Presentation on theme: "ANSWERS TO STOP & THINK AND REFLECT & CONNECT"— Presentation transcript:
1 ANSWERS TO STOP & THINK AND REFLECT & CONNECT Chapter 10 starsANSWERS TO STOP & THINK AND REFLECT & CONNECT
2 Reflect and Connect: Star pictures Page 462 Look at the stars on the handout titled “Star Pictures”What images or pictures can you envision in these stars? Imagine a picture in the stars that is your own original constellation outline the picture on your handoutSelect a name for your constellation. In your science notebook, write why you chose that name and briefly describe your constellation.On a clear night, what constellations are you able to see from your location? With the help of figures 10.3 and 10.4, identify at least 3 constellations in your notebook.What do you know about individual stars? List in your notebook three things you know about stars and three things you would like to learn about stars.Share your thoughts with your partner and listen as our partner reads his or her listAdd to your list anything you learned from your partnerThe position of constellations change in the sky during the night and from season to season. Yet the relative position of the stars remain the same. What does that say about the motion of the Earth? Compose your answer either in words or in sketches of the position of the Earth, the Sun, and stars at different times of the year.
3 Reflect and Connect: Star pictures Answers Page 462 The changes observed is the result of the rotation of the Earth. Just as the Moon and the Sun seem to move across the sky, stars to the same, because the EARTH IS MOVING. Constellations seem to move because the Earth revolves around the Sun, and as such different groups of stars are brought into view as the seasons progress
4 Reflect and Connect: Stars at a glance Page 466 Why do you think your finger appears to shift in position when you look at it first with one eye and then the other?Compare the apparent shift of your finger at different distances. What did you notice about the shift when your finger was closer to and further away from your eye? To answer that question, complete the following sentence:As the distance from my eye to my finger increases……..How might a similar process be useful to astronomers?
5 Reflect and Connect: Stars at a glance Answers Page 466 Looking with one eye and then the other is actually looking at the same object from 2 different positions. If you look at your finger from a different positron, your finger will shift with respect to the background.As the distance from my eye to my finger increases, the apparent shift decreases. As the distance from my eye to my finger decreases, the apparent shift increases.If your fingers represent a star that is much closer than the background stars. The line on the paper represents the backgrounds stars. Then fi astronomers could view these stars from 2 different locations (as with different eyes) they can determine the distance to these stars. There is a relationship between the distance from a nearby star to background distant stars and the apparent shift in position when viewed from different locations.
6 Reflect and Connect: Stellar Parallax Page 468;470 View a simulation of stellar parallax as directed by your teacher. Make sure you click and drag the red star closer and farther from Earth. How is your model with your finger and line similar to this simulation of stellar parallax? To answer that, draw a T-table in your science notebook to organize your responses to Questions 1a-c. Label the top of the T-table with 2 headings “My Model” and “Stellar Parallax Simulation”.What does your finger represent?What does the line represent?What do your eyes represent?Alpha Centauri, a nearby star is 4.36 (ly) from Earth, and Proxima Centauri is 4.22 ly from Earth. When viewed from Earth in June and again in December, which star appears to shift the greatest distance compared to very distant stars in the background? Explain. IF you are not familiar with light years READ “Monster Units”Both Alpha Centauri and Proxima Centauri are in the constellation Centaurus, the Centaur. How would you respond to the student who said that all stars in a constellation are the same distance from Earth?
7 Reflect and Connect: Stellar Parallax Answers Page 468;470 T-TableProxima Centauri, is closer to Earth it would appear to shift the greatest distance when compared to the background stars. Similarly, Alpha Centauri, would shift less. This is because as a star’s distance from Earth increases, its parallax angle decreases, causing the shift in position to appear less.Stars in the same constellation are not all the same distance from Earth. Constellations are not actual features in space but only human made patterns from the stars we see at nightMy ModelStellar Parallax1. Index fingerNear StarLineDistant background starsEyesDifferent locations of Earth in the sky
8 Reflect and Connect: Springing into action Page 474 What variable changed the speed of the wave? Remember that there are variations in almost every test due to experimental error. You are looking for significant change in speed.You learned earlier that the speed of light through an empty space is about 3x108 m/s. The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 1.5x1011 m. If you were riding on a wave of light from the Sun to Earth, how long would it take you to get to Earth? Use the formula for speed to calculate that time needed to get to Earth. Convert your answers to minutes. Show all of your calculations and give your answer in the proper unit.Sound waves in air have a velocity of about 340 m/s. How does the speed of your wave compare with the speed of sound? To compare, use the ratio to determine how much faster sound travels than your wave travels.For example: if your wave has a speed of 3.4m/s, the ratio would be as followsAfter dividing, you could say that the speed of sound is 100 times faster than the speed of your wave. Now use this method with your data340m/s3.4m/s =100
9 Reflect and Connect: Springing into action Page 474 Continued How does the speed of sound compare with the speed of light? Using the same method explained in Question 3, determine how much faster light waves travel compared to sound waves. Be sure to show your work.What features of thunderstorms help confirm your calculations in Question 4?
10 Reflect and Connect: Springing into action Answers Page 474 The type of material through which the wave travels (medium) affects the speed of the wave.Calculations: time = distance/speedtime = 1.5 x 1011m3 x 108 m/s.Then convert to minutes500s x 1min = 8.3min60sFor example: if your wave has a speed of 10m/s, the ratio would be as followsSo you can say that the speed of sound is 34 times faster than the speed of the wave= 500 s340m/s10 m/s =34
11 Reflect and Connect: Springing into action answers Page 474 Continued Using the relationship3 x 108 m/s = 880,000340 m/sSo you can say that the speed of light is 880,000 times faster than the speed of sound.When you see lightning from a storm it takes several seconds before you hear the thunder.
12 Stop and think: Much ado about waves Page 480-481 Imagine that you are creating a wave on a spring by shaking your hand from side to side. Without changing the distance your hand moves, you being shaking your hand faster and faster. What happens to the amplitude, frequency, wavelength, and speed of your wave?Waves are sent along a spring of fixed length. Explain how (or if) you could change the variables listed in figure Cite evidence for your answers from the activity. Copy the chart in figure to organize your response.Does a wave transfer matter, energy, or both? What is your evidence?VariableHow to ChangeEvidence from activitySpeedFrequencyAmplitudeWavelength
13 Stop and think: Much ado about waves Page 480-481 Continued If you add more total energy to a wave (as you did in Step 7), what happens to theFrequency of the wave ?Wavelength of the wave?A wave moves 12m in 5 seconds. There are 6 complete waves produced in that distance and time. Using this information, complete the tasks and answer the following questionsSketch a picture of this wave and include all info given in the problem. Label you sketch with the values given to you. This will help you to visualize the wave and solve the following problem.Calculate the speed using the equation: speed = distance/timeThe info you need is given in the sentences above. Show all of your work and use the correct units in your answer.Now use your sketch and the info given to you to find the frequency and wavelength. Then use the equation for speed= λ x f to calculate speed another way. Again, show all your work and use proper units.How do your 2 answers for the speed of a wave compare?
14 Stop and think: Much ado about waves Answers Page 480-481 Since distance hand moves doesn’t change; amplitude doesn’t change. Frequency and wavelength will change. Since you don’t change springs the speed stays the same.T-Table.Remember the tape? This represents that matter was NOT transferred. Evidence supports that the tape returned to its original position while the ENERGY of the wave moved through the slinky.VariableHow to ChangeEvidence from activitySpeedYou cannot change the speed unless you change the mediumChanging the medium was the only way to change the speedFrequencyMove hand up and down faster/slowerWhen making waves as fast as you couldAmplitudeCan make amplitude bigger by moving hands at greater distances up and downWhen moving greater distance the amplitude increasedWavelengthMust move up/down quickly to decrease and slowly to increaseWhen you increased frequency the wavelength became shorter
15 Stop and think: Much ado about waves Answers Page 480-481 Continued If you add more total energy to a wave (as you did in Step 7), what happens to theThe frequency gets higher or increasesWavelength gets shorter or decreasesA wave moves 12m in 5 seconds. There are 6 complete waves produced in that distance and time. Using this information, complete the tasks and answer the following questionsCalculate the speed using the equation: speed = distance/time12m/ 5s = 2.4m/s.speed= λ x f to calculate speed another way.F= number of waves/second. 6 waves pass in 5 seconds. So the f = 1.2 HzNow:6 waves in 12 min; each wavelength must have a wavelength of 2m.Speed = wavelength x frequencySpeed = 2m x 1.2Hz = 2.4 m/sThey are the same
16 Which has the highest frequency? Which has the longest wavelength? Reflect and connect: Part II Starlight- Cell Phone calls from outer space Page 487What is the order of the 7 colors in the visible spectrum? Name them in order from longest wavelength to shortest wavelength.Using the EM spectrum (fig 10.21), consider X-rays and radio waves to answer the following questions:Which has the highest frequency?Which has the longest wavelength?Which has the greatest energy?Make a T-table with 2 columns, labeling the headings “Red Light” and “Blue Light”. In your table, indicate the differences, if any in the following:WavelengthFrequencyEnergySpeed
17 Reflect and connect: Part II Starlight- Cell Phone calls from outer space Page 487 Do cell phones use only EM waves in their operation? Think of the different steps in a cell phone conversation and think about the paths of all waves. Indicate in you answer all the steps you can think of and all the different types of waves involved.These activities were about waves and the fact that waves have similar properties whether they are sound waves, waves on a Slinky, or light waves. In a Reflect and Connect question in the Springing into Action! Activity, you imagined riding on a light wave from the Sun to Earth and calculated that your journey would take just over 8 minutes. Would it make any difference in time if you were riding a blue light wave versus a red light wave? Give evidence to support your answer.
18 ROYGBIV in order from longest to shortest wavelength Reflect and connect: Part II Starlight- Cell Phone calls from outer space (Answers) Page 487ROYGBIV in order from longest to shortest wavelengthSignificant: colors of the rainbow. The colors correspond to increasing frequencies and decreasing wavelengths of light from red-violet.Using the EM spectrum (fig 10.21), consider X-rays and radio waves to answer the following questions:X-Rays have the highest frequencyRadio waves have much longer wavelengths than X-RaysX-rays have greater energy than radio wavesMake a T-table with 2 columns, labeling the headings “Red Light” and “Blue Light”. In your table, indicate the differences, if any in the following:Red LightBlue LightLonger WavelengthShorter WavelengthLower FrequencyHigher FrequencyLower EnergyHigher EnergyEqual speed 3 x 108 m/s
19 More involved than just EM waves zipping back and forth at 840MHz. Reflect and connect: Part II Starlight- Cell Phone calls from outer space Page 487 ContinuedMore involved than just EM waves zipping back and forth at 840MHz.Why?Eardrum cannot detect EM at that frequencyMicrowaves enter the cell phones, phones decode that signal and then recode the signal that it can be resent as sound waves to your earSmall speaker sends the sound waves to your ear at the speed of sound.Brain processes sound waves and decides upon a responseSpeak w/ vocal chords vibrating at certain frequenciesSound waves trigger a receiver in the phone which then translates the signal to a code in EM wavesThey are sent from the cell phone at the speed of light to a cell tower w/in a grid where the waves are relayed to the original callerRemember: that the speed of the wave is constant unless the medium thru which it travels changes properties. It doesn’t matter if you ride a blue wave or a red wave. However, a blue light wave would have a higher frequency and a shorter wavelength so it would “feel” shorter
20 Stop and Think: Part I Watt’s UP? Page 489: 491 How is the wattage of the bulb related to the brightness?Could a lower wattage bulb ever appear brighter than a higher wattage bulb? Represent your answer with a labeled sketch.Some lamp manufacturers warn customers to use only low-wattage bulbs in their lamps. Why do you think this is?When you look at the bulb, energy enters your eyes. When you place your hand near the bulb, energy hits your hand. Do your eyes or your hand receive all of the energy produced by the bulb? Explain your reasoning?You saw in your teacher’s demo that the energy output of a light bulb is not always obvious when the light bulb is placed at different distances. You also felt the heat given off by the bulbs.Would you expect to feel more heat, or less heat, or the same amount of heat as you move your hand further from the bulb?What does this tell you about the amount of energy striking your hand as you move closer to the bulb and farther from the bulb?
21 Stop and Think: Part I Watt’s UP? Page 489: 491 (Answers) The higher the wattage of the light bulb, the brighter it appearsYes. Show that if the lower wattage bulb were closer to the observer it appears brighter than the higher watt bulbWarnings are on lamps because using a bulb with a higher wattage could melt the lampYour eyes and hands only receive part of the energy emitted from the bulb. If someone else was looking/feeling from the opposites side of the bulb they would feel another portion of the energy. If you move farther way you receive less energy.You saw in your teacher’s demo that the energy output of a light bulb is not always obvious when the light bulb is placed at different distances. You also felt the heat given off by the bulbs.Less heat if you move farther from the bulbEnergy striking your hand increases as you move closer to the bulb and decreases as you move farther from the bulb
22 Stop and Think: Part I Watt’s UP? Page 489: 491 A friend see’s a very bright star in the constellation Orion and tells you that it is very bright because it is much closer to Earth than the dimmer stars. Obviously, this friend is not in your science class! Could this statement be true? Or are there other factors to consider? Write a short paragraph explaining a better way to describe the apparent brightness of this star.Why do astronomers need to know the apparent brightness and luminosity of stars?You learned in an earlier activity about how scientists use stellar parallax to determine distances to stars. Does this method work for all stars? Explain.
23 Stop and Think: Part I Watt’s UP? Page 489: 491 (Answers) The higher the wattage of the light bulb, the brighter it appearsYes. Show that if the lower wattage bulb were closer to the observer it appears brighter than the higher watt bulbWarnings are on lamps because using a bulb with a higher wattage could melt the lampYour eyes and hands only receive part of the energy emitted from the bulb. If someone else was looking/feeling from the opposites side of the bulb they would feel another portion of the energy. If you move farther way you receive less energy.You saw in your teacher’s demo that the energy output of a light bulb is not always obvious when the light bulb is placed at different distances. You also felt the heat given off by the bulbs.Less heat if you move farther from the bulbEnergy striking your hand increases as you move closer to the bulb and decreases as you move farther from the bulb
24 Stop and Think: Part I Watt’s UP? Page 489: 491 continued This very bright star could be closer but is not necessarily. The star could be the same distance from Earth as a dim star but be more powerful-have more watts. The star could be more distant than dimmer stars if the dimmer stars were much less powerful than the brighter, more distant star.Astronomers use the relationship between apparent brightness and luminosity of stars to determine their distance from Earth.No, parallax only works for nearby stars-stars with a few hundred ly. To find the distances to stars beyond the capabilities of stellar parallax, astronomers turn to apparent brightness and luminosity.
25 Stop and Think: Part II Starburst Page 497: 501 Create the T-Table (DIDN’T DO)If the distance from the source of energy increases 4 times, what happens to the apparent brightness, provided the luminosity stays the sameWhat would happened to the flux or apparent brightness if the distance were cut in ½?In a previous analogy, apparent brightness and luminosity are compared to rain hitting a windshield and rain falling from the clouds. As with all analogies and models, there are strengths and weaknesses to the comparison. Make a T-table in your science notebook with the headings “Strengths” and “Weaknesses”. Think about how the analogy is a good comparison and list those as strengths. Also, consider how this analogy is not a good example and list those reasons as weaknesses.To find the distance to a star using the inverse square law, what 2 things do you need to know?How would scientists use the inverse square law to find the luminosity of a nearby star?If the distance to Star A is 10 times greater than the distance to Star B, and the 2 stars have the same luminosity, how would their apparent brightness compare?
26 Stop and Think: Part II Starburst Page 497: 501 T-TableThe flux decreases by a factor of 16.If the distance decreases by 1/2 , the flux increases by a factor of 4T-TableYou must know the apparent brightness (AB) and the luminosity (L)If star is nearby (use parallax). AB could be measured w/ a light meter and then luminosity can be calculated by:AB = L4 x π x d2The apparent brightness of Star B would be 100 times (102) brighter than Star AStrengthsWeaknessesRain hitting the windshield simulates flux, which is like brightnessThe rain from a cloud falls in one direction (down), a light travels in all directionsWe see the rain hitting our windshield & we see apparent brightnessRain is matter, light is energyRaindrops are particles, light acts like particlesThe amount of rain per square meter (flux) doesn’t change much, if any, with distanceClouds are point sources of light
27 Reflect and connect: Part III colorful characteristics Page 508 Describe what you can learn about stars by looking at their spectra. Give examples of what astronomers look for in spectra.The Sun is a yellow-white star. What range of surface temperatures would you expect from the Sun?Spectral analysis of a particular star reveals that its light has a peak in intensity at a wavelength of λ = 640nm. Draw a sketch graph of the spectrum from this star and describe its temperature and color.
28 Reflect and connect Page 508 In each activity in this chapter, you learned certain characteristic properties of stars and the info that scientists can lean from these properties. Make a chart in your notebook using the guide in fig Fill in the chart with the properties that were addressed in each activity and the significance of each property to astronomers you may look back in your book/notebook to compose your answers.ActivityProperty/propertiesSig. to AstronomersGlance & Stellar ParallaxSpringing into Action! Much Ado about WavesStarlight: Cell Phone Calls from Outer SpaceWatts Up?StarburstColorful Characteristics
29 Reflect and connect: Part III colorful characteristics Page 508 (answers) Describe what you can learn about stars by looking at their spectra. Give examples of what astronomers look for in spectra.The Sun is a yellow-white star. What range of surface temperatures would you expect from the Sun?Spectral analysis of a particular star reveals that its light has a peak in intensity at a wavelength of λ = 640nm. Draw a sketch graph of the spectrum from this star and describe its temperature and color.
30 Reflect and connect Page 508 (Answers) In each activity in this chapter, you learned certain characteristic properties of stars and the info that scientists can lean from these properties. Make a chart in your notebook using the guide in fig Fill in the chart with the properties that were addressed in each activity and the significance of each property to astronomers you may look back in your book/notebook to compose your answers.ActivityProperty/propertiesSig. to AstronomersGlance & Stellar ParallaxSpringing into Action! Much Ado about WavesStarlight: Cell Phone Calls from Outer SpaceWatts Up?StarburstColorful Characteristics
31 Reflect and connect: Putting it all together Page 511 From a star’s spectrum, astronomers can;Id the elements present in the starNotice the strength of the hydrogen linesMeasure the wavelength emitted with the highest intensityDetermine the surface temperature of stars based on the wavelength of greatest intensityId the color of the starClassify the star based on surface temperature and absorption linesAstronomers look for absorption line spectra to determine the elements present. They measure relative intensities of the wavelengths to determine the surface temp. and color of the starUse Wien’s Law to answer this question. T range is from 5,000K to 6,000KGraphs
32 Reflect and connect Page 508 ActivityProperty/propertiesSig. to AstronomersGlance & Stellar ParallaxApparent shift in position of the stars with respect to background stars when viewed from different perspectivesAstronomers can determine the distances to nearby stars using parallaxSpringing into Action! Much Ado about WavesSpeed, frequency, wavelength, and amplitudeThe speed of a wave is constant in constant medium. Waves transfer energy, not matter. Frequency of a wave and wavelength are inverse relationshipsStarlight: Cell Phone Calls from Outer SpaceLight as a form of EM radiationAstronomers use the formula c = f x λ to determine wavelength or frequency. Wavelength and frequency of EM radiation determine the properties of that radiation such as color. Info astronomers use to analyze stars comes in the form of EM radiationWatts Up?Apparent Brightness (AB), luminosityAstronomers use AB w/ a light meter and can determine luminosity of near stars using parallax. Distance to stars is important to know to compare AB and luminosityStarburstInverse square law, Cepheid variable starsAstronomers can use the inverse square law and Leavitt’s work with Cepheid variable stars to determine luminosities and distances of stars too distant to use parallaxColorful CharacteristicsSpectra, intensity, color, wavelength, and temperatureAstronomers use these properties of stars to determine such things such as elements that make up the star, the color of the star, and the temperature of the starT-Table.
33 Reflect and connect: Putting it all together Page 511 Even though there did not appear to be a relationship between distance and temperature, why is it important to know the distance to stars when trying to understand their characteristics?Recall that in Part I of the previous activity, you compared properties of distance, apparent brightness, and luminosity. You also felt the temperature of the air around different wattages of bulbs. What data could you have collected in Part I and plotted on a graph that would have resemble the data you used to make your HR diagram?One of the first things scientist do when they look at unfamiliar things is to classify them. Why would astronomers want to classify stars?
34 Reflect and connect: Putting it all together Page 511 (Answers) Remember from earlier activities that a stars apparent brightness is related to its distance from Earth. If astronomers determine distance, they can factor it into their observations of star’s brightness. They can determine a star’s luminosity, or total power output. This is an inherent feature of the star that is independent of distance. Luminosity tells astronomers how much power a star produces and how large a star is.Remember that taking data on the wattage of the bulb and the temp at a specified distance from the bulb would give data similar to what you graphed for stars. Plotting this data would show similar relationships. These experiences w/ the light bulbs would model stars that would fall in the main sequence.Scientist classify things so they can determine patterns or relationships that exists between characteristics. Those with similar characteristics can be placed into groups. When groups overlap scientists can make predictions about relationships and test those predictions with new members of the groups. Scientists use relationships to develop ideas about how stars are born, live, and die.