2 I. The Atom A. Definition: smallest particle of an element BOTH FOR LIVING AND NON LIVINGA. Definition: smallest particle of an element
3 B. Composition Proton +1 1 Nucleus Neutron Electron -1 Subatomic ParticleChargeMassLocationProton+11NucleusNeutronElectron-11/1840 the mass of a protonOrbiting nucleus
4 outermost electrons participate in BONDING Location of Electronsoutermost electrons participate in BONDING
5 II. Elements A. Definition: substance that cannot be broken down into other substancesB. Biologically important elementsi. Major: C H O N P S(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur)
6 Radioactive IsotopesThyroid- Uses Iodine- If use an isotope they can trace how much iodine is picked upReactor Radioisotopes (half-life indicated)Iodine-125 (60 d): Used in cancer brachytherapy (prostate and brain), also diagnostically to evaluate the filtration rate of kidneys and to diagnose deep vein thrombosis in the leg. It is also widely used in radioimmuno-assays to show the presence of hormones in tiny quantities.Iodine-131 (8 d)*: Widely used in treating thyroid cancer and in imaging the thyroid; also in diagnosis of abnormal liver function, renal (kidney) blood flow and urinary tract obstruction. A strong gamma emitter, but used for beta therapy.Radioisotopes can be manufactured in several ways. The most common is by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor- add or remove neutronsnucleus of a radioisotope usually becomes stable by emitting
7 Radioactive bairum- white drink- xrays examine stomach esophagous
17 ii. Ionic Bonds: gimme’ that electron! Atoms transfer electrons, becoming (+) or (-) chargedThe attraction brings them togetherEx: Na+ and Cl- = NaCl!
18 JOKE- Don’t Have to write this. A NEUTRON walks into a diner and sits down to order a meal.When the waitress brings the food over the neutron says “Can you bring the check? I am in a hurry!”The waitress replies, “Don’t worry about it, there is NO CHARGE for you.”
19 JOKE- Don’t have to write this. Two atoms walk down the street and collide.One atom says to the other, “Are you okay?”The second atom replies, “I think I lost an electron.”The first atom says, “Are you sure?”The second one says, “Yeah, I’m POSITIVE!”
33 Water is the a Universal Solvent Water is able to dissolve other Polar & ionic compounds when mixed by causing the ions to break away and surround them.Water dissolves Salt (Na+Cl-)DOES THIS BC CHAREKnow that water is your solvent and salt is your solute
34 iii. Temperature and Water Boiling Point: 100 oC / 212 oFWhen you heat molecules move fasterWhen you cool molecules move slowerWater takes more energy to heat because energy must break hydrogen bonds
35 Does water boil faster if you add salt to it? Water Boils when it has enough energy for the molecules to leave
36 Freezing Point0 oC or 32 oFWhat would happen if our oceans did not have salt in them?Why do we put salt on our roads?Why at effect does salt have on FREEZING POINT?
37 Why is this important for life? Water Boiling PointEthanol Boiling Point
38 Why are higher altitude must we cook “boil” something longer? Because of the lower atmospheric pressure, water boils at a lower temperature. Boil at 95 degrees not at 100- boil for longer than to get to t
39 Why do we need salt in our ice, when making ice cream? Watch Video
40 LOW DENSITY OF ICE Density- amount of matter in a volume In most substances the solid state is more dense than the liquid stateWater is the oppositeICE IS LESS DENSE THAN WATER and will FLOAT
41 LOW DENSITY OF ICEWHY?Hydrogen bonds in ice (solid) keep molecules spaced out
42 LOW DENSITY OF ICE Floats Ice insulates the liquid water below allowing life to persist
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