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Reflection # 1 1.List all the wars that the US has been involved in. 2.List the CAUSE of the war if you know it. Name of WarCause of War Revolutionary.

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Presentation on theme: "Reflection # 1 1.List all the wars that the US has been involved in. 2.List the CAUSE of the war if you know it. Name of WarCause of War Revolutionary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reflection # 1 1.List all the wars that the US has been involved in. 2.List the CAUSE of the war if you know it. Name of WarCause of War Revolutionary WarIndependence

2 THE IMPERIAL REPUBLIC Chapter B. Harrison, Cleveland, McKinley, T. Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson

3 I. Roots of American Imperialism

4 A. Imperialism the attempt to create an empire Either Directly by military conquest OR Indirectly through economic or political dominance = the effort to dominate trade and government of other lands expansionism

5 B. The New Manifest Destiny 1890’s = new phase in American Imperialism shift from domestic to foreign affairs Acquiring possessions separate from the continental US Do you remember the “Old” Manifest Destiny? What time period ? What President ? What events ? 1840s Polk Texas Annexation, War with Mexico

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8 II. Economic & Political Reasons given in support of U.S. Imperialism

9 A. Frontier closes 1. Need New Resources (Frederick Jackson Turner)= little room left on N. American continent 2. Need New Markets (Senator Albert Beveridge) Foreign territories = markets + materials

10 Senator Albert J. Beveridge (Indiana) 1899 “Today, we are raising more than we can consume. Today we are making more than we can use. Therefore, we must find new markets for our produce, new occupation for our capital, new work for our labor.”

11 II. Economic & Political Reasons given in support of U.S. Imperialism B. Global Competition = $ (Senator Henry Cabot Lodge) (see overhead of World’s Plunderers – political cartoon And map of Imperialism in 1900

12 II. Economic & Political Reasons given in support of U.S. Imperialism C. Desire for military strength (Alfred T. Mahan) - claim & defend territory - status & national pride

13 1. Alfred T. Mahan -American admiral in Navy Wrote : The Influence of Sea Power upon History in 1890 The Interest of America in Sea Power in 1897 Advocated: Strong navy key to becoming a great nation colonies would serve as bases for such a navy Building a canal across the isthmus of Central America to connect the oceans Enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine US dominance in the Caribbean Take possession of Hawaii & other Pacific Islands Map Test = Panama, Nicaragua, Caribbean Sea, Hawaii, Atlantic & Pacific Oceans, Latin America – S.America, Central America, & the Caribbean

14 III. Philosophic Justifications for Expansion = reasons given in support of U.S. Imperialism A. Belief in cultural + racial superiority US = Better government, heritage, religion etc..

15 III. Philosophic Justifications for Expansion = reasons given in support of U.S. Imperialism B. Social Darwinism Darwin’s theory of evolution (of species) (biologist) Natural selection = survival of the fittest Late 19c = this theory applied to societies & social groups To rationalize wealth at home imperialism abroad strong nations were destined by natural law to dominate weak ones

16 III. Philosophic Justifications for Expansion = reasons given in support of U.S. Imperialism C. John Fiske (journalist) The experience of subjugating the Indian tribes had established a precedent D. John W. Burgess (Political Science Professor) duty to spread our superior institutions to less civilized peoples E. Josiah Strong (clergyman) white Americans had the duty to spread democracy and Christianity in order to Civilize non white and non Christian people

17 Source: Josiah Strong. Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis. New York: American Home Missionary Society, It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill,is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future….. The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited,and will soon be taken… Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its history – the final competition of races, for which the Anglo-Saxon is being schooled…. Then this race of unequalled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and them might of wealth behind it – the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty,the purest Christianity, the highest civilization … will spread itself over the earth. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down upon Mexico, down upon Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the “survival of the fittest”?

18 IV. Policy Actions

19 A. Acquisition of Alaska

20 1. William Seward – Secretary of State for Lincoln and A. Johnson Arranged for US to buy Alaska from Russia “Seward’s Icebox”/ “Seward’s Folly” 1867 A. Johnson

21 B. Acquisition of Hawaii

22 B. Acquisition of HAWAII American settlement on Hawaii 1830s = missionaries & merchants Americans began buying land & est. sugar plantations US agrees to allow Hawaii to export sugar to America duty-free Results = Hawaiian economy dependent on sugar exports to America Planters gained positions in Hawaiian govt =Indirect Imperialism

23 1887 Cleveland (D) US gains treaty rights for base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii Military presence & refueling station for American ships

24 1890 B. Harrison (R) US ends favored status of Hawaii in sugar trade, damaging Hawaiian economy (McKinley Tariff)

25 B. Harrison (R) a. Queen Liliuokalani Popular nationalist “Hawaii for Hawaiians” agenda b. Sanford Dole Wealthy Planter / American Business Interests In Hawaii

26 1893 Cleveland (D) American planters in Hawaii stage revolution U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolution that dethroned the queen Sanford B. Dole became head of new government Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii but demanded that annexation be based on the desires of the majority of Hawaiians

27 1898 McKinely (R) McKinley favored annexation United States formally annexes Hawaii

28 Overseas Expansion 1890 – 1916 Reasons/ Arguments for: 1. To compete with European Imperialist nations to be a first rate power 2. To “civilize” non whites and non Christians 3. To increase foreign trade Reason / Arguments against: 1. It opposed the American ideal of government by the consent of the governed Continentalists believed US should not expand beyond its continental limits Morally opposed to acquiring new territories without the inhabitants consent 2. Will create the need for higher taxes to build and protect an empire 3. Non white people cannot be assimilated

29 Policy Actions: Hawaii :Grant (R)-Hawaii exempt from US tariffs; Hawaiian economy dependent on growing sugar for export to America 1887 :Cleveland (D)- US gains treaty rights for base at Pearl Harbor 1890 :B. Harrison (R) US ends favored status of Hawaii in sugar trade, damaging Hawaiian economy 1891 :B. Harrison (R) Queen Liliuokalani a popular nationalist promotes “Hawaii for Hawaiians” 1893 :Cleveland (D) American planters in Hawaii stage revolution; B. Harrison (R) signs annexation agreement with Hawaii, but Cleveland (D) rejects it 1898 : McKinley (R) United States formally annexes Hawaii


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