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Interventions for Struggling Readers

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Presentation on theme: "Interventions for Struggling Readers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Interventions for Struggling Readers
This publication is based on K-2 Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

2 Reading Failure Curriculum Factors Physical Factors
Methodology employed Teacher effectiveness Curriculum alignment Access to the Program of Studies Physical Factors Visual problems Neurological limitations Auditory deficiencies Speech Issues Chronic Illness and malnutrition Dyslexia

3 Reading Failure Personal Factors Low self concept Emotional issues
Cultural Factors Home environment Socio/economic factors Familial relationships

4 Interventions for Struggling Readers
Scientific Research Interventions Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Additional, targeted, and intensive reading instruction provided to students who continue to struggle with learning to read and write despite conventional instruction “The purpose of providing extra instructional time is to help children achieve levels of literacy that will enable them to be successful through their school careers and beyond.” —Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998, p. 247

5 Early Interventions Students who have difficulties in the beginning stages of learning to read often fall further and further behind their peers. There is a 90% chance that a student who has reading problems at the end of lower primary will still be struggling with reading at the end of fourth grade. Early intervention should begin in the first year of primary(K). It is NEVER too late to intervene! When should intervention begin?

6 Determining Who Needs Instruction
At the beginning of the school year, you will assess students using a screening and diagnostic measure (DIBELS and GRADE). Continue to use progress monitoring assessment and informal assessment throughout the year to inform instruction and to measure progress.

7 Successful Interventions
Continually monitor students’ progress and adjust instruction to meet their changing needs Be sure that instruction is explicit, systematic, intensive, supportive, and comprehensive Be persistent . . .

8 Intensive Intervention for Struggling Readers
Includes more repetition and instructional time than regular classroom instruction Provide small group instruction Select instructional materials that are at the appropriate level of difficulty Maximize students’ engagement and participation To help struggling students:

9 Activity Notice that more instructional time needs to be added for Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday (25 minutes of daily instruction). Incorporate lessons that build on what students know and are learning on a daily basis. Determine which component of reading needs to be addressed and select an appropriate lesson.

10 Effective Intervention Instruction
How does intervention reading instruction differ from regular classroom reading instruction? Provides more instructional time Is explicit, systematic, intensive, and supportive Is Comprehensive

11 Explicit and Systematic Instruction
Require additional instructional time for explicit and systematic instruction to help them acquire the knowledge and skills to successfully read and write independently Struggling readers:

12 Activity Explicit Lesson Plans

13 Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) occurs when the ear and brain do not coordinate fully. Meaningful information, messages and sounds are often misinterpreted.

14 Twhnkke, tvinjle kitsle ratq.
Hov I wnnddr wgat wou zre. Tp aaovd thd woqd sn hifh, Lhke z dizmond im thd skx.

15 Ghoti

16 Little Jack and Jill Horner sat went up in the corner hill eating to fetch his a pail of Christmas pie water. He Jack fell in his thumb down and pulled out a broke his plum crown and said “What Jill came a tumbling good boy am after I.”

17 Technology Supports FM System Read & Write Gold Captioned Texts
Software and Commercial Reading Programs

18 Auditory Processing Disorders
Earobics teaches skills fundamental to listening, learning and literacy (reading, speaking) Techniques are scientifically-based FastForward addresses oral language, phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge

19 Variability not Disability
It is critical classrooms provide variability to accommodate children whose abilities vary.

20 “Choice is the mechanism for accommodation
“Choice is the mechanism for accommodation. When children choose their activities within a structured environment, they are able to choose tasks consistent with their abilities and interests. Thus there is no need for them to be disabled. Rather than view children as capable or disabled, workshop classrooms assume that children are different, that each child is unique and has unique interests and abilities, and that differences are normal.” (Roller)

21 Intervention for Struggling Readers
Program Connections Intervention for Struggling Readers

22 Optimizing Reading Achievement
“While there are no easy answers or quick solutions for optimizing reading achievement, an extensive knowledge base now exists to show us the skills children must learn in order to read well. These skills provide the basis for sound curriculum decisions and instructional approaches that can help prevent the predictable consequences of early reading failure.” —National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), 2001, p. ii

23 Limited English Proficient Students
This publication is based on K - 2 Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

24 Limited English Proficient Students
Come from a non-English language background or Were born in the United States, but have language in the home other than English AND As a result of the above, have sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing or understanding the English language

25 Native Languages in Kentucky
The languages spoken by more than one percent of the Limited English Proficient student population: Spanish approx. 54% Japanese approx. 6% Serbo-Croatian approx. 5% Bosnian approx. 5% Vietnamese approx. 5% Arabic approx. 3% Chinese approx. 3% Korean approx. 3% Albanian approx. 2% school year

26 Acquiring Language Students acquire language within a variety of cultural and linguistic settings and in the context of their homes and communities.

27 Principles of Second Language Acquisition
Limited English Proficient Students Principles of Second Language Acquisition

28 ESL Pop Quiz-True or False
1. Children have acquired a second language when they can speak it. Myth #4 Answer: False

29 Social vs. Academic Language
BICS – Social Conversation – playground, cashier, neighbor Opportunities to clarify: facial expressions, hand gestures, etc. Anglo-Saxon word origins CALP – Academic Textbooks and instruction Limited situational context Latin/Greek origins

30 ESL Pop Quiz-True or False
2. English Language Learners (ELLs) only need a year of intensive English instruction to function without assistance in a regular classroom. Myth #4 Answer: False

31 How long will it take? BICS can be acquired in 1 – 2 years (Collier, 1997) CALP often takes 5 – 10 years (Collier, 1997)

32 ESL Pop Quiz-True or False
3. Younger students learn English much faster than older students. Myth #2 Answer: False

33 Role of Cognitive Development
More advanced cognitive development of older child makes that child a better language learner Performance expectations in upper grades makes the gap between 10 yr. old ELL and native speaker greater 5 year old ELL might catch up to native English speaker more rapidly, but does not learn language more rapidly

34 ESL Pop Quiz-True or False
4. Students who are literate in their first language will learn to read and write English more quickly than those with limited literacy. Answer: True

35 Factors that affect language acquisition
Student’s proficiency in first language (L1) Student’s literacy level in L1 Cognitive ability – learning disabilities proportional to the mainstream population Education background prior to arrival in U.S.

36 More Factors… Social and emotional factors (e.g. trauma, refugee status, community perceptions) Stephen Krashen’s Affective Filter Controls how much input the learner converts to intake Controls rate of development, not the route

37 More Factors… Appropriateness of instruction – content goals & language goals Scaffolding language Making content comprehensible

38 ESL Pop Quiz-True or False
5. It is important for a teacher to know the English proficiency levels in speaking, reading, and writing of each of their students. Answer: True

39 Zone of Proximal Development
Moving the children from what they can already do, to what they can do with a little help For teachers, it is scaffolding

40 Effective Instruction for Limited English Proficient Students
Have high expectations for learning and achievement Facilitate the development of essential language, reading, and writing skills at the students’ levels of proficiency in English Create an instructional program that meets students’ needs Use comprehensible and meaningful language during instruction Develop literacy through instruction that builds on language, listening comprehension, print concepts, and the alphabetic principle

41 Effective Instruction for Limited English Proficient Students (cont.)
Provide meaningful opportunities to use English and interact with English-speaking peers Use graphic organizers, charts, objects, manipulative materials, and other visual organizers Recognize and value the different discourse (speaking) patterns across cultures

42 Remember . . . Limited English Proficient students are doing twice the cognitive work of native speakers because they are acquiring new reading and writing concepts and skills and at the same time attending to the sounds, meanings, and structures of a new language.

43 Every Child: A Successful Reader
The Reading First Summer Institute challenges teachers to consider research-based evidence of “what works” to make decisions about the content and structure of reading instruction for all of their students. To ensure that every child becomes a successful reader, teachers need to consider each child’s background, language, needs, and abilities as they design instruction.

44 LEP/Title III Consultant Kentucky Department of Education 502 564-7056
Questions? Marti Kinny LEP/Title III Consultant Kentucky Department of Education

45 Designing Effective Lessons
This publication is based on K-2 Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

46 Designing Effective Lessons . . .
Incorporates what you have learned about effective literacy and reading instruction for lower primary students: Oral Language and Vocabulary Development Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Understanding and Phonics Beginning Spelling and writing Book Knowledge Listening Comprehension

47 Designing Effective Lessons . . .
Incorporates what you have learned about effective reading instruction for primary students as well: Phonemic Awareness Phonics and Word Study Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension

48 Designing Effective Lessons
Consider the following: Which components of effective reading instruction does this lesson/activity address? How can you enhance the lesson’s/activity’s effectiveness for all students, especially for struggling readers? How can you use flexible small groups to increase the impact of instruction? Well-planned instruction includes the components of effective reading instruction that are arranged in an order of increasing complexity, NOT a series of fragmented activities.

49 Designing Effective Lessons: Selection
Turn to one of the lesson planners presented in the Teacher’s Edition and select one of the Institute topics: Oral Language & Vocabulary Development Phonological-Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Understanding & Phonics Phonics and Word Study Book Knowledge Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Listening Comprehension Spelling Writing Look at the lessons/instructional activities for one week that address the topic and complete the chart.

50 Designing Effective Lessons: Evaluation
Evaluate the set of lessons/activities described on the “Designing Effective Lessons: Selection” handout Place a check mark if the element is included Here’s What! So What? And Now What?

51 Remember . . .

52 Putting It All Together
This publication is based on K-2 Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission. 1

53 Putting It All Together

54 Effective Teachers Create a literate environment
Present intentional instruction and provide practice Choose text from a variety of materials Link reading and writing activities Create many opportunities for reading Adjust instruction to meet students’ needs Encourage students’ monitoring of understanding Competently manage activities, behaviors, and classroom resources

55 A Call to Action “Our understanding of ‘what works’ in reading is dynamic and fluid, subject to ongoing review and assessment through quality research We encourage all teachers to explore the research, open their minds to changes in their instructional practice, and take up the challenge of helping all children become successful readers.” —National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. iii


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