen combines with O2 and forms an unstable O3. When Ozone (O3) is struck with UVb, it breaks the O3 into an O2 molecule and free Oxygen atom. OZONE

9 Solar Energy Oxygen 21% Nitrogen 78% Other 1.0% Average Temp = 65 f A.Atmospheric Heat can be Expressed as an Equation which reads Solar Energy + 78% N2 + 21% O2 + 1% Other Gases = Atmosphere Content + Temperature B.The presence of “Other Gases” controls the absorption rate of heat from the sun C.The light coming in is absorbed by the earth and radiated as heat. D.The radiated heat is absorbed by “Other Gases (Greenhouse Gases) ” and retained. E.This process is called the Greenhouse Effect “Other Gases”includes Argon, CO(n), SO(n), NO(n), CH(n), Water Vapor Particulates & Others Gaseous elements & compounds GREENHOUSE EFFECT

10 Tropical Sub-Tropical Mid-Latitude The energy from the sun over time establishes a pattern of weather referred to as climate. There are several factors that govern climate including A.The more curved the earth based on latitude, the more light is deflected, the less heat is available B.The tilt of the earth on its axis moves the intensity of light at any location over the year causing seasons C.Surface color and texture vary in how much heat is retained D.Ocean currents move warm & cold water to varying locations E.Topography influences wind and water condensation patterns Arctic Sub-Arctic 23 degree tilt on axis from orbital perpendicular CLIMATE

11 1.Light from the sun heats air causing it to expand 2.When light is less, the air cools & condenses resulting in large air masses of cooler hi pressure, dense air, and warm low pressure air. 3.When warmer low pressure air meets with cool, hi pressure air, the differential pressures generate localized winds 5.The more dramatic the pressure/temp differentials, the greater the air instability, and the more the weather volatility. 4.Water from warm Air mass condenses In the cool air mass around dust particles, forming clouds & causing precipitation High Pressure High Pressure Low Pressure Low Pressure wind WHEATHER

12 Oxygen prefers partnering as a diatomic (2) oxygen molecule. As O2 is struck with UVc light from the Sun, the O2 breaks apart into free Oxygen. The fee Oxygen combines with O2 and forms an unstable O3. When Ozone (O3) is struck with UVb, it breaks the O3 into an O2 molecule and free Oxygen atom. UVc UVb ++ O2 + UVc = O + O 2 O + 2 O2 = 2 O3 2 O3 + UVb = 2 O2 + 2 O OZONE PROCESS

13 UVc + + O2 + UVc = O + O UVb Oxygen prefers partnering as a diatomic (2) oxygen molecule. As O2 is struck with UVc light from the Sun, the O2 breaks apart into free Oxygen. The fee Oxygen combines with a CFC and forms an unstable CFC Oxide. When UVb strikes the CFC Oxide, it does nothing. The UVb simply passes on to the earth’s surface. CFC INTERFERENCE 2 O + CFC = CFC O2 (CFC Oxide) CFCO2 + UVb = null (CFC Oxide) with Ozone Process

14 c 78% N2 c 21% O2 c 1% Greenhouse = c 65 degrees F CO2 NO(n) CH3 H2O Normal Blend of Atmosphere c 75% N2 c 20% O2 c 5% Greenhouse = c 69 degrees F Elevated Greenhouse Blend in Atmosphere Reflected Heat radiated ALBEDO Sunlight Blocked by Ozone Radiated Heat is absorbed by Greenhouse Gases Sunlight reaching the atmosphere is either reflected or absorbed. Reflected light returns to space. Absorbed light is converted to heat. Heat radiating from the Earth is absorbed by the Greenhouse Gases in the Greenhouse effect. The greater the Greenhouse Gas concentration, The more heat that is absorbed and retained. GREENHOUSE WARMING

15 Sources of Greenhouse Gas include: Biotic Respiration CO2 given off while breathing NO(n) expiration from the soil CH3 from large animals Volcanoes Mt St Helen’s erupts with the force of a 20 kiloton hydrogen bomb, spewing clouds of “Other Gases” into the atmosphere Burning Forest & grass fires Anthropogenic Sources Industrial Pollution Energy Generation Automobile Emissions Agricultural Fertilizers & Livestock GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES P O L U T I O N O V E R C H I N A

16 As the Atmosphere is heated it will now become more chemically reactive A.Water will combine with Nitrogen to form Nitrous Oxides B.Water will combine with Sulfur to form Sulfur Oxides C.When combined with water these become acidic D.Carbon Dioxide will combine with water form Carbolic Acid Precipitation formed in the polluted atmosphere contains Water H2O Nitric Acid H2NO3 Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Carbonic Acid H2CO3 Many of these are corrosive acids ACID RAIN H2O + NO2= H2NO3 H2O + SO2 + O= H2SO4 H2O + CO= H2CO3

17 H2NO3, H2SO4, H2CO3 1.Acid Rain will fall on the earth’s surface changing the acid ph of all ocean and fresh water below it. 2.Rocks exposed to Acid Rain will erode and dissolve faster. 3.Acid rain in soil increases soil acidity which impacts plant species. 4.A perpetual change in the Ph of water alters the DNA of affected species. 5.Altered DNA increases mutation rates, stressing reproductive balance. Acids (OH) are highly corrosive, even when diluted. Deciduous Coniferous with no grases with grasses IMPACT OF ACID RAIN DNAn + X(OH) = DNAm

18 Sources of Acidic Additives to the Atmosphere include: Biotic Respiration CO2 given off while breathing NO(n) expiration from the soil Volcanoes Mt St Helen’s erupts with the force of a 20 kiloton hydrogen bomb, spewing clouds of “Other Gases” into the atmosphere Anthropogenic Sources (burning fossil fuels) Industrial Pollution Energy Generation Automobile Emissions Agricultural Fertilizers SOURCES OF ACID POLLUTION Pollution over India Bangladesh

19 The atmosphere shapes the biosphere by A.Acting as a reservoir for gases that are needed to continue life activities B.Maintain weather and climatic conditions within which the biosphere can continue C.Screening out harmful rays and stabilizing the energy fluctuations of the sun’s energy output The atmosphere shapes the hydrosphere by A.Regulating ocean temperatures B.Releasing and absorbing different gases C.Acting as medium for water vapor in the the hydrologic cycle The atmosphere shapes the geosphere through A.Acting as a reservoir for different gases B.Facilitating the Rock & Soil Cycles through temperature variation C.Contributing to erosion of the topography through weathering Biosphere Lithosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere SUMMARY


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