2Reading Failure Curriculum Factors Physical Factors Methodology employedTeacher effectivenessCurriculum alignmentAccess to the Program of StudiesPhysical FactorsVisual problemsNeurological limitationsAuditory deficienciesSpeech IssuesChronic Illness and malnutritionDyslexia
3Reading Failure Personal Factors Low self concept Emotional issues Cultural FactorsHome environmentSocio/economic factorsFamilial relationships
4Interventions for Struggling Readers Scientific ResearchInterventionsPhonemic AwarenessPhonicsVocabularyFluencyComprehensionAdditional, targeted, and intensive reading instruction provided to students who continue to struggle with learning to read and write despite conventional instruction“The purpose of providing extra instructional time is to help children achieve levels of literacy that will enable them to be successful through their school careers and beyond.”—Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998, p. 247
5Early InterventionsStudents who have difficulties in the beginning stages of learning to read often fall further and further behind their peers.There is a 90% chance that a student who has reading problems at the end of lower primary will still be struggling with reading at the end of fourth grade.Early intervention should begin in the first year of primary(K).It is NEVER too late to intervene!When should intervention begin?
6Determining Who Needs Instruction At the beginning of the school year, you will assess students using a screening and diagnostic measure (DIBELS and GRADE).Continue to use progress monitoring assessment and informal assessment throughout the year to inform instruction and to measure progress.
7Successful Interventions Continually monitor students’ progress and adjust instruction to meet their changing needsBe sure that instruction is explicit, systematic, intensive, supportive, and comprehensiveBepersistent . . .
8Intensive Intervention for Struggling Readers Includes more repetition and instructional time than regular classroom instructionProvide small group instructionSelect instructional materials that are at the appropriate level of difficultyMaximize students’ engagement and participationTo help struggling students:
9ActivityNotice that more instructional time needs to be added for Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday (25 minutes of daily instruction).Incorporate lessons that build on what students know and are learning on a daily basis.Determine which component of reading needs to be addressed and select an appropriate lesson.
10Effective Intervention Instruction How does intervention reading instruction differ from regular classroom reading instruction?Provides more instructional timeIs explicit, systematic, intensive, and supportiveIs Comprehensive
11Explicit and Systematic Instruction Require additional instructional time for explicit and systematic instruction to help them acquire the knowledge and skills to successfully read and write independentlyStruggling readers:
13Central Auditory Processing Disorder Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) occurs when the ear and brain do not coordinate fully. Meaningful information, messages and sounds are often misinterpreted.
14Twhnkke, tvinjle kitsle ratq. Hov I wnnddr wgat wou zre.Tp aaovd thd woqd sn hifh,Lhke z dizmond im thd skx.
16Little Jack and Jill Horner sat went up in the corner hill eating to fetch his a pail of Christmas pie water.He Jack fell in his thumb down and pulled out a broke his plum crown and said “What Jill came a tumbling good boy am after I.”
17Technology Supports FM System Read & Write Gold Captioned Texts Software and Commercial Reading Programs
18Auditory Processing Disorders Earobics teaches skills fundamental to listening, learning and literacy (reading, speaking)Techniques are scientifically-basedFastForward addresses oral language, phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge
19Variability not Disability It is critical classrooms provide variability to accommodate children whose abilities vary.
20“Choice is the mechanism for accommodation “Choice is the mechanism for accommodation. When children choose their activities within a structured environment, they are able to choose tasks consistent with their abilities and interests. Thus there is no need for them to be disabled. Rather than view children as capable or disabled, workshop classrooms assume that children are different, that each child is unique and has unique interests and abilities, and that differences are normal.” (Roller)
21Intervention for Struggling Readers Program ConnectionsIntervention for Struggling Readers
22Optimizing Reading Achievement “While there are no easy answers or quick solutions for optimizing reading achievement, an extensive knowledge base now exists to show us the skills children must learn in order to read well.These skills provide the basis for sound curriculum decisions and instructional approaches that can help prevent the predictable consequences of early reading failure.”—National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), 2001, p. ii
24Limited English Proficient Students Come from a non-English language background orWere born in the United States, but have language in the home other than EnglishANDAs a result of the above, have sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing or understanding the English language
25Native Languages in Kentucky The languages spoken by more than one percent of the Limited English Proficient student population:Spanish approx. 54%Japanese approx. 6%Serbo-Croatian approx. 5%Bosnian approx. 5%Vietnamese approx. 5%Arabic approx. 3% Chinese approx. 3% Korean approx. 3% Albanian approx. 2%school year
26Acquiring LanguageStudents acquire language within a variety of cultural and linguistic settings and in the context of their homes and communities.
27Principles of Second Language Acquisition Limited English Proficient StudentsPrinciples of Second Language Acquisition
28ESL Pop Quiz-True or False 1. Children have acquired a second language when they can speak it.Myth #4Answer: False
29Social vs. Academic Language BICS – SocialConversation – playground, cashier, neighborOpportunities to clarify: facial expressions, hand gestures, etc.Anglo-Saxon word originsCALP – AcademicTextbooks and instructionLimited situational contextLatin/Greek origins
30ESL Pop Quiz-True or False 2. English Language Learners (ELLs) only need a year of intensive English instruction to function without assistance in a regular classroom.Myth #4Answer: False
31How long will it take?BICS can be acquired in 1 – 2 years (Collier, 1997)CALP often takes 5 – 10 years (Collier, 1997)
32ESL Pop Quiz-True or False 3. Younger students learn English much faster than older students.Myth #2Answer: False
33Role of Cognitive Development More advanced cognitive development of older child makes that child a better language learnerPerformance expectations in upper grades makes the gap between 10 yr. old ELL and native speaker greater5 year old ELL might catch up to native English speaker more rapidly, but does not learn language more rapidly
34ESL Pop Quiz-True or False 4. Students who are literate in their first language will learn to read and write English more quickly than those with limited literacy.Answer: True
35Factors that affect language acquisition Student’s proficiency in first language (L1)Student’s literacy level in L1Cognitive ability – learning disabilities proportional to the mainstream populationEducation background prior to arrival in U.S.
36More Factors…Social and emotional factors (e.g. trauma, refugee status, community perceptions)Stephen Krashen’s Affective FilterControls how much input the learner converts to intakeControls rate of development, not the route
37More Factors…Appropriateness of instruction – content goals & language goalsScaffolding languageMaking content comprehensible
38ESL Pop Quiz-True or False 5. It is important for a teacher to know the English proficiency levels in speaking, reading, and writing of each of their students.Answer: True
39Zone of Proximal Development Moving the children from what they can already do, to what they can do with a little helpFor teachers, it is scaffolding
40Effective Instruction for Limited English Proficient Students Have high expectations for learning and achievementFacilitate the development of essential language, reading, and writing skills at the students’ levels of proficiency in EnglishCreate an instructional program that meets students’ needsUse comprehensible and meaningful language during instructionDevelop literacy through instruction that builds on language, listening comprehension, print concepts, and the alphabetic principle
41Effective Instruction for Limited English Proficient Students (cont.) Provide meaningful opportunities to use English and interact with English-speaking peersUse graphic organizers, charts, objects, manipulative materials, and other visual organizersRecognize and value the different discourse (speaking) patterns across cultures
42Remember . . .Limited English Proficient students are doing twice the cognitive work of native speakers because they are acquiring new reading and writing concepts and skills and at the same time attending to the sounds, meanings, and structures of a new language.
43Every Child: A Successful Reader The Reading First Summer Institute challenges teachers to consider research-based evidence of “what works” to make decisions about the content and structure of reading instruction for all of their students.To ensure that every child becomes a successful reader, teachers need to consider each child’s background, language, needs, and abilities as they design instruction.
44LEP/Title III Consultant Kentucky Department of Education 502 564-7056 Questions?Marti KinnyLEP/Title III ConsultantKentucky Department of Education
46Designing Effective Lessons . . . Incorporates what you have learned about effective literacy and reading instruction for lower primary students:Oral Language and Vocabulary DevelopmentPhonological and Phonemic AwarenessAlphabetic Understanding and PhonicsBeginning Spelling and writingBook KnowledgeListening Comprehension
47Designing Effective Lessons . . . Incorporates what you have learned about effective reading instruction for primary students as well:Phonemic AwarenessPhonics and Word StudyFluencyVocabularyComprehension
48Designing Effective Lessons Consider the following:Which components of effective reading instruction does this lesson/activity address?How can you enhance the lesson’s/activity’s effectiveness for all students, especially for struggling readers?How can you use flexible small groups to increase the impact of instruction?Well-planned instruction includes the components of effective reading instruction that are arranged in an order of increasing complexity, NOT a series of fragmented activities.
49Designing Effective Lessons: Selection Turn to one of the lesson planners presented in the Teacher’s Edition and select one of the Institute topics:Oral Language & Vocabulary DevelopmentPhonological-Phonemic AwarenessAlphabetic Understanding & PhonicsPhonics and Word StudyBook KnowledgeFluencyVocabularyComprehensionListening ComprehensionSpellingWritingLook at the lessons/instructional activities for one week that address the topic and complete the chart.
50Designing Effective Lessons: Evaluation Evaluate the set of lessons/activities described on the “Designing Effective Lessons: Selection” handoutPlace a check mark if the element is includedHere’s What! So What?And Now What?
54Effective Teachers Create a literate environment Present intentional instruction and provide practiceChoose text from a variety of materialsLink reading and writing activitiesCreate many opportunities for readingAdjust instruction to meet students’ needsEncourage students’ monitoring of understandingCompetently manage activities, behaviors, and classroom resources
55A Call to Action“Our understanding of ‘what works’ in reading is dynamic and fluid, subject to ongoing review and assessment through quality research We encourage all teachers to explore the research, open their minds to changes in their instructional practice, and take up the challenge of helping all children become successful readers.”—National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. iii