# How to Use This Presentation

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How to Use This Presentation
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Standardized Test Prep Image and Math Focus Bank
Resources Chapter Presentation Bellringers Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Image and Math Focus Bank Visual Concepts

Matter in Motion Table of Contents Section 1 Measuring Motion Section 2 What Is a Force? Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion Bellringer Describe your position in the classroom using a reference point and a set of reference directions. Record your response in your science journal.

Objectives Describe the motion of an object by the position of the object in relation to a reference point. Identify the two factors that determine speed. Explain the difference between speed and velocity.

Analyze the relationship between velocity and acceleration.
Demonstrate that changes in motion can be measured and represented on a graph.

Observing Motion by Using a Reference Point
Motion is an object’s change in position relative to another object, or reference point. The object that appears to stay in place is called a reference point. The direction of an object’s motion can be described with a reference direction, such as north, south, east, west, up, or down.

Side note: Frame of reference: The surrounding objects by which motion is explained or described. ex- compare your motion to room vs. universe

Speed Depends on Distance and Time
Speed is the distance traveled by an object divided by the time taken to travel that distance. The SI unit for speed is meters per second (m/s). Kilometers per hour (km/h), feet per second (ft/s), and miles per hour (mi/h) are other units commonly used to express speed.

m/ s- scientific unit of speed and velocity

average speed total time
Determining Average Speed Average speed equals the total distance divided by the total time. average speed = total distance total time Recognizing Speed on a Graph Speed can be shown on a graph of distance versus time, as shown on the next slide.

Velocity: Direction Matters
The speed of an object in a particular direction is called velocity. Speed and velocity are two different terms with two different meanings. Velocity must include a reference direction.

Changing Velocity You can think of velocity as the rate of change of an object’s position. An object’s velocity is constant only if its speed and direction don’t change. Combining Velocities You can combine different velocities to find the resultant velocity. The next slide shows how you can combine velocities to find the resultant velocity.

Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes over time is called acceleration. An object accelerates if its speed, or direction, or both change. An increase in velocity is commonly called positive acceleration. A decrease in velocity is commonly called negative acceleration, or deceleration.

Calculating Average Acceleration
You can find average acceleration by using the equation: average acceleration = final velocity  starting velocity time it takes to change velocity Velocity is expressed in meters per second (m/s), and time is expressed in seconds (s). So acceleration is expressed in meters per second per second, or (m/s)/s, which equals m/s2.

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion

Recognizing Acceleration on a Graph Acceleration can be shown on a graph of velocity versus time.

Circular Motion: Continuous Acceleration
An object traveling in a circular motion is always changing its direction. Therefore, its velocity is always changing, so it is accelerating. The acceleration that occurs in circular motion is known as centripetal acceleration.

What do you know about forces?
Count off by 2. 1s from a circle small circle facing outward. 2s circle around the ones Everyone should have a partner in front of them. You will be given 15 sec. The 1s will tell the 2s all they know. Then another 15 sec. will be given for the 2s to tell the 1s all they know. Then we switch and further instructions will be issued.

Chapter M1 Section 2 What Is a Force? Objectives Describe forces, and explain how forces act on objects. Determine the net force when more than one force is acting on an object. Compare balanced and unbalanced forces. Describe ways that unbalanced forces cause changes in motion.

Forces Acting on Objects
In science, a force is simply a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object. All forces have both size and direction. A force can change the acceleration of an object. This acceleration can be a change in the speed or direction of the object. Scientists express force using a unit called the newton (N).

Unseen Sources & Receivers of Forces
It is not always easy to tell what is exerting a force or what is receiving a force. For example, you cannot see what exerts the force that pulls magnets to refrigerators. You cannot see that the air around you is held near Earth’s surface by a force called gravity.

Determining Net Force Usually, more than one force is acting on an object. The net force is the combination all of the forces acting on an object. Determining net force depends on the directions of the forces.

Forces in the Same Direction
Two forces are added to determine the net force if the forces act in the same direction. The net force will be in the same direction as the individual forces.

Forces in Different Directions
If forces are acting in opposite directions, the net force can be found by subtracting the smaller force from the larger one. The direction will match the larger force.

Section 2 What Is a Force?

Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
When the forces on an object produce a net force of 0 N, the forces are balanced. Balanced forces will not cause a change in the motion of a moving object. Balanced forces do not cause a nonmoving object to start moving.

Unbalanced Forces When the net force on an object is not 0 N, the forces on the object are unbalanced. Unbalanced forces produce a change in motion, such as a change in speed or a change in direction. Unbalanced forces are necessary to cause a non-moving object to start moving, or to change the motion of moving objects.

Apple falling from a tree. (gravity-down) (friction- up)
Unbalanced Net Force Balanced Net Force Situation (Forces) Result (why) Apple falling from a tree. (gravity-down) (friction- up) A hot air balloon is moving toward the ground. (force up – greater) (force down- less) The apple is gaining velocity toward the ground. (Gravity is pulling on the apple with greater force than friction.) The balloon slows down. (Because it is already moving down, but the force is greater up it will slow down. There is a greater net force opposing the motion.) A rocket is in space flying to the moon with the boosters off. (no forces means 0 net force) Just keep going at constant velocity. (With no forces there is nothing to change the velocity. Nothing to cause acceleration. Nothing to change its motion.

Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion Bellringer Suppose you and a younger sister or brother are at a neighborhood pool. Your sister or brother asks why there are signs that say “NO RUNNING.” What would be your answer? Record your response in your science journal.

Explain why friction occurs.
Chapter M1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion Objectives Explain why friction occurs. List the two types of friction, and give examples of each type. Explain how friction can be both harmful and helpful.

The Source of Friction Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact. Friction occurs because the surface of any object is rough. Even surfaces that feel smooth are covered with microscopic hills and valleys.

When two surfaces are in contact, the microscopic hills and valleys of one surface stick to the tiny hills and valleys of the other surface. This contact causes friction.

The close contact increases the friction between the surfaces.
The Effect of Force on Friction The amount of friction depends on the force pushing the surfaces together. If this force increases, the hills and valleys of the surfaces can come into closer contact. The close contact increases the friction between the surfaces.

Objects that weigh less exert less downward force than objects that weigh more,
Less downward force creates less friction as shown on the next slide.

Chapter 1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

The Effect of Rougher Surfaces on Friction
Rough surfaces have more microscopic hills and valleys than smooth surfaces do. So, the rougher the surface is, the greater the friction is.

Types of Friction Kinetic Friction The word kinetic means “moving.”
So, kinetic friction is friction between moving surfaces. The amount of kinetic friction between two surfaces depends in part on how the surfaces move. Surfaces can slide past each other, or a surface can roll over another surface.

Usually, the force of sliding kinetic friction is greater than the force of rolling kinetic friction. It is usually easier to move objects on wheels than to slide the objects along the floor, as shown below.

Static Friction When a force is applied to an object but does not cause the object to move, static friction occurs. The word static means “not moving.” The object does not move because the force of static friction balances the force applied. Static friction disappears as soon as an object starts moving, and then kinetic friction immediately occurs.

Chapter M1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Without friction… a car’s tires could not push against the ground to move the car forward The brakes could not stop the car. Without friction, a car is useless. However, friction can also cause problems in a car. Engine parts rub together and produce heat from friction.

Friction between moving engine parts increases their temperature and causes the parts to wear down.
Friction can be both harmful and helpful, so it may be necessary to decrease or increase friction.

Some Ways to Reduce Friction
One way to reduce friction is to use lubricants. Lubricants are substances that are applied to surfaces to reduce the friction between the surfaces. Some examples of common lubricants are motor oil, wax, and grease. Lubricants are usually liquids, but they can be solids or gases.

Friction can be reduced by switching from sliding kinetic friction to rolling kinetic friction.
Ball bearings can be placed between wheels and axels to make it easier for wheels to turn by reducing friction. Another way to reduce friction is to make surfaces that rub against each other smoother.

Some Ways to Increase Friction
Making surfaces rougher is one way to increase friction. For example, sand scattered on icy roads keeps cars from skidding. Another way to increase friction is to increase the force pushing the surfaces together. For example, if you are sanding a piece of wood, you can sand the wood faster by pressing harder on the sandpaper.

Describe gravity and its effect on matter.
Objectives Describe gravity and its effect on matter. Explain the law of universal gravitation. Describe the difference between mass and weight.

The Effects of Gravity on Matter
Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. Gravity can change the motion of an object by changing its speed, direction, or both. All matter has mass, and gravity is a result of mass.

Therefore, all matter is affected by gravity and all objects experience an attraction toward all other objects. The mass of most objects is too small to cause a force large enough to move objects toward each other.

The Size of Earth’s Gravitational Force
Compared with all objects around you, Earth has a huge mass. Therefore, Earth’s gravitational force is very large. You must apply forces to overcome the Earth’s gravitational force any time you lift objects or even parts of your body.

Newton and the Study of Gravity
The Core of an Idea Why do objects fall toward the Earth? What keeps the planets moving in the sky? In 1665, British scientist Sir Isaac Newton made the connection between these two questions when, as legend has it, he saw an apple falling from a tree.

Newton knew that unbalanced forces are needed to change the motion of objects.
He concluded that an unbalanced force on the apple made the apple fall. He also reasoned that an unbalanced force on the moon kept the moon moving around the Earth. He proposed that these two forces are actually the same force––gravity.

The Birth of a Law Newton summarized his ideas about gravity in a law known as the law of universal gravitation. This law describes the relationships between gravitational force, mass, and distance. The law is called universal because it applies to all objects in the universe.

Part 1: Gravitational Force Increases as Mass Increases
The Law of Universal Gravitation Part 1: Gravitational Force Increases as Mass Increases Gravitational force is small between objects that have small masses. Gravitational force is large when the mass of one or both objects is large.

Part 2: Gravitational Force Decreases as Distance Increases
Gravitational force is strong when distance between two objects is small. If the distance between two objects increases, the gravitational force pulling them together decreases rapidly.

The Differences Between Weight and Mass
Weight as a Measure of Gravitational Force The Differences Between Weight and Mass Weight is related to mass, but they are not the same. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force on an object. Weight changes whenever gravitational force changes.

Mass is the amount of matter in an object. An object’s mass does not change if gravitational force changes.

Units of Weight and Mass
The SI unit of force is a newton (N). Gravity is a force, and weight is a measure of gravity. So, weight is also measured in newtons. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Mass is often measured in grams (g) and milligrams (mg) as well. On Earth, a 100 g object weighs about 1 N.

Chapter M1 Matter in Motion Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. speed time velocity motion acceleration

Chapter M1 Matter in Motion

Chapter M1 Matter in Motion

End of Chapter M1 Show

Standardized Test Preparation

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 Passage 1 If you look closely at the surface of a golf ball, you’ll see dozens of tiny dimples. When air flows past these dimples, the air is stirred up and stays near the surface of the ball. By keeping air moving near the surface of the ball, the dimples help the golf ball move faster and farther through the air. Continued on the next slide

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 Passage 1, continued Jeff DiTullio, a teacher at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, decided to apply this principle to a baseball bat. When DiTullio tested his dimpled bat in a wind tunnel, he found that the bat could be swung 3% to 5% faster than a bat without dimples. That increase may not seem like much, but the dimpled bat could add about 5 m of distance to a fly ball!

Chapter M1 1. Who is Jeff DiTullio?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 1. Who is Jeff DiTullio? A the inventor of the dimpled golf ball B a teacher at Cambridge University C the inventor of the dimpled bat D a professional baseball player

Chapter M1 1. Who is Jeff DiTullio?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 1. Who is Jeff DiTullio? A the inventor of the dimpled golf ball B a teacher at Cambridge University C the inventor of the dimpled bat D a professional baseball player

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Which of the following ideas is NOT stated in the passage? F Dimples make DiTullio’s bat move faster. G MIT is in Cambridge, Massachusetts. H Air that is stirred up near the surface of DiTullio’s bat makes it easier to swing the bat faster. I DiTullio will make a lot of money from his invention.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Which of the following ideas is NOT stated in the passage? F Dimples make DiTullio’s bat move faster. G MIT is in Cambridge, Massachusetts. H Air that is stirred up near the surface of DiTullio’s bat makes it easier to swing the bat faster. I DiTullio will make a lot of money from his invention.

Chapter M1 3. In the passage, what does wind tunnel mean?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 3. In the passage, what does wind tunnel mean? A a place to practice batting B a place to test the speed of objects in the air C a baseball stadium D a passageway that is shielded from the wind

Chapter M1 3. In the passage, what does wind tunnel mean?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 3. In the passage, what does wind tunnel mean? A a place to practice batting B a place to test the speed of objects in the air C a baseball stadium D a passageway that is shielded from the wind

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 Passage 2 The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, is one of the most famous landmarks in the world. Approximately 9 million people from around the world visit the bridge each year. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge. A suspension bridge is one in which the roadway is hung, or suspended, from huge cables that extend from one end of the bridge to the other. Continued on the next slide

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 Passage 2, continued The main cables on the Golden Gate Bridge are 2.33 km long. Many forces act on the main cables. For example, smaller cables pull down on the main cables to connect the roadway to the main cables. And two towers that are 227 m tall push up on the main cables. The forces on the main cable must be balanced, or the bridge will collapse.

Chapter M1 1. In this passage, what does landmarks mean?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 1. In this passage, what does landmarks mean? A large areas of land B well-known places C street signs D places where people meet

Chapter M1 1. In this passage, what does landmarks mean?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 1. In this passage, what does landmarks mean? A large areas of land B well-known places C street signs D places where people meet

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Which of the following statements is a fact from the passage? F The roadway of the Golden Gate Bridge is suspended from huge cables. G The towers of the Golden Gate Bridge are 2.33 km tall. H The main cables connect the roadway to the towers. I The forces on the cables are not balanced.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Which of the following statements is a fact from the passage? F The roadway of the Golden Gate Bridge is suspended from huge cables. G The towers of the Golden Gate Bridge are 2.33 km tall. H The main cables connect the roadway to the towers. I The forces on the cables are not balanced.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 3. According to the passage, why do people from around the world visit the Golden Gate Bridge? A It is the longest bridge in the world. B It is a suspension bridge. C It is the only bridge that is painted orange. D It is a famous landmark.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 3. According to the passage, why do people from around the world visit the Golden Gate Bridge? A It is the longest bridge in the world. B It is a suspension bridge. C It is the only bridge that is painted orange. D It is a famous landmark.

Interpreting Graphics
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 Interpreting Graphics The graph below shows the data collected by a student as she watched a squirrel running on the ground. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 1. Which of the following best describes the motion of the squirrel between 5 s and 8 s? A The squirrel’s speed increased. B The squirrel’s speed decreased. C The squirrel’s speed did not change. D The squirrel moved backward.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 1. Which of the following best describes the motion of the squirrel between 5 s and 8 s? A The squirrel’s speed increased. B The squirrel’s speed decreased. C The squirrel’s speed did not change. D The squirrel moved backward.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Which of the following statements about the motion of the squirrel is true? F The squirrel moved with the greatest speed between 0 s and 5 s. G The squirrel moved with the greatest speed between 8 s and 10 s. H The squirrel moved with a constant speed between 0 s and 8 s. I The squirrel moved with a constant speed between 5 s and 10 s.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Which of the following statements about the motion of the squirrel is true? F The squirrel moved with the greatest speed between 0 s and 5 s. G The squirrel moved with the greatest speed between 8 s and 10 s. H The squirrel moved with a constant speed between 0 s and 8 s. I The squirrel moved with a constant speed between 5 s and 10 s.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 3. What is the average speed of the squirrel between 8 s and 10 s? A 0.4 m/s B 1 m/s C 2 m/s D 4 m/s

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 3. What is the average speed of the squirrel between 8 s and 10 s? A 0.4 m/s B 1 m/s C 2 m/s D 4 m/s

Standardized Test Preparation Chapter M1 Math Read each question and choose the best answer.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 1. The distance between Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Sioux Falls, South Dakota, is about 660 km. How long will it take a car traveling with an average speed of 95 km/h to drive from Cedar Rapids to Sioux Falls? A less than 1 h B about 3 h C about 7 h D about 10 h

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 1. The distance between Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Sioux Falls, South Dakota, is about 660 km. How long will it take a car traveling with an average speed of 95 km/h to drive from Cedar Rapids to Sioux Falls? A less than 1 h B about 3 h C about 7 h D about 10 h

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Martha counted the number of people in each group that walked into her school’s cafeteria. In the first 10 groups, she counted the following numbers of people: 6, 4, 9, 6, 4, 10, 9, 5, 9, and 8. What is the mode of this set of data? F 6 G 7 H 9 I 10

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 2. Martha counted the number of people in each group that walked into her school’s cafeteria. In the first 10 groups, she counted the following numbers of people: 6, 4, 9, 6, 4, 10, 9, 5, 9, and 8. What is the mode of this set of data? F 6 G 7 H 9 I 10

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 3. Which of the following terms describes the angle marked in the triangle below. A acute B obtuse C right D None of the above 42°

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 3. Which of the following terms describes the angle marked in the triangle below. A acute B obtuse C right D None of the above 42°

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 4. Donnell collected money for a charity fundraiser. After one hour, he counted the money and found that he had raised \$10.00 in bills and \$3.74 in coins. Which of the following represents the number of coins he collected? F 4 pennies, 9 nickels, 18 dimes, and 6 quarters G 9 pennies, 7 nickels, 18 dimes, and 6 quarters H 6 pennies, 7 nickels, 15 dimes, and 8 quarters I 9 pennies, 8 nickels, 12 dimes, and 3 quarters

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1 4. Donnell collected money for a charity fundraiser. After one hour, he counted the money and found that he had raised \$10.00 in bills and \$3.74 in coins. Which of the following represents the number of coins he collected? F 4 pennies, 9 nickels, 18 dimes, and 6 quarters G 9 pennies, 7 nickels, 18 dimes, and 6 quarters H 6 pennies, 7 nickels, 15 dimes, and 8 quarters I 9 pennies, 8 nickels, 12 dimes, and 3 quarters

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion

Chapter M1 Section 2 What Is a Force?

Chapter M1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Chapter M1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Chapter M1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Chapter M1 Section 3 Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Chapter M1 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Chapter M1 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Chapter M1 Section 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter M1

Chapter M1 Section 1 Measuring Motion