2Shakespeare: A Brief Biography Born in April 1564 at Stratford-on-AvonJohn Shakespeare (father)tanner, glover, dealer in graintown official (alderman, and later mayor)Mary (mother)daughter of Robert Arden, a prosperous gentleman-farmer.
3Shakespeare: A Brief Biography Married Anne Hathaway in 1582Three children born: Susanna, Judith, and HamnetBy 1590, he was an actor and playwrightLeader of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men and the King’s Mendied April 23, 1616
4Shakespeare: A Brief Biography He was buried in Stratford; the inscription on his tombstone reads. . .
5Shakespeare: A Brief Biography “Good Friend, for Jesus’ sake, forbearTo dig the dust enclosed here;Blest be the man that spares these stonesAnd curst be he that moves my bones.”
6Best Known For…37 plays, including Hamlet, Macbeth, King Lear, Julius Caesar, Midsummer Night’s Dream, and of course, Romeo and JulietThe exact year in which William Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet is unknown, but it is definitely one of his earlier works, and one of only two tragedies written in the period from 1590 to 1595155 poems, all written in the same style, known as The Shakespearean Sonnet
7The Shakespearean Sonnet 14 linesRhyme Scheme: abab cdcd efef ggIambic pentameterThe last two lines are a rhyming coupletShakespeare’s plays are also written in couplets and iambic pentameter, except for when the servants or comical characters speak. There are even sonnets in his plays.
8All the World’s a Stage… Shakespeare wrote hundreds of poems, but he is best known for his plays.The playwright develops a story through dialogue, monologues, and staging.The director helps actors perform the play the way it was intended.
10The Globe TheaterHe wrote his plays to be performed in the Globe Theater.It was built in 1599 and burned down 14 years later in 1613.It was an 8 sided building with a central yard.
11The Globe Theater Spectators’ price of admissions was one penny - to stand in yard around stage (these were called the groundlings)two pennies - to sit in 2nd and 3rd floor galleriesthree pennies - to sit in the first floor galleries
12The Globe Theater Stage 1/3 of yard was filled with 6ft high platform no curtainno artificial lightingback wall had at least two doorsbalcony was used for hilltops, walls of cities, or second story scenes.trapdoors were used to raise or lower actors and props.
13The Globe Theater Take a tour of the new Globe Theater. . . . Shakespeare's Globe Theatre
14Romeo and JulietThe plot was based on a fourteenth-century Italian short story, or novella, written by Matteo Bandello, that included elements of history, tradition, romance, and fable.Both the short story and the play bear many similarities to the myth of Pyramus and Thisbe from ancient Greece
15Review of Important Literary Terms Plot (exposition, rising action – including internal and external conflict, climax, falling action, resolution)Characterization (round, flat, dynamic, static, protagonist, antagonist)ForeshadowingEpithetIrony (situational, dramatic, verbal)Figurative language (including hyperbole, simile, metaphor, personification, etc)Imagery
16New Terms We Need to Know: Foil~ a secondary character who has enough in common to serve as a contrast to point out traits of a primary characterExample: Who would be Atticus’s foil?Pun~A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning.Example: I work as a baker because I knead dough.See punoftheday.comOxymoron~ term formed by joining words that seem to contradict one anotherExample: deafening silence, bittersweet
17Extended Metaphor~ metaphor extended throughout a stanza or an entire poem, usually by using multiple comparisons between the unlike objects or ideas (also called conceit)Couplet~ Two lines -the second line immediately following the first- of the same metrical length that end in a rhymeEnjambment~ running over from one line to the next without a pause / punctuation breakShakespearean Sonnet~ 14 line poem with an ABABCDCDEFEFGG rhyme schemeIambic Pentameter~ see later handoutBlank Verse~ see later handout
18Aside~a short passage spoken by one character to the audience while the other actors on stage pretend their characters cannot hear the speaker's words.Tragedy~ a narrative about serious and important actions that ends unhappily (usually w/ the deaths of the main characters).Soliloquy~ a speech that a character gives to himself – no other characters are onstageDialogue~ lines spoken between charactersMonologue~ a speech that a character gives alone – but others may be onstageStage Directions~ parts of the script written by the playwright as unspoken directions for the characters
19CHARACTERS The Montagues The Capulets Lord Montague Lord CapuletLady Montague lady CapuletBenvolio, nephew Juliet, daughterRomeo, son Tybalt, nephewServants Nurse (Juliet’s nanny)ServantsThe Others: Mercutio, Romeo’s best friendEscalus, Prince of VeronaParis, count of VeronaFriar Lawrence, spiritual leader of VeronaFriar John, friend of Friar LawrenceApothecary
20Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet is as much about hate as love Although Romeo and Juliet is considered one of the world’s greatest love stories, it can be argued that the love story is only a vehicle for the resolution of the story about hate, that is, the feud between the two families.
21Themes in Romeo and Juliet Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.Unit Essential Question: How can literature explore universal themes of love and loss?
22Themes in Romeo and Juliet 1. The Forcefulness of Love and AttractionFocus on romantic loveNature of infatuation vs. lasting loveLove is blind (for better and worse)Love as overpowering forceFamilyFriendsCan lead to violence
23Themes in Romeo and Juliet 2. The Individual Versus SocietyRomeo and Juliet against. . .FamilyLawReligionHonor
24Themes in Romeo and Juliet 3. The Inevitability of FateStraight path or series of crossroads?“Star-crossed Lovers”FeudSeries of Unfortunate EventsBad Timing
25Themes in Romeo and Juliet 3. The Generation Gap~ Parents just don’t understand~ Youth is pure
26PrologueCHORUS: In the beautiful city of Verona, where our story takes place, a long-standing hatred between two families erupts into new violence, and citizens stain their hands with the blood of their fellow citizens. Two unlucky children of these enemy families become lovers and commit suicide. Their unfortunate deaths put an end to their parents' feud. For the next two hours, we will watch the story of their doomed love and their parents' anger, which nothing but the children's deaths could stop. If you listen to us patiently, we'll make up for everything we've left out in this prologue onstage.