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Body Chemistry Carbon Organic Four valence electrons Great for bonding! Can form long chain or ring structure Carbons with different elements join.

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Presentation on theme: "Body Chemistry Carbon Organic Four valence electrons Great for bonding! Can form long chain or ring structure Carbons with different elements join."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Body Chemistry

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4 Carbon Organic Four valence electrons Great for bonding! Can form long chain or ring structure Carbons with different elements join to make MACROMOLECULES Branched Chain

5 4 Main Classes

6 Many BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES are very large (containing hundreds to millions of atoms) made up of SMALLER MOLECULES that repeat to make larger chains Monomers: small molecular building blocks of a larger molecule (Beads) Polymers: long chain of small molecular units (Necklace)

7 Monomers  Polymers Macromolecules: link many small similar units called MONOMERS together to make long chain POLYMERS

8 What are some carbohydrates?

9 Potato Pasta Milk Apples "Fiber” is also a carbohydrate (cellulose) we can’t digest it. Foods:

10 Elements C H O In a 1:2:1 ratio (always twice as much hydrogen!)

11 Purpose/Function Main purpose is short term ENERGY! Larger molecules either store energy or build structures

12 ONE SUGAR MOLECULE Example: SMALLER UNITS (MONOMERS):

13 Two sugars bound together Di- means TWO sucrose(glucose + fructose) maltose(glucose + glucose) lactose(glucose + galactose) Disaccharide

14 LARGER UNITS (POLYMERS):

15 Cellulose Structural carb in PLANTS  cell walls Aka “FIBER”

16 Chitin Structural carb  Exoskeletons of arthropods (insects, crabs, lobsters, crayfish etc.)

17 Glycogen Animals only! Stored in LIVER as granules Stores carbohydrates for approx. 24 hours (then carbs convert into fat!)

18 Starch Plants only! Carb storage in plants

19 Benedicts Solution – Will turn orange in the presence of simple sugars Iodine – Will turn a blue black color in the presence of starch Common indicator tests for Carbohydrates

20 How to test starch: 1. In a test tube, add 2 dropperfuls of mixed starch solution. Record “Initial Color”. 2. Add 5-6 drops of iodine to the test tube. Record color. How to test glucose: 1. Add 2 dropperfuls of glucose solution. Record “Initial Color”. 2. Add 1 dropperful of Benedict’s solution (blue). 3. Place in hot water bath for ~2 mins. 4. CAREFULLY take out and place in rack. Record color.

21 Lipids

22 Foods high in Fats Butter Processed meats like sausage and salami Avocado Nuts

23 Lipids ( Commonly known as fats) Elements: Contain C H O (no ratio) Main functions Long term storage of energy Insulation Protection Form membranes Hormones (steroids)

24  3 fatty acids and a glycerol  Ex: Waxes, oils and “fats”  Long term energy storage  Insulation and protection (cushioning to vital organs or protective layers – ex. wax on leaves of plants) SMALLER UNITS: Triglycerides “Fats” (storage)

25 SMALLER UNITS: Phospholipids (in cell membranes!) Phosphate/glycerol attached to 2 fatty acids ‘Head’ is hydrophilic ‘Tails’ are hydrophobic

26 LARGER UNITS: Steroids.. 4 carbon rings joined to one another. Chemical signals (Hormones) Structure (Cholesterol) Examples: sex hormones, cortisol, & cholesterol

27  High levels of cholesterol can cause cardiovascular disease

28 WAXES Hydrophobic  protective covering on plants to prevent water loss

29 Double Bond!

30 Additional Info: SATURATED FATS “Bad Fat” Fatty acid has Single bonds Found in most animal fats Solid at room temperature

31 UNSATURATED FAT “Good Fat” Double bonds in fatty acid Found in fruits, vegetables, fish, and oils Liquid at room temperature

32 Test for lipids Paper test Paper will become dark and “Waxy” in the presence of fat Ethanol Solubility Test Oil floats in water, dissolves in ethanol

33 TRANS FATS

34 Good Fat vs. Bad Fat

35 Proteins

36 PROTEINS Foods with proteins: Steak, meat, poultry, eggs, soybeans, tofu Elements: C H O N S

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38 PURPOSE: 1. Structure –K–Keratin  hair, nails, skin 2. Hormones (signaling between cells) –I–Insulin, Human growth hormone 3.Enzymes –S–Speed up chemical reactions

39 Small Units Draw this 

40 20 Amino Acids

41 Side Note: What is Phenylalanine? Is it bad for you? Coke Can, Yogurt, Mints Phenylketonuria (PKU) Amino acid called phenylalanine

42 Does eating turkey make you sleepy? Tryptophan- Amino Acid

43 Larger Units: Peptides / Proteins Peptide bond Chain of amino acids linked together = Polypeptide 100+ amino acids linked = protein

44 OTHER INFO Protein shape DETERMINES its function! – Analogy- fork, knife, spoon

45 Keratin ( Hair Protein)

46 OTHER INFO (con.’t) Examples of proteins Hemoglobin - carries oxygen in bloodstream (4 polypeptide strands) Actin & Myosin - muscle fibers

47 OTHER INFO. (con.’t) Denaturation- protein loses its normal configuration – pH – Temperature – Salinity What happens to proteins when you heat them?

48 Hydrogen Bonds in Protein Secondary Structure: Denaturation of Protein ( pH & Heat) Review Hydrogen Bonds b8 b8 -Hair straightener: -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zf- g4k7ZIjAhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zf- g4k7ZIjA

49 What is the polymer? What is the monomer? MacromoleculeMonomerPolymer Carbohydrate Protein Lipid (Triglyceride) Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Amino AcidsPolypeptides/Protei ns Glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids Triglycerides ( Fats and Oils)

50 Monomers  Polymers Macromolecules: link many small similar units called MONOMERS together to make long chain POLYMERS

51 Dehydration Reaction Each time a monomer is added to a chain, a water molecule is released Removing (de-) water (hydro-) Build up molecules! – Ex. Make your hair proteins

52 Hydrolysis The break down of polymers into monomers Must add water – Hydro (water) lysis (break) – Ex. break down starch, into glucose from the cracker ( digestion)

53 DO NOW 5.1 Online Activity 1. Describe the role of water in the building and breaking down of polymers. 2. You just ate a big pasta dinner. Pasta contains a polymer called starch, which in turn is made up of many monomers called glucose. What do you think happens during the digestive process to break down the starch into usable glucose?

54 I. What are enzymes? Your body has lots of reactions! Enzymes: Special Protein catalysts that speed up specific reactions End in ASE – Ex. Lactase digest lactose HOW?

55 II. Activation Energy  The energy needed to get a reaction started

56 III. Lower the Activation Energy Activation energy is the “start up” energy of a reaction They do not raise the temp! Increase the frequency that the reactants come together to react!

57 56 Enzymes Free Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Free energy of activation Without Enzyme With Enzyme

58 IV. Enzymes are Specific How? The shape of each enzyme fits the shape of what its acting on SUBSTRATE- What the enzyme acts on The substrate fits into a region of the enzyme ACTIVE SITE Animation

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60 V. Lock & Key Model Lock is the enzyme Key is the substrate The lock hole is the active site

61 Enzymes can only catalyze 1 reaction because they only allow substrates with one particular shape to bond oes not fit!

62 Factors that Affect Enzyme Performance Temperature pH Salinity Concentration of enzyme or substrate

63 Temperature Enzymes are PROTEIN Heat too high they can denature

64 pH Enzymes work best at an ‘optimal’ pH Proteins they can denature

65 Enzymes are Reusable Enzymes will speed the reaction for a substrate It will release the product and will work on another substrate

66 Examples Lipase Protease Lactase Sucrase Amylase Life is not possible without enzymes! !!!!!!!

67 Enzymes


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