2FormThe distinctive way a poem is laid out on the page is called the poem’s form.This includes the length & placement of the lines.In some poems the lines are arranged in groups, called stanzas.
3RhymeRhyme is a likeness of sounds at the ends of words, as in suite, heat and complete.Internal rhyme is the use of rhyming words within a line.End rhyme is the use of rhyming words at the ends of lines.
4Rhyme Scheme The pattern formed by the rhymes at the end of the lines. To describe a rhyme scheme, you can assign each line a letter of the alphabet, starting with the letter A for the first line and assigning lines that rhyme the same letter.Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? AThou art more lovely and more temperate: BRough winds do shake the darling buds of May, AAnd summer's lease hath all too short a date: B
5Sound DevicesAlliteration-a repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of wordsEx:“The breakers were right beneath her bows.”Assonance-a repetition of vowel sounds in nonrhyming wordsEx: “Some ship in distress, that cannot live.”
6Sound Devices (cont’d) Consonance-a repetition of consonant sounds within or at the end of wordsEx: “But the father answered never a word.”Onomatopoeia-the use of words that sound like what they refer to, like buzz, hiss, crunch, and thump.
7Speaker The speaker of a poem is the voice that relates the ideas or story of thepoem. Remember that the speakeris not necessarily the poet.
8Figurative Language and Imagery Figurative language conveys meanings beyond the literal meanings of the words.Imagery is language that appeals to the reader’s sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch.Ex: “He wrapped her warm in his seaman’scoat/Against the stinging blast”
9Personification A type of figurative language in which animals, inanimate objects or ideas aregiven human qualities.Ex: “The teakettle ordered us back tothe kitchen.”“the wind’s gentle cry”
10Similes and Metaphors Are kinds of figurative language involving comparisons between things that have something in common.Simile-a comparison indicated by the word like or asEx: “Strong as a boulder”“My life is like an open book.”Metaphor-a more direct comparison with no signal wordEx: “This room is a war zone”“Jealousy is a green-eyed monster”