2 FormThe distinctive way a poem is laid out on the page is called the poem’s form.This includes the length & placement of the lines.In some poems the lines are arranged in groups, called stanzas.
3 RhymeRhyme is a likeness of sounds at the ends of words, as in suite, heat and complete.Internal rhyme is the use of rhyming words within a line.End rhyme is the use of rhyming words at the ends of lines.
4 Rhyme Scheme The pattern formed by the rhymes at the end of the lines. To describe a rhyme scheme, you can assign each line a letter of the alphabet, starting with the letter A for the first line and assigning lines that rhyme the same letter.Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? AThou art more lovely and more temperate: BRough winds do shake the darling buds of May, AAnd summer's lease hath all too short a date: B
5 Sound DevicesAlliteration-a repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of wordsEx:“The breakers were right beneath her bows.”Assonance-a repetition of vowel sounds in nonrhyming wordsEx: “Some ship in distress, that cannot live.”
6 Sound Devices (cont’d) Consonance-a repetition of consonant sounds within or at the end of wordsEx: “But the father answered never a word.”Onomatopoeia-the use of words that sound like what they refer to, like buzz, hiss, crunch, and thump.
7 Speaker The speaker of a poem is the voice that relates the ideas or story of thepoem. Remember that the speakeris not necessarily the poet.
8 Figurative Language and Imagery Figurative language conveys meanings beyond the literal meanings of the words.Imagery is language that appeals to the reader’s sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch.Ex: “He wrapped her warm in his seaman’scoat/Against the stinging blast”
9 Personification A type of figurative language in which animals, inanimate objects or ideas aregiven human qualities.Ex: “The teakettle ordered us back tothe kitchen.”“the wind’s gentle cry”
10 Similes and Metaphors Are kinds of figurative language involving comparisons between things that have something in common.Simile-a comparison indicated by the word like or asEx: “Strong as a boulder”“My life is like an open book.”Metaphor-a more direct comparison with no signal wordEx: “This room is a war zone”“Jealousy is a green-eyed monster”