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Warm Up #7:What are each of these cartoonists trying to say

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1 Warm Up #7:What are each of these cartoonists trying to say
Warm Up #7:What are each of these cartoonists trying to say? What is their purpose?

2 Passive Verbs Using passive verbs effectively
In most cases writers use active verbs to make clear who or what is performing the action. Sometimes writers use passive verbs to avoid assigning responsibility. Example: “Mistakes were made.” – In this sentence, we don’t know who made the mistakes. Perhaps it was the person who wrote the sentence, or the person the writer works for, or maybe the writer just doesn’t know. GENERALLY, writing that uses active verbs will be stronger and clearer. However, there are sometimes when using passive voice is purposeful and therefore necessary.

3 Passive Verbs Reasons to use passive:
1. When you don’t know the agent or “doer” of the action, when the agent is not important, obvious, or you don’t want to mention the agent. Ex. “John was arrested for loitering.” – Here the agent is obvious, police are usually the only people who can arrest others. 2. When you want the receiver of the action to become the subject and therefore the focus of the sentence. Ex. “Many African Americans and Hispanics have been stopped simply because of their race.” – Here, the focus of the sentence has been shifted onto the victims of the racial profiling.

4 Passive Verbs Reasons continued…
3. When you want to avoid the informality of using the impersonal you or they. Ex. Active: You should not stop innocent motorists based on their race. Passive: Innocent motorists should not be stopped based on their race. Homework: Changing active verbs to passive assignment, on teacher page to print.

5 STANDARDS OBJECTIVES Students will be able to:
Reading Comprehension: 2.4 Make warranted and reasonable assertions about the author’s arguments by using elements of the text to defend and clarify interpretations. 2.5 Analyze an author’s implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions and beliefs about a subject. 2.6 Critique the power, validity, and truthfulness of arguments set forth in public documents; their appeal to both friendly and hostile audiences; and the extent to which the arguments anticipate and address reader concerns and counterclaims (e.g., appeal to reason, to authority, to pathos and emotion). 1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions Demonstrate control of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage. 1.2 Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization. Students will be able to: identify and define ethos, pathos, and logos identify the purpose, argument, persona, audience, and rhetorical methods and strategies in a given passage. make assertions that can be supported. begin their final writing assignment

6 Thinking Critically Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
What are they? Ethos: author’s appeal to credibility and reliability; his/her background Pathos: appeal to emotion Logos: appeal to logic Why do we use them? What is their purpose? To help persuade. A good persuasive argument will use all three to have a balanced appeal to persuade. It is always important to identify how a piece or person is trying to persuade you!

7 Thinking Critically Questions about Logic
What are the 2 major assertions the author makes in this essay? What counterarguments does the author not deal with? Do you think the author has left something out on purpose? Why? Questions about Emotions Does this piece affect you emotionally? Which parts? Do you think the author is trying to manipulate the reader’s emotions? How? Do your emotions conflict with your logical interpretation of the arguments? Does the author use humor? How does that affect your acceptance of the author’s ideas?

8 Thinking Critically Continued…
Questions about the Writer Does the author have the right background to speak with authority on this subject? Is this author knowledgeable? Smart? Successful? What does the author’s style and language tell you about him? Do you trust this author? Why or why not? Do you think this author is deceptive? Why or why not? Do you think this author is serious?

9 Author’s Purpose There are five simple purposes for an author to write a passage: inform persuade narrate entertain describe “Hounding the Innocent” is …?

10 PAPA square Helps analyze rhetorical strategies Stands for:
purpose argument persona audience Answer those four on the outside of the square On the inside square identify the rhetorical methods and strategies.

11 Activity In groups of 4 One person needs to be the recorder/writer One person needs to be the speaker One person needs to be materials manager and time enforcement. On a poster paper create a PAPA square to be presented in class You have 20 minutes to create your poster You will have 5 minutes to present it

12 Making Assertions That Can Be Supported
Academic writers often make generalizations as they explain an issue and argue for their position. However, they do not want to alienate their audience by being too direct or assertive or by making claims that cannot be supported. Defensible assertions often answer the following questions: Who is doing something How often does it happen How likely is it Under what circumstances does it happen When does it happen Where does this happen

13 Strategies for Making Defensible Assertions
Indicate who: change passive verbs to active or specify the agent. Indicate frequency: Use adverbs such as sometimes, always, often, usually, generally, rarely, or occasion. Indicate probability: Use Modals such as may, might, can, could; use adverbs such as possibly, probably, generally; or never use nouns such as a possibility and a probability

14 Continued… Indicate uncertainty: use verbs such as seem, appear, tend, or suggest. Indicate quantity: use quantifiers, such as few, some, many, most, or virtually.

15 Using the Words of Others
One of the most important features of academic writing is the use of words and ideas from written sources to support your own points. Essentially, 3 ways to incorporate words and ideas from sources into your own writing: Direct Quotation Paraphrase Summary

16 Direct Quotes Bob Herbert says, “Most Americans have no idea of the extent of the race-based profiling that is carried out by law enforcement officials and the demoralizing effect it has on its victims” (Herbert 17).

17 Paraphrase In “Hounding the Innocent,” Bob Herbert notes that racial profiling is more extensive than we realize and is demoralizing to victims (Herbert 17).

18 Summary In “Hounding the Innocent” Bob Herbert cites statistics and stories from different parts of the country to prove that the racial profiling is extensive and unjust. According to the author, “ethnic profiling” is practiced in a variety of ways all throughout the United States, and no people of color, either walking or driving, are free of its effects (Herbert 17).

19 Documentation It is important to take notes with full citation information. For print materials you need to record AT LEAST the author’s name, title of the publication, city of publication, publisher, publication date, and page number. Citation for this article: Herbert, Bob. “Hounding the Innocent.” The New York Times. 13 June 1999, Sec. 4: 17.

20 Good Resources

21 The Assignment Write an essay that presents your opinion on a controversial issue of your choice. Begin with a debatable thesis statement. Then follow the guidelines for writing an argument/persuasive essay. As you write your essay, be sure you support your opinions with reasons. If something in the media (such as a newspaper article, ad, or speech) inspired this assignment, attach a copy to your paper before you turn it in.

22 Choosing a topic Choose a controversial issue on this campus, in this city, in the news, etc. that is important to you. Use a technique from the list on the following page to generate ideas on the issue. Questions to consider: What is the exact issue? Why is it important? Why do people care about it? How do you think the issue should be resolved?

23 Prewriting Strategies
Brainstorming: based on free association, the act of making a list of related words and phrases. Clustering/Webbing: process of “mapping” any ideas that come to mind. Freewriting: writing for a brief period of time on whatever comes to mind. Outlining: listing main ideas and details in the order you wish to address them. Questioning: ask questions that will generate new topics and ideas (who, what, where, when, why, and how).

24 A Working Thesis A tentative thesis, can be revised several times.
Your responses to the following questions will help you write a tentative thesis. What specific question will you answer in your essay? What is your response to this question? (This is your tentative thesis.) What support do/will you have/want to have? What evidence have/will you found/find? How much background do your readers need to understand your topic? If readers would disagree with your thesis or the validity of your support, what would they say? How would you address these concerns?

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